Psych Study Guide: Learning

100 Questions | Total Attempts: 212

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Psych Study Guide: Learning

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Psychologists generally define learning as a relatively _____ change in behavior that results from _____
    • A. 

      Permanent; experience

    • B. 

      Temporary; trial and error

    • C. 

      Experiential; permanence

    • D. 

      Trial-and-error; experience

  • 2. 
    Dave's boss told him that he doesn't have to attend the company picnic (which everybody dislikes), if Dave meets his sales quota this month. Dave's boss is using _____
    • A. 

      Negative punishment

    • B. 

      Negative reinforcement

    • C. 

      Positive punishment

    • D. 

      Positive reinforcement

  • 3. 
    If a stimulus plus a response results in a satisfying outcome, the probability of that response occurring again _____
    • A. 

      Decreases

    • B. 

      Depends on the CS-UCS relationship

    • C. 

      Increases

    • D. 

      Is not affected

  • 4. 
    In classical conditioning, the association that is learned is between a _____
    • A. 

      Conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned respose

    • B. 

      Neutral response and a conditioned respose

    • C. 

      Neutral stimulus and a neutral response

    • D. 

      Neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus 

  • 5. 
    Harold catches fish throughout the day at unpredictable points in time. Which reinforcement schedule is this? 
    • A. 

      Fixed interval 

    • B. 

      Fixed ratio

    • C. 

      Variable interval

    • D. 

      Variable ratio 

  • 6. 
    In order to maximize learning, a _____ should be presented on a(n) _____ schedule
    • A. 

      CS + UCS; continuous

    • B. 

      CS + UCS; intermittent

    • C. 

      UCS alone; continuous 

    • D. 

      UCS alone; intermittent

  • 7. 
    You call a friend on the phone and repeatedly get sent to voicemail, so you continue to call her every 5-20 minutes, hoping to speak to her personally. Which reinforcement schedule is this? 
    • A. 

      Fixed interval 

    • B. 

      Fixed ratio

    • C. 

      Variable interval

    • D. 

      Variable ratio

  • 8. 
    What are innate behaviors that are triggered by a broader range of events, such as aging and the change of seasons?
    • A. 

      Conditions

    • B. 

      Instincts

    • C. 

      Operants

    • D. 

      Reflexes

  • 9. 
    What do psychologists call a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that results from experience? 
    • A. 

      Conditioning

    • B. 

      Instincts

    • C. 

      Learning

    • D. 

      Reflexes

  • 10. 
    Classical and operant conditioning are forms of _____ learning
    • A. 

      Associational

    • B. 

      Instictive

    • C. 

      Processual

    • D. 

      Reflexive

  • 11. 
    Which of the following is a process by which we learn to associate stimuli and, consequently, to anticipate events?
    • A. 

      Classical conditioning

    • B. 

      Controlled conditioning

    • C. 

      Physiological conditioning

    • D. 

      Psychic conditioning 

  • 12. 
    In ______ conditioning, an established conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral stimulus
    • A. 

      Higher order

    • B. 

      Intial

    • C. 

      Primary

    • D. 

      Secondary

  • 13. 
    In the initial period of learning, _____ describes when a person learns to connect a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
    • A. 

      Acquisition

    • B. 

      Conditioning

    • C. 

      Extinction

    • D. 

      Neutral stimulate

  • 14. 
    In operant conditioning, what describes adding something to decrease the likelihood of behavior? 
    • A. 

      Acquisition

    • B. 

      Extinction

    • C. 

      Punishment

    • D. 

      Recovery

  • 15. 
    Which of the following is the decrease in the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented with the conditioned stimulus?
    • A. 

      Acquisition

    • B. 

      Extinction

    • C. 

      Recovery

    • D. 

      Reflex

  • 16. 
    ______ is known for using Little Albert in his studies on human emotion
    • A. 

      B F Skinner

    • B. 

      Edward Thorndike

    • C. 

      Ivan Pavlov

    • D. 

      John B Watson

  • 17. 
    In Watson and Rayner's study of "Little Albert," the child became frightened of a white rat and similar stimuli because
    • A. 

      Children are naturally afraid of white rats

    • B. 

      A loud noise occurred whenever the rat was  in Albert's presence

    • C. 

      The rat repeatedly was paired with a neutral stimulus

    • D. 

      Albert had a traumatic experience with a rat

  • 18. 
    _____ involves connecting certain stimuli or events that occur together in the environment (classical and operant conditioning)
    • A. 

      Abstraction

    • B. 

      Backtracking

    • C. 

      Reflexes

    • D. 

      Association learning

  • 19. 
    _____ reinforcers have innate reinforcing qualities
    • A. 

      Classical 

    • B. 

      Operant

    • C. 

      Primary

    • D. 

      Secondary

  • 20. 
    Researchers use the method of successive approximations in the process of 
    • A. 

      Insight learning

    • B. 

      Higher-order conditioning

    • C. 

      Conditioning taste aversions

    • D. 

      Shaping

  • 21. 
    Operant conditioning is a form of learning in which the _____ of behavior influence(s) the strength or liklihood that behavior will occur
    • A. 

      Frequency

    • B. 

      Quality

    • C. 

      Amount 

    • D. 

      Consequences

  • 22. 
    When a person receives a reinforcer each time he / she displays a behavior, it is called _____ reinforcement
    • A. 

      Continuous

    • B. 

      Partial

    • C. 

      Primary

    • D. 

      Secondary

  • 23. 
    _____reinforcement strengthens behavior when an unpleasant or painful stimulus is removed after the response occurs
    • A. 

      Aversive

    • B. 

      Dependent

    • C. 

      Partial

    • D. 

      Negative

  • 24. 
    Whose experiments demonstrate that people can learn, even if they do not receive immediate reinforcement?
    • A. 

      B F Skinner

    • B. 

      Edward C Tolman

    • C. 

      Ivan Pavlov

    • D. 

      John B Watson

  • 25. 
    Learning that occurs but is not observable in behavior until there is a reason to demonstrate it is called _____ learning
    • A. 

      Conditioned

    • B. 

      Latent

    • C. 

      Partial

    • D. 

      Primary

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