# Drustvene Mreze 2. Klk 5. Lekcija

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• 1.

### Da bi se odredilli ključni akteri u mreži:

• A.

Potrebno je posmatrati sve 4 mere centralnosti

• B.

Prvo je potrebno odrediti koja je mera cenralnosti najbitnija za datu mrežu

• C.

Treba posmatrati samo meru sopstvene centralnosti (eigenvector)

• D.

Dovoljno je da se posmataju bilo koje 3 od 4 mere centralnosti

A. Potrebno je posmatrati sve 4 mere centralnosti
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that in order to determine the key actors in a network, it is necessary to consider all four measures of centrality. This means that all four centrality measures (degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, and eigenvector centrality) should be taken into account when analyzing the network. By considering all four measures, a more comprehensive understanding of the network and its key actors can be obtained.

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• 2.

### Ukoliko grafu društvene mreže želi da se doda i podatak o broju razmenjenih poruka između 2 čvora u nekom vremenskom periodu, onda se on dodaje preko:

• A.

Izlaznog stepena čvora

• B.

Težine ivice

• C.

Zbira ulaznog i izlaznog stepena čvora

• D.

Reciprociteta

B. Težine ivice
Explanation
If the graph of a social network wants to add information about the number of messages exchanged between 2 nodes in a certain time period, it is added through the weight of the edge.

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• 3.

### Most je (u analizi društvenih mreža grafovima):

• A.

Čvor koji ima najveću sopstvenu centralnost

• B.

Čvor koji povezuje 2 klastera

• C.

Veza koja povezuje 2 klastera

• D.

Čvor koji ima najveći betweenness centrality

C. Veza koja povezuje 2 klastera
Explanation
In the analysis of social networks using graphs, a "cluster" refers to a group of nodes that are densely connected to each other but have fewer connections with nodes outside the cluster. The correct answer states that the most important feature in this context is a "link" or "edge" that connects two clusters. This is because such a link plays a crucial role in bridging different clusters and facilitating communication or information flow between them. Therefore, identifying and analyzing these inter-cluster links is essential in understanding the overall structure and dynamics of a social network.

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• 4.

### U usmerenoj mreži od n čvorova broj mogućih ivica je:

• A.

2*n*(n-1)

• B.

2 n*(n-1)/2

• C.

N*(n-1)

• D.

2 n*(n-1)/2

C. N*(n-1)
Explanation
In a directed network with n nodes, the number of possible edges is given by n*(n-1). This is because for each node, there are n-1 possible edges that can be connected to other nodes (excluding the edge connecting the node to itself). Therefore, the total number of possible edges is obtained by multiplying n by n-1.

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• 5.

### Dijametar mreže je:

• A.

Najduža moguća putanja između bilo koja 2 čvora u mreži a u kojoj se čvorovi ne ponavljaju

• B.

Najduža najkraća putanja između bilo koja 2 čvora u mreži

• C.

Ukupan broj veza u datoj mreži

• D.

Broj klastera u datoj mreži

B. Najduža najkraća putanja između bilo koja 2 čvora u mreži
Explanation
The correct answer is "Najduža najkraća putanja između bilo koja 2 čvora u mreži". This means that the diameter of a network is the longest shortest path between any two nodes in the network. In other words, it is the maximum number of edges that need to be traversed to go from one node to another, considering all possible pairs of nodes in the network. The diameter determines the maximum distance between any two nodes and is an important measure of the network's connectivity and efficiency.

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• 6.

### Broker je (u analizi društvenih mreža-grafovima):

• A.

Čvor koji ima najveću sopstvenu centralnost

• B.

Čvor koji ima najveći betweenness centrality

• C.

Čvor koji povezuje dva klastera

• D.

Veza koja povezuje dva klastera

C. Čvor koji povezuje dva klastera
Explanation
A broker in social network analysis refers to a node that connects two or more clusters. It acts as a bridge between different groups or communities within a network. This node plays a crucial role in facilitating communication and information flow between clusters, making it an important element in the overall network structure. Therefore, the correct answer is "Čvor koji povezuje dva klastera" which translates to "A node that connects two clusters."

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• 7.

### Prosečna dužina najkraćih putanja između svaka dva čvora u mreži je metrika koja se koristi kada se:

• A.

U mreži dužine najkraćih putanja znatno razlikuju

• B.

U mreži dužina najkraćih putanja približno ista

• C.

Određuje dijametar mreže

• D.

Određuje gustina mreže

A. U mreži dužine najkraćih putanja znatno razlikuju
Explanation
This answer suggests that the average length of the shortest paths between any two nodes in a network is used when the lengths of the shortest paths in the network vary significantly.

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• 8.

### Tranzitivnost zajedno sa homofilijom dovodi do:

• A.

Pucanja ključnih veza u mreži

• B.

Stvaranja gustih mreža

• C.

Stvaranja strukturnih rupa

• D.

Stvaranja klikova

D. Stvaranja klikova
Explanation
Transitivity, along with homophily, leads to the formation of cliques. This means that individuals with similar characteristics or interests tend to form tightly connected groups within a network. These cliques can be seen as clusters or communities within the larger network, where individuals are more likely to interact with others who are similar to them. Therefore, the correct answer is "Stvaranja klikova" which translates to "Formation of cliques".

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• 9.

### Putanja je:

• A.

Sekvenca čvorova koja povezuje čvorove A i B, a u kojoj se čvorovi ne ponavljaju

• B.

Broj drugih čvorova sa kojima je dati čvor povezan

• C.

Broj ivica koje uviru u dati čvor

• D.

Broj ivica koje prolaze iz datog čvora

A. Sekvenca čvorova koja povezuje čvorove A i B, a u kojoj se čvorovi ne ponavljaju
Explanation
The correct answer is "Sekvenca čvorova koja povezuje čvorove A i B, a u kojoj se čvorovi ne ponavljaju." This explanation states that a path is a sequence of nodes that connects nodes A and B, without repeating any nodes.

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• 10.

### Kako bi glasila interpretacija sopstvene centralnosti (eigenvector centrality) u kontekstu društvenih mreža:

• A.

Koliko je verovatno da je data osoba posrednik između neke druge dve osobe iz date mreže

• B.

U kojoj meri je data osoba povezana sa uticajnim, odnosno dobro povezanim članovima mreže

• C.

Koliko drugih ljudi može datu osobu direktno da kontaktira

• D.

Koliko brzo data osoba može da dopre do bilo koje druge osobe u mreži

B. U kojoj meri je data osoba povezana sa uticajnim, odnosno dobro povezanim članovima mreže
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that the interpretation of eigenvector centrality in the context of social networks is the extent to which a person is connected to influential or well-connected members of the network. In other words, it measures the importance of a person based on their connections to other important individuals in the network.

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• 11.

### Klikovi su:

• A.

Slabo povezane mreže

• B.

Slabo povezani klasteri

• C.

Potpuno povezani klasteri

• D.

C. Potpuno povezani klasteri
Explanation
The correct answer is "Potpuno povezani klasteri" (Fully connected clusters). This refers to a network structure in which every node is directly connected to every other node within a cluster. In this type of network, there are strong connections and high levels of interaction between all members of the cluster. This is in contrast to "Slabo povezane mreže" (Loosely connected networks) and "Slabo povezani klasteri" (Weakly connected clusters), where the connections between nodes are less dense and there may be fewer direct interactions between members. "Trijade" (Triads) refers to a group of three nodes and their connections within a network.

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• 12.

### Kako bi glasila interpretacija betweenness centrality (broj čvorova između kojih se čvor nalazi) u kontekstu društvenih mreža:

• A.

Koliko je verovatno da je data osoba posrednik između neke druge dve osobe iz date mreže

• B.

U kojoj meri je data osoba povezana sa uticajnim, odnosno dobro povezanim članovima mreže

• C.

Koliko drugih ljudi može datu osobu direktno da kontaktira

• D.

Koliko brzo data osoba može da dopre do bilo koje druge osobe u mreži

A. Koliko je verovatno da je data osoba posrednik između neke druge dve osobe iz date mreže
Explanation
The interpretation of betweenness centrality in the context of social networks is the likelihood that a given person is a mediator between two other individuals in the network. This measure quantifies the extent to which a person serves as a bridge or connector between different parts of the network, facilitating communication and information flow between other individuals.

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• 13.

### Blizina čvora(closeness centrality) označava:

• A.

Blizinu posmatranog čvora centralnoj poziciji

• B.

Koliko čvorova je direktno povezano sa posmatranim čvorom

• C.

Koliko je posmatrani čvor povezan sa ostalim čvorovima koji su uticajni

• D.

Broj čvorova između koji se posmatrani čvor nalazi

A. Blizinu posmatranog čvora centralnoj poziciji
Explanation
The correct answer is "Blizinu posmatranog čvora centralnoj poziciji" which means "The closeness of the observed node to the central position". This implies that the closeness centrality measures how close a node is to all other nodes in the network. It calculates the average shortest path length from the observed node to all other nodes, indicating its centrality in the network.

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• 14.

### Ako postoji bar jedna putanja između bilo koja dva čvora mreže, onda je ta mreža:

• A.

Gusta

• B.

Zatvorena

• C.

Povezana

• D.

Tranzitivna

C. Povezana
Explanation
The correct answer is "Povezana" (Connected). This means that if there is at least one path between any two nodes in the network, then the network is considered connected. In other words, all nodes in the network are reachable from any other node through a series of connections.

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• 15.

### Gustina mreže se definiše kao količnik:

• A.

Broj stvarnih veza u mreži / ukupan broj mogućih veza u mreži

• B.

Broj čvorova u mreži / ukupan broj mogućih veza u mreži

• C.

Broj stvarnih veza u mreži / ukupan broj čvorova u mreži

• D.

Broj čvorova u mreži / ukupan broj stvarnih veza u mreži

A. Broj stvarnih veza u mreži / ukupan broj mogućih veza u mreži
Explanation
The correct answer is "Broj stvarnih veza u mreži / ukupan broj mogućih veza u mreži" because the density of a network is defined as the ratio of the actual number of connections in the network to the total number of possible connections in the network. This ratio represents how connected or dense the network is.

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• 16.

### Betweenness centrality označava:

• A.

Blizinu posmatranog čvora centralnoj poziciji

• B.

Koliko čvorova je direktno povezano sa posmatranim čvorom

• C.

Broj čvorova između kojih se posmatrani čvor nalazi

• D.

Koliko je posmatrani čvor povezan sa ostalim čvorovima koji su uticajni

C. Broj čvorova između kojih se posmatrani čvor nalazi
Explanation
The correct answer is "Broj čvorova između kojih se posmatrani čvor nalazi." This is because betweenness centrality measures the number of times a node lies on the shortest path between other nodes in a network. It quantifies the extent to which a node acts as a bridge or intermediary in connecting other nodes.

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• 17.

### Fenomen malog sveta je teza koja kaže da:

• A.

Se do svake osobe može doći preko lanca društvenih poznanstava dužine 6

• B.

Se do svake osobe može doći preko kratkog lanca društvenih poznanstava

• C.

Da se do svake osobe može doći preko neke društvene mreže

• D.

Je svaka društvena mreža gusta

B. Se do svake osobe može doći preko kratkog lanca društvenih poznanstava
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that it is possible to reach any person through a short chain of social acquaintances. This concept is known as the "small world phenomenon" or "six degrees of separation." It implies that within a social network, individuals are connected to each other by a relatively small number of intermediate connections. This idea gained popularity after Stanley Milgram's famous "small world experiment" in the 1960s, where he found that the average number of intermediaries between any two people in the United States was approximately six.

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• 18.

### Kako bi glasila interpretacija blizine čvora (closeness centrality) u kontekstu društvenih mreža:

• A.

Koliko je verovatno da je data osoba posrednik između neke druge dve osobe iz date mreže

• B.

U kojoj meri je data osoba povezana sa uticajnim, odnosno dobro povezanim članovima mreže

• C.

Koliko drugih ljudi može datu osobu direktno da kontaktira

• D.

Koliko brzo data osoba može da dopre do bilo koje druge osobe u mreži

D. Koliko brzo data osoba može da dopre do bilo koje druge osobe u mreži
Explanation
Interpretacija blizine čvora (closeness centrality) u kontekstu društvenih mreža se odnosi na koliko brzo data osoba može da dopre do bilo koje druge osobe u mreži. Closeness centrality meri prosečnu udaljenost između jednog čvora i svih ostalih čvorova u mreži. Što je niža prosečna udaljenost, to je osoba bliža ostalim članovima mreže i brže može da se poveže sa njima. Ovo merenje je korisno za identifikaciju ključnih čvorova koji mogu efikasno prenositi informacije i komunicirati sa drugim članovima mreže.

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• 19.

### Simelijeve veze:

• A.

Su veze koje su slabe

• B.

Opisuju međusobne veze između tri čvora

• C.

Su tranzitivne veze

• D.

Su veze koje su jake

B. Opisuju međusobne veze između tri čvora
Explanation
The correct answer is "Opisuju međusobne veze između tri čvora." This statement explains that simelijeve veze describe the mutual connections between three nodes.

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• 20.

### Izlazni stepen čvora (outdegree) je:

• A.

Predstavlja broj izlaznih veza za posmatrani čvor

• B.

Sabran sa ulaznim stepenom čini ukupan stepen čvora

• C.

Je uvek veći od ulaznog stepena čvora

• D.

Uvek manji ili jednak ulaznom stepenu čvora

A. Predstavlja broj izlaznih veza za posmatrani čvor
Explanation
The correct answer is "Predstavlja broj izlaznih veza za posmatrani čvor" which means "It represents the number of outgoing links for the observed node." This explanation states that the outdegree of a node refers to the number of outgoing connections or links that the node has.

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• 21.

### Kada dva odvojena klastera poseduju neredudantne informacije onda nastaju:

• A.

Klikovi

• B.

Strukturne rupe

• C.

Mostovi

• D.

Brokeri

B. Strukturne rupe
Explanation
When two separate clusters possess non-redundant information, structural holes arise. Structural holes refer to the gaps or spaces between different clusters or groups where there is a lack of connections or communication. These structural holes can create opportunities for individuals or organizations to bridge the gap and act as intermediaries or brokers, facilitating the flow of information between the separate clusters. Therefore, the correct answer is "Strukturne rupe" (Structural holes).

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• 22.

### Ukoliko je prosečan stepen realne (online) društvene mreže onda, za nasumično izabrani čvor, očekivani stepen:

• A.

Je manji od n

• B.

Je jednak n

• C.

Je veći od n

• D.

Ne zavisi od stepena mreže

A. Je manji od n
Explanation
The given statement states that if the average degree of a real (online) social network is n, then the expected degree of a randomly chosen node is smaller than n. This implies that on average, the number of connections a randomly chosen node has is less than the average number of connections in the network.

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• 23.

### Kako bi glasila interpretacija stepena čvora (degree centrality) u kontekstu društvenih mreža:

• A.

Koliko je verovatno da je data osoba posrednik između neke druge dve osobe iz date mreže

• B.

U kojoj meri je data osoba povezana sa uticajnim, odnosno dobro povezanim članovima mreže

• C.

Koliko drugih ljudi može datu osobu direktno da kontaktira

• D.

Koliko brzo data osoba može da dopre do bilo koje druge osobe u mreži

C. Koliko drugih ljudi može datu osobu direktno da kontaktira
Explanation
The interpretation of degree centrality in the context of social networks is how many other people the given person can directly contact. Degree centrality measures the number of direct connections a node (person) has in a network, indicating their level of influence and reach within the network. The higher the degree centrality, the more people the person can directly reach and potentially influence.

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• 24.

### Rastojanje između dva čvora je:

• A.

Dužina najkraće putanje između posmatrana dva čvora ali koja prolazi kroz prethodno određeni centralni čvor

• B.

Dužina najkraće putanje između posmatrana dva čvora

• C.

Prosečna dužina svih putanja između posmatrana dva čvora

• D.

Dužina najduže putanje između posmatrana dva čvora a u kojoj se čvorovi ne ponavljaju

B. Dužina najkraće putanje između posmatrana dva čvora
Explanation
The distance between two nodes is defined as the length of the shortest path between the two nodes. This means that it is the minimum number of edges that need to be traversed in order to go from one node to the other. The answer choice "Dužina najkraće putanje između posmatrana dva čvora" accurately describes this concept.

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• 25.

### Tendencija čvorova da se spajaju sa čvorovima sličnih karakteristika naziva se:

• A.

Homofilija

• B.

Tranzitivnost

• C.

Reciprocitet

• D.

Simelijeve veze

A. Homofilija
Explanation
Homofilija refers to the tendency of nodes to connect with nodes that have similar characteristics. In social networks, this means that individuals with similar interests, beliefs, or attributes are more likely to form connections with each other. This concept suggests that people are more likely to associate with others who are like them, leading to the formation of homogenous clusters within a network. This phenomenon has been observed in various social networks, such as friendship networks, collaboration networks, and online communities.

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• 26.

### Koja je tvrdnja tačna:

• A.

Čvorovi grafa predstavljaju relacije koje važe u društvenoj mreži

• B.

Ivice društvenog grafa su čvorovi koji su slabo povezani

• C.

Ne može svakom grafu da se pridruži matrica sesedstva

• D.

Čvorovi grafa predstavljaju entitete između kojih posmatramo veze

D. Čvorovi grafa predstavljaju entitete između kojih posmatramo veze
Explanation
The correct answer is that the nodes of a graph represent entities between which we observe connections. This means that in a graph, the nodes represent the different entities or objects, and the edges represent the connections or relationships between these entities. This is a fundamental concept in graph theory, where graphs are used to model relationships and connections between different entities or objects.

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• 27.

### Grafove realnih (online) društvenih mreža karakteriše:

• A.

Postojanje malog broja velikih slabo povezanih grupa

• B.

Postojanje velikog broja malih slabo povezanih grupa

• C.

Postojanje malog broja velikih jako povezanih grupa

• D.

Postojanje velikog broja malih dobro povezanih grupa

D. Postojanje velikog broja malih dobro povezanih grupa
Explanation
The correct answer states that real (online) social networks are characterized by the existence of a large number of small, well-connected groups. This suggests that in social networks, there are many small clusters of individuals who are closely connected to each other. This can be seen in various social media platforms where users form smaller communities or groups based on shared interests, hobbies, or relationships. These groups may have strong connections within themselves but may have weaker connections with other groups in the network.

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• 28.

### Stepen čvora (degree centrality) označava:

• A.

Koliko je posmatrani čvor povezan sa ostalim čvorovima koji su uticajni

• B.

Broj čvorova između kojih se posmatrani čvor nalazi

• C.

Blizinu posmatranog čvora centralnoj poziciji

• D.

Koliko čvorova je direktno povezano sa posmatranim čvorom

D. Koliko čvorova je direktno povezano sa posmatranim čvorom
Explanation
The correct answer is "Koliko čvorova je direktno povezano sa posmatranim čvorom." This is because the degree centrality of a node measures the number of direct connections that node has with other nodes in the network. It quantifies how influential or connected a node is within the network based on the number of direct links it has.

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• 29.

### Šta je na slici označeno znakom pitanja (?)?

• A.

Čvor

• B.

Ivica

• C.

Graf

• D.

Stepen čvora

B. Ivica
Explanation
On the image, the symbol "?" is used to mark an "Ivica" which means "Edge" in English.

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• 30.

### Na slici se nalazi:

• A.

Lista ivica grafa

• B.

Matrica susedstva

• C.

Graf

• D.

Stepen čvora

A. Lista ivica grafa
Explanation
The correct answer is "Lista ivica grafa" because the image represents a visual representation of a graph, and the "Lista ivica grafa" is a data structure commonly used to represent graphs. It is a list that contains all the edges of the graph, and each edge is represented by a pair of vertices. This data structure is useful for many graph algorithms and operations, such as finding the neighbors of a vertex or checking if two vertices are connected.

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• 31.

### Metrika mreže broj veza po čvoru (links per node) se definiše kao količnik:

• A.

Broj čvorova u mreži / ukupan broj mogućih veza u mreži

• B.

Broj stvarnih veza u mreži / ukupan broj čvorova u mreži

• C.

Broj čvorova u mreži / ukupan broj stvarnih veza u mreži

• D.

Broj stvarnih veza u mreži / ukupan broj mogućih veza u mreži

B. Broj stvarnih veza u mreži / ukupan broj čvorova u mreži
Explanation
The correct answer is "Broj stvarnih veza u mreži / ukupan broj čvorova u mreži". This is because the metric "links per node" is defined as the ratio of the number of actual connections in the network to the total number of nodes in the network. This ratio gives an indication of the average number of links each node has in the network.

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• 32.

### Proces rasta mreže u kome velika većina novih čvorova pristupa mreži kroz uspostavljanje konekcije sa čvorovima koji već imaju visok stepen, opisuje:

• A.

Betweenness centrality

• B.

Fenomen malog sveta

• C.

Sopstvena centralnost

• D.

Preferential attachment

D. Preferential attachment
Explanation
Preferential attachment is a process in which the majority of new nodes in a network connect to nodes that already have a high degree. This phenomenon leads to the rich-get-richer effect, where well-connected nodes become even more connected over time. In this process, the more connections a node has, the more likely it is to attract new connections. This can result in the formation of hubs or highly connected nodes in the network.

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• 33.

### U neusmerenoj mreži od n čvorova broj mogućih ivica je:

• A.

N*(n-1)

• B.

N*(n-1)/2

• C.

2 n*(n-1)/2

• D.

2*n*(n-1)

B. N*(n-1)/2
Explanation
In an undirected network with n nodes, each node can be connected to every other node except itself. Therefore, for each node, there are (n-1) possible edges. However, since the edges are undirected, each edge is counted twice. Hence, the total number of possible edges in an undirected network with n nodes is given by n*(n-1)/2.

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• 34.

### Veličina mreže se odnosi na:

• A.

Odnos broja čvorova i broja veza

• B.

Broj veza u mreži

• C.

Dijametar mreže

• D.

Broj čvorova u mreži

D. Broj čvorova u mreži
Explanation
The correct answer is "Broj čvorova u mreži." This is because the term "veličina mreže" translates to "network size" in English, and it refers to the number of nodes or vertices in a network. Therefore, the answer choice that accurately reflects this definition is "Broj čvorova u mreži."

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• 35.

### U datom primeru na slici, ukoliko se posmatra stepen čvora (degree centrality):

• A.

Čvor 10 je ključni

• B.

Čvor 3 je ključni

• C.

Čvorovi 3 i 5 su ključni

• D.

Čvor 5 je ključni

A. Čvor 10 je ključni
Explanation
The correct answer is that node 10 is central in terms of degree centrality. This means that node 10 has the highest number of connections or edges compared to other nodes in the network. Degree centrality is a measure of the number of connections a node has, and in this case, node 10 has the highest degree centrality among all the nodes in the network.

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• 36.

### Na slici se nalazi:

• A.

Lista ivica grafa

• B.

Graf

• C.

Stepen čvora

• D.

Matrica susedstva