Federal Aviation Agency
American National Standard Institute
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Frequency modulation (FM) and independent sidebands (ISB)
Continuous wave (CW) and amplitude modulation (AM)
Single side band (SSB) and FM
SSB and ISB
Low frequency (LF)
Medium frequency (MF
High Frequency (HF
Very high frequency (VHF)
Very low-resistance dielectric
Very high-resistance dielectric
Flexible coaxial cable
Rigid coaxial cable
When the frequencies are so high that their wavelength is miniscule.
To transmit on frequencies too low for ground propagation.
For high power at frequencies up to 30 megahertz (MHz) primarily.
To receive television frequencies over the air.
Their outer surface will arc from being very slightly damaged.
Their conductive material construction is easily dented.
Their effectiveness is hindered by moisture.
They can be destroyed by corrosion.
Induction and resistance
Induction and capacitance
Resistance and capacitance
Length and type of shielding
Wavelength is inversely related to frequency.
Wavelength is directly related to frequency.
Wavelength is determined by the line lengthe.
Wavelength is expressed in lambdas (λ).
No reflected waves
Maximum voltage across its open termination
Maximum across its shorted termination
Resonant lines are often referred to as flat lines.
Maximum power transfer results from a resonant line.
Maximum power results from a nonresonant line.
Significant loss and damage to equipment results from using a nonresonant line.
Signal loss would be negligible.
Signal loss would be significant.
Current would be maximum at the termination.
Voltage would be minimum at the termination.
Long distances with few interruptions.
From point to point along the earth's surface.
No more than 20 miles to the receive antenna.
Through the air in a straight line from transmitter to receiver.
Atmospheric conditions at the time of transmission.
Air and moisture content in the propagation path.
Soil and water in the propagation path.
Soil and air in the propagation path.
Atmospheric pressure, and temperature
Atmospheric pressure, and frequency.
Receive signal level, and temperature.
Receive signal level, and frequency.