Soca 2

50 Questions

Settings
Please wait...
Soca 2

.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A way of life shared by a group of human beings - including their language, beliefs, and thingsthey make and use - is referred to by anthropologists as their:
    • A. 

      Religion

    • B. 

      Environment

    • C. 

      Culture

    • D. 

      Heritage

  • 2. 
    A society: 
    • A. 

      Generally refers to a particular group of people living and interacting within a definite territory

    • B. 

      Is defined as a shared way of life that includes values, beliefs, and norms

    • C. 

      Is the same thing as a culture

    • D. 

      Is a grouping unique to humans

  • 3. 
    There are many definitions of culture; however, there are a number of aspects that are common to most definitions. These include all of the following EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Culture is biologically inherited

    • B. 

      Culture is learned

    • C. 

      Culture is shared

    • D. 

      Culture is made up of elements such as values, beliefs, norms, and material objects

  • 4. 
    In order for an item to be cultural, it must be: 
    • A. 

      Independent of environmental influences

    • B. 

      Learned and commonly shared among individuals

    • C. 

      Dependent upon the environment of the society

    • D. 

      Unchanging, fixed, or static.

  • 5. 
    __________ is credited with providing us with the first, detailed definition of culture, "...thatcomplex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any othercapabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society."
    • A. 

      Leslie White

    • B. 

      Bob Marley

    • C. 

      Clifford Geertz

    • D. 

      Marvin Harris

    • E. 

      E. B. Tylor

  • 6. 
    Symbols:
    • A. 

      Are rooted deeply in genetic structure

    • B. 

      Are arbitrary meaningful units we use to represent reality

    • C. 

      Are different for everyone

    • D. 

      Cannot be easily identified

  • 7. 
    Ethnocentrism is a: 
    • A. 

      Belief that all ethnic groups can eventually be traced back to one central location

    • B. 

      Common notion that we all evolved from the same woman (dubbed "Eve") who lived in Africa about 200,000 years ago

    • C. 

      Belief that race mixing will produce inferior children

    • D. 

      Practice of judging another society by the values and standards of one's own society

    • E. 

      View that cultural traditions must be understood within the context of a particular society's solutions to problems or opportunities

  • 8. 
    An example of ethnocentrism would be the belief that: 
    • A. 

      Children should not be allowed to work full time

    • B. 

      Alcoholism is a major problem for Native Americans

    • C. 

      Women should stay at home and raise children

    • D. 

      Societies that practice polygamy are evil

  • 9. 
    It would be fair to say that, in a multicultural society such as exists in the United States:
    • A. 

      There are conflicting systems of norms and values

    • B. 

      The strict enforcement of cultural mores is a government goal

    • C. 

      Mores are well-defined and reflected by all

    • D. 

      There is one common idea about social norms

  • 10. 
    To combat the problem of ethnocentrism, twentieth-century anthropologists developed the concept of
    • A. 

      Cultural relativism

    • B. 

      Cultural hegemony

    • C. 

      Cultural symbolism

    • D. 

      Cultural primacy

  • 11. 
    Leaders of band societies: 
    • A. 

      Often have to resort to the use of power and coercion to accomplish goals

    • B. 

      Lead by persuasion, example, and personal influence

    • C. 

      Rule by trickery and deceit and by withholding key resources

    • D. 

      Rule by edict

    • E. 

      Are similar to communist dictators in that they have absolute power over the people

  • 12. 
    Anthropologists use the term "pastoralists" to refer to peoples who:
    • A. 

      Live in sedentary villages and rely principally on farming

    • B. 

      Subsist by slash-and-burn cultivation of forest lands

    • C. 

      Rely primarily on herd animals, such as caribou, cattle, sheep, or goats

    • D. 

      Are highly mobile, gathering wild plant foods from forest clearings

  • 13. 
    While studying the Yanomamö, Napoleon Chagnon found that soil depletion was not the only reason that these peoples moved their garden plots. His research found that:
    • A. 

      After about two to three years poisonous snakes and alligators started to congregate in the garden plots because the vegetables attracted animals that both the snakes and alligators liked to eat

    • B. 

      The Yanomamö simply got tired of living in the same area and just packed up and left on a whim

    • C. 

      These cleared plots eventually became shallow ponds that could not be used as gardens

    • D. 

      Major population movements of the Yanomamö were due to warfare and conflict with Neighbors

  • 14. 
    One of the chief advantages of slash-and-burn cultivation is that it:
    • A. 

      Is effective in virtually any environment

    • B. 

      Can be carried out indefinitely on a single plot of land

    • C. 

      Involves a huge labor force in converting forest to agricultural fields

    • D. 

      Produces food without complex technology

  • 15. 
    Most anthropologists have come to agree that human behavior __________.
    • A. 

      Results from a combination of biology and culture

    • B. 

      Is mostly determined by genetic inheritance

    • C. 

      Results from learning only

    • D. 

      Is usually automatic and instinctual

  • 16. 
    Conflict resolution in forager societies:
    • A. 

      Is based on informal sanctions because there are generally no formal government institutions or political authority available

    • B. 

      Usually involves a formal court style setting where the accused, who is placed on trial, must defend himself or herself without the help of other members of the group

    • C. 

      Is handled by simply banishing the disputing parties from the band forever

    • D. 

      Is unnecessary since there are no recorded examples of disputes or conflicts in these band societies

  • 17. 
    Since band societies are egalitarian, the leaders of bands:
    • A. 

      Must use force and physical threats to achieve political power

    • B. 

      Must lead by personal influence and persuasion rather than coercion

    • C. 

      Must lead by intimidation, coercion, and deception

    • D. 

      Must lead by strictly obeying the rules and laws set down by the band council

  • 18. 
    The two basic elements of social organization for foraging groups are the:
    • A. 

      Ensemble and group

    • B. 

      Nuclear family and band

    • C. 

      Clan and tribe

    • D. 

      Troop and horde

  • 19. 
    The phrase "original affluent society" refers to:
    • A. 

      The ancient Egyptian civilization

    • B. 

      The concept of the "noble savage"

    • C. 

      The earliest foragers, who lived in rich environments

    • D. 

      The notion that hunter-gatherers spend less time acquiring their food than does an agricultural society

  • 20. 
    • A. 

      Generalized reciprocity

    • B. 

      Unbalanced reciprocity

    • C. 

      Negative reciprocity

    • D. 

      Balanced reciprocity

  • 21. 
    Negative reciprocity most likely occurs between: 
    • A. 

      People who differ in age and status

    • B. 

      Friends in modern, westernized societies

    • C. 

      Close kin

    • D. 

      People of the opposite sex

    • E. 

      Strangers and enemies

  • 22. 
    Hunting and gathering societies will sometimes resort to infanticide in order to:
    • A. 

      Make sacrifices to tribal gods

    • B. 

      Reduce the effects of anticipated food shortages

    • C. 

      Supplement scarce hunting resources

    • D. 

      Engage in more frequent intercourse

  • 23. 
    The main characteristic shared by all hunting and gathering societies, past and present, is:
    • A. 

      Use of the bow and arrow

    • B. 

      Mobility

    • C. 

      Poor nutrition

    • D. 

      Existence in a marginal habitat

  • 24. 
    Most of the diet of the Iniut comes from:
    • A. 

      Meat from hunting

    • B. 

      Agricultural products

    • C. 

      Fish and shellfish

    • D. 

      Nuts, berries, fruits, and roots

  • 25. 
    Food production, as a subsistence pattern, developed about:
    • A. 

      1,000 to 2,000 years ago

    • B. 

      100,000 to 120,000 years ago

    • C. 

      10,000 to 12,000 years ago

    • D. 

      1 million years ago

  • 26. 
    Clearly defined norms of a society that, when violated, provide punishment through theapplication of formal sanctions by ruling authority are called:
    • A. 

      Laws

    • B. 

      taboos

    • C. 

      Ethos

    • D. 

      Myths

    • E. 

      Internalized norms

  • 27. 
    Political systems with centralized bureaucratic institutions that establish power and authority over large populations in a specific territory are known as:
    • A. 

      Tribes

    • B. 

      Chiefdoms

    • C. 

      Bands

    • D. 

      States

  • 28. 
    A typical __________ consists of two parents and their immediate biological offspring or adopted children.
    • A. 

      Band unit

    • B. 

      Atomic family

    • C. 

      Basic family

    • D. 

      Nuclear family

    • E. 

      Extended family

  • 29. 
    Societies with differences in wealth and status:
    • A. 

      Status steps

    • B. 

      Stages of prestige

    • C. 

      Levels of prejudice

    • D. 

      Social stratification

  • 30. 
    The process whereby a person learns their culture is called:
    • A. 

      Ecology

    • B. 

      Technological loop

    • C. 

      Economy

    • D. 

      Enculturation

  • 31. 
    The process in which an organism adjusts successfully to a specific environment is called:
    • A. 

      Chance

    • B. 

      Correlation

    • C. 

      The carrying capacity of the area

    • D. 

      Adaptation

  • 32. 
    Horticultural groups engaged in what type of subsistence economy
    • A. 

      Farming using human labor and simple tools

    • B. 

      Intensive foraging, supplemented by occasional hunting and fishing

    • C. 

      Large-scale herding of animals

    • D. 

      Intensive irrigation and plow agriculture

  • 33. 
    Tribal societies generally consisted of autonomous bands capable of independently sustaining themselves, who joined together for what purposes
    • A. 

      Defense and communal gatherings such as a feast or hunt

    • B. 

      Participation in games of chance

    • C. 

      Formal judgments of a tribal council

    • D. 

      To make decisions that all members had to follow

  • 34. 
    • A. 

      With authority backed by loyal warriors

    • B. 

      Via a bureaucratic elite comprised of his wives and kinsmen

    • C. 

      Through the exaction of tribute from subjugated villages

    • D. 

      By example and persuasion rather than by coercion

  • 35. 
    Like band societies, tribal societies:
    • A. 

      Have no political organizations

    • B. 

      Have highly structured and efficient political organizations

    • C. 

      Have decentralized political systems in which authority is vested among a number of individuals, groups, and associations

    • D. 

      Have a "god-king"

  • 36. 
    In which of the following ways is a "big men" most likely to gain the allegiance of followers
    • A. 

      Provide them with gifts

    • B. 

      Conquer them in battle

    • C. 

      Demonstrate sacred knowledge

    • D. 

      Impress them by sponsoring

  • 37. 
    It has been suggested that the status of women in bands and tribal societies:
    • A. 

      Is determined by age

    • B. 

      Increases when they are menstruating

    • C. 

      Is related to how much they contribute to the subsistence activities of the group

    • D. 

      Is correlated with the fact that they are the physically weaker sex and are easily exploited

  • 38. 
    Property rights in band type societies:
    • A. 

      Are usually vested in the family and other kinship groupings

    • B. 

      Are usually vested in individuals, who then determine who can use the land or resources

    • C. 

      Are vested in the chief of the tribe

    • D. 

      Simply do not exist since these types of societies are always on the move looking for a new place to live

  • 39. 
    Compared with hunting and gathering band-level societies, tribal societies are:
    • A. 

      Smaller, less mobile, and have less political integration

    • B. 

      Smaller and more highly mobile across broad regions

    • C. 

      Larger with fairly well defined territories, but otherwise quite similar to band-level groups

    • D. 

      Larger, and tied to a single territory

  • 40. 
    Agricultural production, and the ability to store surplus food, led to the eventual appearance of:
    • A. 

      Economies based on hunting and fishing

    • B. 

      Kinship-based social organization

    • C. 

      Full-time craft specialization

    • D. 

      Warfare

  • 41. 
    The principal benefit of plant cultivation for human populations is that it
    • A. 

      Improves the quality of human nutrition by the introduction of proteins and carbohydrates

    • B. 

      Allows more food to be obtained from a given piece of land, thus supporting a larger human population

    • C. 

      Permits the domestication of herd animals, such as sheep, goats, and cattle

    • D. 

      Creates more leisure time for non-subsistence activities, such as child-rearing

  • 42. 
    Social inequality is exemplified in the __________ system of India. These social units are locked groupings into which a person is born and dies. 
    • A. 

      Caste system

    • B. 

      Purdah system

    • C. 

      Slavery system

    • D. 

      Shogun scheme

  • 43. 
    Social mobility is exemplified in the __________ system of United State. These social units are fluid and individuals can move up and/or down in the system
    • A. 

      Caste system

    • B. 

      Purdah system

    • C. 

      Slavery system

    • D. 

      Class system

  • 44. 
    Monogamy is a marriage unit made up of a man and one wife. It is most closely associated with what type of subsistence pattern?
    • A. 

      Agricultural states

    • B. 

      Horticulture

    • C. 

      Foraging

    • D. 

      Pastoralism

  • 45. 
    Since acquiring natural food resources influences the type of marriage patterns found in foraging groups, the primary form of marriage was:
    • A. 

      Polygamy

    • B. 

      Monogamy

    • C. 

      Polyandry

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 46. 
    The initial transition from foraging to food production:
    • A. 

      Is always accompanied by an immediate decrease in population density

    • B. 

      Leads to higher mortality rates, poorer sanitation, and decreased life expectancies

    • C. 

      Was accomplished in one area of the world, and then this innovation diffused to other areas

    • D. 

      Caused mortality to decline, populations to increase in size, and life expectancy to increase

  • 47. 
    Over time the transition from foraging to food production:
    • A. 

      Is always accompanied by an immediate decrease in population density

    • B. 

      Leads to higher mortality rates, poorer sanitation, and decreased life expectancies

    • C. 

      Was accomplished in one area of the world, and then this innovation diffused to other areas

    • D. 

      Caused mortality to decline, populations to increase in size, and life expectancy to increase

  • 48. 
    The political structures of chiefdoms differ from those of tribes because in a chiefdom
    • A. 

      The central leadership position is inherited, or passed down within a single ruling family

    • B. 

      Leadership is vested in an institutionalized office that exists independently of a particular person

    • C. 

      Political power derives mostly from personal qualities, such as intelligence or skill

    • D. 

      Tribal leaders maintain absolute authority, usually enforced by physical intimidation

  • 49. 
    • A. 

      Participant Observation

    • B. 

      Field work

    • C. 

      Culture shock

    • D. 

      Attempting to uncover ecofacts that influence cultures

  • 50. 
    Characteristics of a civilization include all of the following except?
    • A. 

      Extensive food surpluses

    • B. 

      An egalitarian form of government

    • C. 

      Dense populations located in urban centers

    • D. 

      A state that employs numerous government officials