Cmj101 Quiz 8/9/10/11

60 Questions

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Court Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following is NOT part of the structure developed by states that follow the federal court model?
    • A. 

      Trial courts of limited jurisdiction

    • B. 

      Trial courts of general jurisdiction

    • C. 

      Special-purpose courts

    • D. 

      Appellate courts

  • 2. 
    All of the following EXCEPT which are names used in place of "trial court of general jurisdiction" ?
    • A. 

      Appellate court

    • B. 

      Superior court

    • C. 

      High court

    • D. 

      Circuit court

  • 3. 
    Which of the following is NOT an alternative to bail?
    • A. 

      Third-party custody

    • B. 

      Conditional release

    • C. 

      Release on recognizance

    • D. 

      Nolo contendere

  • 4. 
    On appeal, when a trial court of general jurisdiction offers a new trial instead of the review of the lower court's decision, it is giving a _________________.
    • A. 

      Jury trial

    • B. 

      Adversarial trial

    • C. 

      Trial de novo

    • D. 

      Constitutional trial

  • 5. 
    Which of the following refers to the lawful authority of a court to hear or to act on a case from its beginning and to pass judgment on the law and the facts?
    • A. 

      Limited jurisdiction

    • B. 

      Overlapping jurisdiction

    • C. 

      Appellate jurisdiction

    • D. 

      Original jurisdiction

  • 6. 
    A formal written accusation submitted to the court by a grand jury, alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense, usually a felony, is known as an ______________.
    • A. 

      Arraignment

    • B. 

      Indictment

    • C. 

      Assessment

    • D. 

      Enforcement

  • 7. 
    As state court systems developed, which of the following court models was copied by most states?
    • A. 

      Federal Reorganization Act of 1801

    • B. 

      Federal Judiciary Act of 1789

    • C. 

      Magistrate's Act of 1968

    • D. 

      New York State Field Code of 1848

  • 8. 
    A document guaranteeing the appearance of a defendant in court as required and recording the pledge of money or property to be paid to the court if he or she does not appear is known as a(n) ________________.
    • A. 

      Bail bond

    • B. 

      Signature bond

    • C. 

      Property bond

    • D. 

      Unsecured bond

  • 9. 
    One purpose of _______________ is to help ensure the reappearance of the accused at trial.
    • A. 

      Arraignment

    • B. 

      Plea

    • C. 

      Bail

    • D. 

      Adjudication

  • 10. 
    Which of the following provides the first appellate level for courts of limited jurisdiction?
    • A. 

      Trial courts of general jurisdiction

    • B. 

      Intermediate appellate courts

    • C. 

      Courts of last resort

    • D. 

      District courts

  • 11. 
    • A. 

      The bailiff

    • B. 

      The clerk of court

    • C. 

      The court administrator

    • D. 

      The court recorder

  • 12. 
    • A. 

      Cooperation and communication with the police

    • B. 

      Recognition of informal rules of civility

    • C. 

      Instruction to meet the needs of trial judges

    • D. 

      Determination of the defendant's guilt or innocence

  • 13. 
    Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the role of the judge in the courtroom work group?
    • A. 

      The judge holds ultimate authority in ruling on matters of law.

    • B. 

      If a guilty verdict has been returned, the judge is responsible for imposing a sentence.

    • C. 

      The primary duty of a judge is to ensure justice.

    • D. 

      The judge is responsible for presenting the state's case against the defendant.

  • 14. 
    Which of the following officially notifies witnesses that they are to appear in court to testify?
    • A. 

      Subpoena

    • B. 

      Sentence

    • C. 

      Bill

    • D. 

      Appeal

  • 15. 
    Which of the following is NOT a responsibility of a bailiff?
    • A. 

      To cross-examine witnesses

    • B. 

      To announce the judge's entry into the courtroom

    • C. 

      To ensure order in the courtroom

    • D. 

      To prevent the escape of the accused

  • 16. 
    All of the following discretionary decisions are always inappropriate, EXCEPT ____________.
    • A. 

      Deciding not to prosecute friends or political cronies

    • B. 

      Overzealously prosecuting a case to seek heightened visibility

    • C. 

      Following a state bar version of the ABA rules

    • D. 

      Reducing charges in exchange for personal considerations

  • 17. 
    Court-appointed defense attorneys, whose fees are paid at a set rate by local or state government, are also called _____________.
    • A. 

      Assigned counsel

    • B. 

      Public counsel

    • C. 

      Opposing counsel

    • D. 

      Private counsel

  • 18. 
    The most important form of prosecutorial discretion lies in the power to _____________.
    • A. 

      Handle certain matters relating to individuals declared mentally incompetent

    • B. 

      Test the credibility and the memory of the witness

    • C. 

      Charge, or not to charge, a person with an offense

    • D. 

      Serve as a judge of probate to oversee wills and the administration of estates

  • 19. 
    The most widely used system of indigent defense involves ______________.
    • A. 

      Victims' assistance programs

    • B. 

      Public defender programs

    • C. 

      Contract attorney programs

    • D. 

      Court-appointed defense attorneys judicial degree programs

  • 20. 
    Which of the following represents the order of the steps in a criminal trial?
    • A. 

      Trial initiation, jury selection, opening statements, presentation of evidence, closing arguments, the judge's charge to the jury, jury deliberations, the verdict

    • B. 

      Jury selection, trial initiation, opening statements, presentation of evidence, closing arguments, the judge's charge to the jury, jury deliberations, the verdict

    • C. 

      Opening statements, jury selection, presentation of evidence, trial initiation, closing arguments, the judge's charge to the jury, jury deliberations, the verdict

    • D. 

      The judge's charge to the jury, jury selection, opening statements, trial initiation, presentation of evidence, closing arguments, jury deliberations, the verdict

  • 21. 
    Which of the following sentencing goals is closely associated with the phrase "an eye for an eye" ?
    • A. 

      Retribution

    • B. 

      Incapacitation

    • C. 

      Deterrance

    • D. 

      Rehabilitation

  • 22. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of contemporary sentencing?
    • A. 

      Incapacitation

    • B. 

      Mitigation

    • C. 

      Restoration

    • D. 

      Rehabilitation

  • 23. 
    Which of the following is NOT an advantage of fines?
    • A. 

      Fines can be collected by existing criminal justice agencies and are relatively inexpensive to administer.

    • B. 

      The impact of a fine depends on the ability of the sentenced person to pay.

    • C. 

      Fines can promote rehabilitation by enforcing economic responsibility.

    • D. 

      Fines can be made proportionate to both the severity of the offense and the ability of the offender to pay.

  • 24. 
    Which of the following refers to the use of imprisonment or other means to reduce the likelihood that a particular offender will commit more crime?
    • A. 

      Rehabilitation

    • B. 

      Retribution

    • C. 

      Incapacitation

    • D. 

      Deterrance

  • 25. 
    __________ deterrence seeks to reduce the likelihood of recidivism by convicted offenders.
    • A. 

      Specific

    • B. 

      Primary

    • C. 

      General

    • D. 

      Focused

  • 26. 
    Under the indeterminate sentencing model, what is the primary determinant of the amount of time served?
    • A. 

      Leniency of the parole board

    • B. 

      Inmate's behavior while incarerated

    • C. 

      Pressure from politicians

    • D. 

      Leniency of the judge

  • 27. 
    Which of the following is a form of structured sentencing?
    • A. 

      Quasi-independent sentencing

    • B. 

      Contemporary sentencing

    • C. 

      Determinate sentencing

    • D. 

      Indeterminate sentencing

  • 28. 
    Which of the following is NOT a right under the Crime Victims' Rights Act to the victims of federal crimes?
    • A. 

      The right to be reasonably protected from the accused

    • B. 

      The right to appeal any state or federal grant of clemency

    • C. 

      The right to confer with the federal prosecutor handling the case

    • D. 

      The right to proceedings free from unreasonable delay

  • 29. 
    Which of the following is the primary sentencing tool of the just deserts model?
    • A. 

      Fine

    • B. 

      Restitution

    • C. 

      Imprisonment

    • D. 

      Probation

  • 30. 
    Which of the following is a just deserts perspective that emphasizes taking revenge on a criminal perpetrator or group of offenders?
    • A. 

      Retribution

    • B. 

      Deterrance

    • C. 

      Rehabilitation

    • D. 

      Restoration

  • 31. 
    Which type of sentence requires that offenders serve time in a local jail before a period of supervised probation?
    • A. 

      Split sentence

    • B. 

      Shock incarceration

    • C. 

      Shock probation

    • D. 

      Mixed sentence

  • 32. 
    Which of the following is NOT a general condition for probations?
    • A. 

      Remain within the jurisdiction of the court

    • B. 

      Maintain employment

    • C. 

      Possess no firearms

    • D. 

      Surrender the driver's license

  • 33. 
    Which of the following intermediate sanctions exposes offenders to a highly regimented environment involving strict discipline, physical training, and hard labor?
    • A. 

      Shock incarceration

    • B. 

      Intensive probation

    • C. 

      Shock probation

    • D. 

      Mixed sentencing

  • 34. 
    Which U.S. Supreme Court decision ruled that probation officers may search a probationer's residence without a search warrant?
    • A. 

      Morrissey v. Brewer

    • B. 

      Mempha v. Rhay

    • C. 

      Griffin v. Wisconsin

    • D. 

      Escoe v. Zerbst

  • 35. 
    Which of the following sentences is NOT an example of an intermediate sanction?
    • A. 

      Shock incarceration

    • B. 

      Intensive probation

    • C. 

      30 days in jail

    • D. 

      House arrest with electronic monitoring

  • 36. 
    • A. 

      Split probation

    • B. 

      House arrest

    • C. 

      Shock probation

    • D. 

      Intensive probation supervision

  • 37. 
    Which intermediate sanction resembles a military-style boot camp?
    • A. 

      Shock probation

    • B. 

      Shock incarceration

    • C. 

      Intensive supervision

    • D. 

      Shock parole

  • 38. 
    • A. 

      House arrest

    • B. 

      Imprisonment

    • C. 

      Probation

    • D. 

      Shock incarceration

  • 39. 
    Which of the following is NOT a function of a probation or parole officer's work?
    • A. 

      Supervision of clients

    • B. 

      Assistance to prosecutors by conducting arrests and investigations

    • C. 

      Needs assessment and diagnosis

    • D. 

      Intake procedures

  • 40. 
    Intermediate sanctions are also sometimes termed _____________.
    • A. 

      Alternative sentencing strategies

    • B. 

      Mandatory release

    • C. 

      Discretionary release

    • D. 

      Imprisonment

  • 41. 
    The majority of this country's jail inmates are ___________.
    • A. 

      Women

    • B. 

      Juveniles

    • C. 

      Senior citizens

    • D. 

      Members of minority groups

  • 42. 
    High-security facilities in the federal prison system are called ____________.
    • A. 

      Federal correctional institutions

    • B. 

      U.S. penitentiaries

    • C. 

      Honor type camps

    • D. 

      Federal prison camps

  • 43. 
    Female officers working in jails ___________.
    • A. 

      Make up about 50% of the workforce

    • B. 

      Are disproportionately skewed toward jobs in the lower ranks

    • C. 

      Are usually regarded negatively by male officers

    • D. 

      Are usually not allowed to supervise male inmates in unscreened showers

  • 44. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the operators running private prisons in the United States?
    • A. 

      Corrections Corporation of America

    • B. 

      Cornell Corrections

    • C. 

      Federal Correctional Workforce

    • D. 

      Correctional Services Corporation

  • 45. 
    Medium- and low-security facilities in the federal prison system are called __________.
    • A. 

      Federal penitentiaries

    • B. 

      Federal prison camps

    • C. 

      Federal correctional institutions

    • D. 

      U.S. penitentiaries

  • 46. 
    Which level of prison security often has chain-link fences topped with barbed wire?
    • A. 

      Maximum-security

    • B. 

      Medium-security

    • C. 

      Minimum-security

    • D. 

      Supermax-security

  • 47. 
    Most states use a(n) ___________ system to assign inmates to custody levels based on offense history, assessed dangerousness, perceived risk of escape, and other factors.
    • A. 

      Design-capacity

    • B. 

      Classification

    • C. 

      Random

    • D. 

      Direct-supervision

  • 48. 
    Which of the following is NOT a dimension that can be used to measure prison crowding?
    • A. 

      The length of confinement of inmates in cells

    • B. 

      The prison's fiscal budget

    • C. 

      The space available per inmate

    • D. 

      Living arrangements (i.e., single vs. double bunking)

  • 49. 
    ___________ capacity refers to the inmate population the institution was originally built to handle.
    • A. 

      Construction

    • B. 

      Design

    • C. 

      Operational

    • D. 

      Rated

  • 50. 
    Most people sentenced to federal prisons have been convicted of _______ crimes.
    • A. 

      White-collar

    • B. 

      Violent

    • C. 

      Property

    • D. 

      Drug

  • 51. 
    The ________ is the type of prisoner who thinks of prison as home and feels more comfortable institutionalized than on the streets.
    • A. 

      Gangbanger

    • B. 

      Colonizer

    • C. 

      Opportunist

    • D. 

      Retreatist

  • 52. 
    Prisoners' rights, because they are constrained by the legitimate needs of imprisonment, can be _________.
    • A. 

      Thought of as conditional

    • B. 

      Protected by federal but not state courts

    • C. 

      Thought of as absolute

    • D. 

      Revoked by the courts without consideration of constitutionality

  • 53. 
    Suits formally requesting that the person detaining a prisoner bring him or her before a judicial officer to determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment are called ___________.
    • A. 

      Ex post facto writs

    • B. 

      Writs of habeas corpus

    • C. 

      Writs of mandamus

    • D. 

      Writs of federal action

  • 54. 
    Challenges to prison conditions by inmates, which are brought under the Eighth Amendment, must show ____________ by the officials responsible for the conditions.
    • A. 

      Deliberate indifference

    • B. 

      Recklessness

    • C. 

      Wanton infliction

    • D. 

      Criminality

  • 55. 
    The Sentencing Project says that _________ American citizens across the nation are barred from voting because of previous felony convictions.
    • A. 

      390,000

    • B. 

      11.7 million

    • C. 

      1.2 million

    • D. 

      3.9 million

  • 56. 
    Which of the following is NOT a cause of prison riots?
    • A. 

      Insensitive prison administration

    • B. 

      Multiple treatment opportunities for inmates

    • C. 

      Regulation of inmate society

    • D. 

      Dehumanizing prison conditions

  • 57. 
    Of the women entering prisons, about ______ have at least one child younger than age 18.
    • A. 

      56%

    • B. 

      70%

    • C. 

      85%

    • D. 

      25%

  • 58. 
    In The Society of Captives, Gresham Sykes described the pains of imprisonment, or the ________ that prisoners experience.
    • A. 

      Importations

    • B. 

      Illnesses

    • C. 

      Deprivations

    • D. 

      Victimizations

  • 59. 
    The socialization of new inmates into the prison subculture is called __________.
    • A. 

      Adaptation

    • B. 

      Administration

    • C. 

      Prisonization

    • D. 

      Neutralization

  • 60. 
    An enclosed facility separated from society both socially and physically, where the inhabitants share all aspects of their daily lives, is called a __________ institution.
    • A. 

      Correctional

    • B. 

      Regimented

    • C. 

      Juvenile

    • D. 

      Total