Mcb N61 Quiz 1

57 Questions

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Epilepsy Quizzes & Trivia

SUBJECT AREAS: 1: brain lesions2: static brain-imaging methods3: stem cells, neurogenesis, gliogenesis4: dynamic brain-imaging methods5: PET scan6: history of the cyclotron and its implications7: lethal injection, death penalty8: Sperry’s chemoaffinity hypothesis9: echolocation, electroreception, magnetoreception10: cannabinoids, Cannabis plant, psychedelics11: endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, retrograde signaling12: electromagnetic spectrum, visible light, UV, IR, polarization13: seizures, epilepsy14: chemotaxis, phototropism15: opium, opioids/opiates16: CNS stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine17: caffeine as a CNS stimulant18: sedative-hypnotic drugs and GABA receptor


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Causes of circumscribed (localized) lesions include all of the following EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Tumor

    • B. 

      Physical trauma

    • C. 

      Taking acetaminophen (Tylenol)

    • D. 

      Stroke

    • E. 

      An abnormal proliferation of cells in the brain

  • 2. 
    The term that is used to describe the rupture or blockage of a blood vessel leading to the death of cells in a localized region of the brain is called:
  • 3. 
    All of the following are TRUE about static brain imaging EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      Both autopsy and surgery are invasive procedures

    • B. 

      In a magnetic field, the nuclear spin of a proton can align in only one energy state

    • C. 

      MRI stands for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    • D. 

      Repeated or constant exposure to X-ray is potentially harmful

    • E. 

      Computed Axial Tomography (CAT) involves exposure to X-ray from a variety of angles

  • 4. 
     During an MRI, what kind (the name) of atoms in the brain is most likely to flip when an external beam of radiofrequency energy is delivered?
  • 5. 
    During the course of brain development, a _______ differentiates into a _______ that are specialized to become some kind of cell in the nervous system.
    • A. 

      Neuroblast, glioblast

    • B. 

      Nervous-system progenitor cell, myoglobin

    • C. 

      Glioblast, nerve cell

    • D. 

      Nerve cell, stem cell

    • E. 

      Stem cell, nervous-system progenitor cell

  • 6. 
    Roger Sperry’s famous frog experiment involved rotating the frog’s eyeball and cutting which nerve?
  • 7. 
    1. An epileptic seizure related to infection, trauma, tumor, or other damage to a part of the brain is called a(n) _______________ seizure.
  • 8. 
    One of the standard ways of measuring the electrical activity associated with a brain seizure is
    • A. 

      Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    • B. 

      Computed axial tomography (CAT or CT) scan

    • C. 

      X-ray photography

    • D. 

      Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    • E. 

      Electroencephalography (EEG)

  • 9. 
    The “runs” and “tumbles” of E. coli bacteria filmed by Howard Berg of Harvard University are a demonstration of chemotaxis called
  • 10. 
    When organisms such as the Phycomyces studied by Professor Presti move in response to light, they demonstrate
    • A. 

      Chemotaxis

    • B. 

      Somatosensory response

    • C. 

      Phototropism

    • D. 

      Vestibular response

    • E. 

      Canonical response

  • 11. 
    The medicinal properties of the opium poppy include cough suppression, treatment of diarrhea, and _______________, meaning relief of pain.
  • 12. 
    Compared to morphine, heroin is
    • A. 

      less hydrophobic than the morphine molecule

    • B. 

      more lipophilic than the morphine molecule

    • C. 

      less hydrophilic than the morphine molecule

    • D. 

      Likely to cross the blood brain barrier faster than the morphine molecule

    • E. 

      Likely to cross the blood brain barrier slower than the morphine molecule

  • 13. 
    The most widely used psychoactive drug in the world is:
  • 14. 
    True or False: Arecoamine is a chemical that comes from the betel palm nut.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    True or False: Marijuana does NOT contain cannabinoids.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    The effects of caffeine include:
    • A. 

      Increase heart rate

    • B. 

      Increase blood pressure

    • C. 

      Increase gastrointestinal motility

    • D. 

      A and B

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 17. 
    Caffeine acts on the central nervous system by binding to:
    • A. 

      Cannabinoid receptors

    • B. 

      Acetycholine receptors

    • C. 

      Adenosine receptors

    • D. 

      Dopamine receptors

    • E. 

      Serotonin receptors

  • 18. 
    Adenosine:
    • A. 

      Has inhibitory effects in the brain

    • B. 

      Is produced endogenously in the body

    • C. 

      Competes with dopamine

    • D. 

      Is a vasoconstrictor

    • E. 

      A and B

  • 19. 
    In the nervous system, nicotine binds to:
  • 20. 
    Ethyl alcohol is another name for:
  • 21. 
    Sedative-Hypnotic drugs include:
    • A. 

      Alcohol

    • B. 

      Barbiturates

    • C. 

      Benzodiazepines

    • D. 

      All of the above

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 22. 
    In a Lethal Injection Cocktail, the first drug to inject is normally:
  • 23. 
    1. Class of drugs which cause an unfamiliar state of consciousness or hallucinations is known as…
    • A. 

      Stimulants

    • B. 

      Cannabinoids

    • C. 

      Acetaminophens

    • D. 

      Oploids

    • E. 

      Amphetamines

  • 24. 
    Psychoactive drugs which alter the cognition and perception of the mind are also known as …
  • 25. 
    Neurotransmitters involved in retrograde signaling are known as…
    • A. 

      GABA NT

    • B. 

      Sodium NT

    • C. 

      Amphetamine NT

    • D. 

      Endocannabinoid NT

    • E. 

      Phototropsin NT

  • 26. 
    A phenomenon in which a signal travels from a post-synaptic neuron to a pre-synaptic neuron is known as…
  • 27. 
    Limited section of the Electromagnetic field with a wavelength rage of ~400nm- ~700nm, which humans are able to perceive is known as…
  • 28. 
    The lethal injection consists of which of the 3 following different chemical substances.
    • A. 

      Thiopental, Argon, and Pancuronium

    • B. 

      Thiopental, Ethyl Alcohol, and Pancuronium

    • C. 

      Sodium Chloride, Thiopental, and Pancuronium

    • D. 

      Potassium Chloride, Thiopental, and Pancuronium

    • E. 

      Potassium Chloride, Ethyl Alcohol, and Pancuronium

  • 29. 
                        is one of the substances that is part of the lethal injection “cocktail” which sedates the person and makes them unconscious.
  • 30. 
    The Chemoaffinity Hypothesis states that…
    • A. 

      Shwann cells use specific chemical signals to guide their wiring during development.

    • B. 

      Nerve cells use specific chemical signals to guide their wiring during development.

    • C. 

      Frogs correct for their rotated eye ball when given the opportunity through rewiring.

    • D. 

      Frogs continue to see upside down and backwards, does no use the opportunity of rewiring to correct for rotated eyeball.

    • E. 

      The optic nerve does not rewire, the frog remains blind.

  • 31. 
    The                     is responsible for connecting the eye to the brain. 
  • 32. 
    Echolocation, Electroreception, and Magnetoreceptors are all forms of                                   
  • 33. 
    Active electroreception is the ability of an animal to locate and generate an electrical field.      What purpose does generating an electrical field serve?
    • A. 

      Electrolocation

    • B. 

      Eclectilocation

    • C. 

      Electrocommunication and Passive Electroreception

    • D. 

      Electrocommunication and Electrolocation

  • 34. 
    Approximately what percent of the population of the U.S. suffers from epilepsy?
    • A. 

      9.3%

    • B. 

      5%

    • C. 

      0.01%

    • D. 

      0.9%

  • 35. 
    In a rarely done surgical treatment, what part of the brain is severed?
  • 36. 
    In the bacteria Escheria coli, when activated by chemotaxis, moves using what motlilty structure:
    • A. 

      Cilia

    • B. 

      Flagellum

    • C. 

      Psuedopod

    • D. 

      Microvilli

  • 37. 
    Chemotaxis and phototropism cause the subject to change what in response to external stimuli. 
  • 38. 
    From what part of the poppy flower is the active ingredient in opium found?
    • A. 

      Stamen

    • B. 

      Stem

    • C. 

      Sepals

    • D. 

      Seed pods

  • 39. 
    The percentage, by weight, of morphine in opium is 10%, whereas codeine is only about     % .
  • 40. 
    1. Which of the following is not an example of a dynamic brain-imaging method:
    • A. 

      A. Electroencephalography (EEG)

    • B. 

      B. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    • C. 

      C. Surgical recording or stimulation

    • D. 

      D. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    • E. 

      E. Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

  • 41. 
    1. What happens when an electron and a positron encounter one another?
    • A. 

      A. Annihilate one another and release energy

    • B. 

      B. Bond to become an atom

    • C. 

      C. Bounce off in different directions

    • D. 

      D. Consume surrounding energy

    • E. 

      E. Form a neutron

  • 42. 
    1. Which of the following is not a fact about the history of the cyclotron or its use?
    • A. 

      A. The first model of a cyclotron was larger than a one-story building.

    • B. 

      B. The first cyclotrons used electromagnets and electromagnetic fields to accelerate charged particles.

    • C. 

      C. Cyclotrons allowed scientists to generate radioactive isotopes.

    • D. 

      D. They were created at the University of California, Berkeley.

    • E. 

      E. They were used to separate atomic isotopes of uranium for atomic bombs.

  • 43. 
    1. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) uses SQUID technology to measure electric fields outside of the head. What does the S in the acronym SQUID represent?
  • 44. 
    1. Carbon-11 and Oxygen-15 are two of three common isotopes used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Give the last isotope in the format: (Element)-(Atomic Mass)
  • 45. 
    1. Who designed and built the first cyclotron?
  • 46. 
    A            is a localized injury to the brain. 
  • 47. 
    Which of the following will NOT cause a circumscribed or localized brain lesion?
    • A. 

      Tumor

    • B. 

      Alzheimer's disease

    • C. 

      Stroke

    • D. 

      Physical trauma

    • E. 

      Cancer

  • 48. 
    Developed in the 1970s, the "CAT" scan stands for        :
  • 49. 
    Developed in the 1980s, MRI stands for          and depends on NMR, which is             :
    • A. 

      Magnetic replication imaging; nuclear magnetic replication

    • B. 

      Magnetic resonance imaging; nuclear magnetic

    • C. 

      Magnetic replication imaging; new magnetic replication

    • D. 

      Magnetic resonance imaging; nuclear magnetic replication

    • E. 

      Magnetic replication imaging; nuclear method resonance

  • 50. 
               and           differentiate into neuroblasts and glioblasts.
  • 51. 
    Which of the following does neorogenesis and gliogenesis NOT occur in tandem with?
    • A. 

      Migration

    • B. 

      Maturation

    • C. 

      Synaptogenesis

    • D. 

      Replication

    • E. 

      Differentiation

  • 52. 
    Which one of the three lethal injection cocktails if by itself, doesn’t cause any hard, but if injected at a high dose, induces a cardiac arrest?
    • A. 

      Pancuronium

    • B. 

      Potassium chloride

    • C. 

      Thiopental

    • D. 

      Diazepam

    • E. 

      Zolipidem

  • 53. 
    In Sperry’s frog experiment, when a frog’s eyeball is rotated (viewing the world upside down) and then the optic nerve is severed and forms new optic nerves, what happens?
    • A. 

      When the nerves regrow, the optic nerves readjust the eyeball back to normal (upright) vision, enabling the frog to see the world upright again

    • B. 

      When the nerves regrow, the brain automatically readjusts the eyeball back to normal (upright) vision, enabling the frog to see the world upright again

    • C. 

      When the nerves regrow, the optic nerves do not correct the frog’s vision, thus the frog gets his vision back but still views the world upside down

    • D. 

      When the nerves regrow, the brain cannot correct the frog’s vision, thus the frog gets his vision back but still views the world upside down

    • E. 

      Because the newly formed optic nerves are not the original optic nerves, they are weaker and thus, the frog is able to view the world upright but its vision is poor compared to before

  • 54. 
    Which one of the three lethal injection cocktails is used in some surgical procedures in order to reduce the patient’s movement?
  • 55. 
    Roger Sperry’s hypothesis that neurons use specific chemical signals to guide their wiring during development is based on the experiments with which animal’s optic nerves?
  • 56. 
    What does a shark mainly use to locate food, for example, a founder?
    • A. 

      Echolocation

    • B. 

      Magnetoreception

    • C. 

      Electroreception

    • D. 

      Infrared/thermal vision

    • E. 

      Fish’s odor

  • 57. 
    The use of very high frequency sound detection, as used by bats, moths, dolphins, and killer whales, is called?