Las

87 Questions

Settings
Please wait...
Las Vegas Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A second sysle that we can observe in Latin America politics is: 
    • A. 

      A) Populism and anti-populism

    • B. 

      B) Dictatorship and minority rule

    • C. 

      C) Corporateism and Democracy

    • D. 

      D) Populism and Dictatorship

  • 2. 
    How did many of the colonizers justify the treatment that the indigenious population recieved during the colonial period? 
    • A. 

      A) They argued that the indigenious people were esstentially good and valuablehuman beings and , thus, deserved special treatment

    • B. 

      B) They argued that, since there were so many indigenious people, some of them had to be killed in order to make room for many Europeans

    • C. 

      C) They argued that, since they were not Christians, they had to be trested very well in order ro convince them to become Christians and part of the Spanish or Portuguese empire

    • D. 

      D) They argue that indigenious people did not have a soul and therefor, they were inferior to the Europeans

  • 3. 
    A cabildo or cabildo abierto is: 
    • A. 

      A) A strike by workers against the landowners

    • B. 

      B) The amount of money that the peasants had to pay to the landowners.

    • C. 

      C) an open town hall meeting

    • D. 

      D)open air prison where landlord put all thpspe who protested

  • 4. 
    Which of the following was not in effect during the colonial period? 
    • A. 

      Ridgid socities

    • B. 

      A pyramid shaped social structure

    • C. 

      Racism

    • D. 

      No trade with Europe

  • 5. 
    When Spanish landowners took possession of their land what else did they take possesssion of? 
    • A. 

      The indigenious people that aleady lived on that land

    • B. 

      The political and economic institutions that existed on that region

    • C. 

      All of the income that had previously belonged to the local church

    • D. 

      All of these above

  • 6. 
    Accoring to the lectures, one of the two cycles that we can observe in Latin America politics is that between 
    • A. 

      Development and underdevelopement

    • B. 

      Democracy and authoritarianism

    • C. 

      Feminism and anti-feminism

    • D. 

      Peace and tribal warfare

  • 7. 
    What was the anture of the econmony during the export-import phase? 
    • A. 

      Multi-cropping

    • B. 

      Semi-feudal

    • C. 

      Efficient hacienda system

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 8. 
    Which of the following were consequences of the end of the Spanish rule in LA?  I. Economic decline II. Power vacuum III.The economy begins to grow significanlty IV. Democracy is finally established
    • A. 

      I AND II

    • B. 

      II AND III

    • C. 

      III AND IV

    • D. 

      NONE OF THE ABOVE

  • 9. 
    Intendencias were used to  
    • A. 

      Strenghten the power of local elites

    • B. 

      Democratic local decison-making by including peasants and workers

    • C. 

      Strenghten the power of the Habsburg

    • D. 

      Subordinate local elites

  • 10. 
    The height of oligarchic rule in Latin America occurs between 
    • A. 

      1700-1800 during the colonial period

    • B. 

      1980- now the post transion period

    • C. 

      1930-1950 The populist period

    • D. 

      1890-1930 before the great depression

  • 11. 
     What consequesnce did the introduction of the plantation system have in L. A.? I. Displacement of small farmers. II. Economy turns into a monocrop economy. III. Rual population is no longer self-sufficient in terms of their consumption needs IV. It fueled the demand for slave labor for Africa V. Standard of living of the rural popluation improves because they become tied to the world market.
    • A. 

      I AND II

    • B. 

      II AND IV

    • C. 

      I, II, III, AND IV

    • D. 

      II, IV AND V

  • 12. 
    What was one of the characteristics of post Independence LA?
    • A. 

      Gov't cahracterized by strong horizontal check snad balances

    • B. 

      A boom in the expansion of crops

    • C. 

      A highly centralized poltical system

    • D. 

      Power distributed equally among regional elites

  • 13. 
    The concept of negritude is
    • A. 

      Celebrates the postive features of blackness

    • B. 

      Was used to justify the national liberation movemetn in mexico

    • C. 

      To be racist against latins

    • D. 

      Non of the above

  • 14. 
    According to the textbook, how is the experiences of black soical activistism in LA different from thath of the US civil rights movement? 
    • A. 

      In LA black social activism has resulted in an end to racism

    • B. 

      Black social activism in LA emerged much ealier and with greated strenght than the civil rights movement in the US.

    • C. 

      While the US civil rights movement was broad-based, black consciousness groups in LA are composed primarly of professiosnals, intellectuals and upwardly mobile studetns

    • D. 

      None of these above

  • 15. 
    What policies did the Brazilian military gov't implement during the 1960s that affected the indigenious communities of the Amazon?
    • A. 

      It began a process of sstematic extermination of the indigenious population in the Amazon region

    • B. 

      It began to incorporte the indigeniuos people into modern society by providing them with schools, better health care facilities and loans to improve thier production methods.

    • C. 

      In order to build the infrastructure to develope Amazon region, it began to limit the amount of land that the indigenious population could not claim ownership of land in that area.

    • D. 

      Both A and B

  • 16. 
    Whay was the Catholic Church considered an esstial element in the conquest and colonization of native peoples by Spain and Portugal? 
    • A. 

      It provided the ideological justification for teh subjugation of the native peoples encountered by the coloizers, by claiming that the natives should be converted to the Catholic faith.

    • B. 

      It contributed a great deal of money to both the Spainsh and Portugueses crowns

    • C. 

      Both A and B

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 17. 
    How did Liberation Theology view the issue of poverty? 
    • A. 

      It viewed it as a regrettable but unaviodable component of human scoiety

    • B. 

      It viewed povery as something that must be endured on earth but will be rewarded in heaven.

    • C. 

      It viewed poevery as a social sin

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 18. 
    What were the implications of Liberation Theology''s  view of povery? 
    • A. 

      It required the Catholic Church to abstain from participating in politics

    • B. 

      It required the Catholic Church to take more active role in pressing for social justice and confronting the political system

    • C. 

      It required the Catholic Church to denounce communism and socialism.

    • D. 

      It encouraged the Catholic Church to defend the status quo

  • 19. 
    Which of the following is not true about Liberation Theology? 
    • A. 

      It resulted in the explusion of the jesuits from the Spainsh colonies during the colonial period

    • B. 

      Its spread was aided by the influx of foreign missionaries into LA.

    • C. 

      It argued for land distribution for the poor

    • D. 

      It emerged in LA in the 1960s

  • 20. 
    What were some of the intial consequences of polulism in LA? I. It increased the power of the state II. It increased the political mobilization III. It increased popular consumption IV. It weakend the power and autonomy of the state.
    • A. 

      I AND II

    • B. 

      I, II, AND III

    • C. 

      II AND IV

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 21. 
     Neoliberalism entails adopting an:
    • A. 

      "import-substituting industrialization" strategy

    • B. 

      "inward-oriented"growth strategy

    • C. 

      Authoritarian dictatorship form of gov't

    • D. 

      Export-orientated" growth strategy

  • 22. 
    One of the main assumptions of Neoliberalism is that 
    • A. 

      An activist or interventionist state is crucial for the development of an economy

    • B. 

      Authoritarian gov'ts are better suited to achieve devlopment than democracies

    • C. 

      Economic growth can best be achieved by the free market rather than by an activist state

    • D. 

      Domestic industry should drive teh economy, regardless of the initial costs of developing it.

  • 23. 
    1. Among the political consequences of Neoliberalism in Latin America is that:
    • A. 

      A. policy-making became highly restricted

    • B. 

      B. policy-making became very inclusive

    • C. 

      C. it led to the rise of populism and domestic industrialization

    • D. 

      D. it established the Bureaucratic-Authoritarian regimes and led to the collapse of democracy

  • 24. 
    1. Which of the following factors allowed the military to become a strong actor in Latin American politics?
      I.    it is one of the best organized groups II.    it became increasingly professionalized III.   the “national security” doctrine IV.  the transition to democracy V.   increased funding from the Soviet Union  
    • A. 

      I AND IV

    • B. 

      I, II AND IV

    • C. 

      I,II AND III

    • D. 

      III AND V

  • 25. 
    1. Delegative democracies view institutions of horizontal accountability (such as Congress) as:
    • A. 

      A. a useful tool for strengthening democracy

    • B. 

      B. a “nuisance” that can put a brake on austere economic reforms

    • C. 

      C. an imposition from foreign powers such as the United States

    • D. 

      D. something that must be strengthened in order to assure stronger horizontal accountability and checks and balances

  • 26. 
    1. During the colonial period, the Catholic Church:
    • A. 

      A. adopted the doctrine of Liberation Theology

    • B. 

      B. was a highly democratic institution

    • C. 

      C. was an agent of change, demanding greater rights for workers and peasants

    • D. 

      D. was one of the pillars of the Spanish empire

  • 27. 
    1. Liberation Theology redefined poverty as
    • A. 

      A. acceptable, because it would be rewarded in heaven where people would be “liberated” from poverty

    • B. 

      B. a social sin

    • C. 

      C. a political and economic problem that had nothing to do with the Catholic Church

    • D. 

      D. an economic phenomenon that occurred naturally in all societies, thus did not require any action by the Catholic Church or society

  • 28. 
     
    1. The “preferential option for the poor” implied that
    • A. 

      A. the poor should be given preference in government positions

    • B. 

      B. the Catholic Church should charge the poor much less for services such as baptisms, marriages and burials, given that traditionally only the elites had been able to afford these

    • C. 

      C. it is the duty of the Catholic Church to look after the material as well as the spiritual needs of the people and thus it should be more active in bringing about change

    • D. 

      D. the Catholic Church should actively redistribute income by forcing the elites to pay more money to church and then distributing this money to the poor

  • 29. 
    1. In a transition through extrication model of transition to democracy,
    • A. 

      A. the military decides when it is time for it to leave the government, since the decision to take power was done on the assumption that it would only be for a short period

    • B. 

      B. the authoritarian regime is weakened, but remains strong enough to dictate important terms of the transition

    • C. 

      C. the military decides to leave the government because the cost of remaining in power becomes too high

    • D. 

      D. civil society expels the military government by revolting against the authoritarian government, leaving the military severely weakened with little chance of influencing post-transition governments

  • 30. 
    1. One of the biggest tensions or problems within Bureaucratic-Authoritarian regimes was
      A.   The problem of succession B.   The problem of praetorianism C.  The issue of how to provide for all the poor                D.  How to accommodate political party leaders within an authoritarian military regime  
    • A. 

      I ANDII

    • B. 

      I AND III

    • C. 

      I, II AND III

    • D. 

      I, II, III AND IV

  • 31. 
     
    1. One of the biggest tensions or problems within Bureaucratic-Authoritarian regimes was
    • A. 

      A. The problem of succession

    • B. 

      B. The problem of praetorianism

    • C. 

      C. The issue of how to provide for all the poor

    • D. 

      D. How to accommodate political party leaders within an authoritarian military regime

  • 32. 
    1. The Chicago Boys were
    • A. 

      A. A group of economists trained in Chicago who believe in Dependency theory

    • B. 

      B. A group of American economists who went to Bolivian in the mid-1980s to carry out the water privatization process

    • C. 

      C. Chilean economists trained in Chicago who advised the Chilean military dictatorship to adopt free-market economic policies in the 1970s

    • D. 

      D. A group of American economists from the University of Chicago who strongly opposed the Washington Consensus

  • 33. 
    1. One of the consequences of populism in Latin America was
    • A. 

      A. A weakening of the power of traditional elites

    • B. 

      B. A weakening of the power of the state

    • C. 

      C. The decentralization of power

    • D. 

      D. The establishment of the “export-import” economic model in Latin America

  • 34. 
    1. One of the main problems with the export-import model in Latin America was that
    • A. 

      A. By exporting raw materials and importing manufactured goods, it resulted in increasingly unequal terms of trade between Latin America and Europe

    • B. 

      B. By encouraging domestic production of goods it discouraged trade with the more developed countries

    • C. 

      C. It required extremely large investments in the domestic sector which eventually resulted in the bankruptcy of many Latin American companies

    • D. 

      D. Although it increased the number of manufacturing jobs in the urban sector, it increased the unemployment rates in the agricultural and mining sectors

  • 35. 
    1. Which of the following are some of the new roles that the military has assumed after the transition to democracy in Latin America?
      I.    A more active role in the drug war II.    A more active role in repressing opponents of military rule III.   Building infrastructure IV.  Participating in international peacekeeping operations  
    • A. 

      I AND II

    • B. 

      II

    • C. 

      I, II, AND III

    • D. 

      I, III AND IV

  • 36. 
     
    1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of presidentialism in Latin America?
    • A. 

      A. It was established to centralize power

    • B. 

      B. The executive branch often dominates other branches of government

    • C. 

      C. It provides for an equal division of powers among branches of government

    • D. 

      D. It has few checks and balances

  • 37. 
    1. What did the Washington Consensus prescribe?
    • A. 

      A. For governments to add bureaucratic “red tape”

    • B. 

      B. For governments to favor the public sectors over the private sectors

    • C. 

      C. An increase in public or fiscal expenditures

    • D. 

      D. For governments to promote economic growth by means of a free market

  • 38. 
    1. Delegative Democracy is a hybrid of which systems?
    • A. 

      A. Socialist-democratic

    • B. 

      B. Authoritarian-republican

    • C. 

      C. Democratic-authoritarian

    • D. 

      D. None of the above

  • 39. 
    1. The idea that, by exporting raw materials, Latin American countries become reliant on a larger power for economic support and expensive foreign imports is reflected in
    • A. 

      A. Dependency Theory

    • B. 

      B. The “export-import” strategy

    • C. 

      C. The theory of independent states

    • D. 

      D. The theory of comparative advantage

  • 40. 
    1. A characteristic of post-transition Delegative Democracy model is:
    • A. 

      A. It has democratic and authoritarian aspects

    • B. 

      B. It is democratic but also totalitarian

    • C. 

      C. It is oligarchic and highly repressive

    • D. 

      D. It is democratic and redistributionist

  • 41. 
    1. Which of the following is not a political consequence of the post transition Delegative Democracy model?
    • A. 

      A. The president “embodies” the nation

    • B. 

      B. Government institutions are seen as a “nuisance”

    • C. 

      C. The military becomes more powerful than the president

    • D. 

      D. Policy making becomes fast paced and exclusionary

  • 42. 
    1. Which of the following was not a Washington Consensus recommendation?
    • A. 

      A. Financial liberalization

    • B. 

      B. Increase in public expenditures

    • C. 

      C. Tax reform

    • D. 

      D. Deregulation

  • 43. 
    1. Neoliberalism
    • A. 

      A. Was a reaction against the interventionist role of the state

    • B. 

      B. Involved the opening of the economy to foreign trade

    • C. 

      C. Required reducing wages in order to attract foreign investment

    • D. 

      D. All of the above

  • 44. 
    1. Which of the following was not a Washington Consensus recommendation?
    • A. 

      A. Fiscal discipline

    • B. 

      B. Tax reform

    • C. 

      C. Privatization

    • D. 

      D. Wealth redistribution

  • 45. 
    1. Delegative Democracy is
    • A. 

      A. A political model defined as a representative democracy with checks and balances

    • B. 

      B. A bureaucratic-authoritarian regime

    • C. 

      C. A political model which implements populist reforms

    • D. 

      E. None of the above

  • 46. 
     
    1. Which of the following reasons was used by the military to justify their intervention in the political arena?
    • A. 

      A. Unequal distribution of wealth (1% of the population controlled 45% of the wealth)

    • B. 

      B. The need to improve the living conditions of the poor

    • C. 

      C. A redefinition of poverty as a “social sin”

    • D. 

      D. Social and political impasse that created instability

  • 47. 
    1. Which of the following is considered the beginning of modern Mexican history?
    • A. 

      A. the election of the current president

    • B. 

      B. the end of Spanish colonial rule in Mexico

    • C. 

      C. the implementation of free-market reforms in Mexico in 1988

    • D. 

      D. the beginning of the Mexican Revolution in 1910

  • 48. 
     
    1. Which of the following groups composed  the coalition that fought against the elite in the Mexican Revolution?
      I.    Labor                                       III.         The middle class II.    Peasants                                 IV.        The military followers of Porfirio Diaz  
    • A. 

      I AN II

    • B. 

      I, II AND III

    • C. 

      I, II AND IV

    • D. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • 49. 
    1. Which of the following supported the ruling oligarchy during the Mexican Revolution?
    • A. 

      A. the Russian Bolsheviks

    • B. 

      B. Fidel Castro

    • C. 

      C. the middle class

    • D. 

      D. the Catholic Church

  • 50. 
      1.      Among other things, the Mexican Revolution is significant because:
    • A. 

      A. it was the first socialist revolution in Latin America

    • B. 

      B. it was the first truly populist movement in Latin America

    • C. 

      C. it was the first to establish a democratic regime in Latin America

    • D. 

      D. it was the first time a foreign ideology was applied to justify a Latin American revolution

  • 51. 
    1. Among the first acts of the government after the Mexican Revolution is:
    • A. 

      A. the normalization of diplomatic relations with Cuba

    • B. 

      B. the expropriation of all private property in Mexico

    • C. 

      C. the establishment of free-market economic policies with no government intervention

    • D. 

      D. the nationalization of foreign oil companies

  • 52. 
     
    1. How does the role of the Mexican state change after the revolution?
    • A. 

      A. the state becomes a minor actor in the economy, privileging free-market policies

    • B. 

      B. the state is seen as an active agent for achieving social justice

    • C. 

      C. the state becomes the owner of all the means of production in Mexico

    • D. 

      D. None of the above

  • 53. 
    1. Which of the following development strategies was implemented in Mexico beginning in the 1980s?
    • A. 

      A. Neoliberalism

    • B. 

      B. Inward-oriented growth

    • C. 

      C. Import-Substituting Industrialization

    • D. 

      D. Socialism

  • 54. 
    1.  What consequences did liberalization have on the Mexican economy?
    • A. 

      A. Export orientation affected the local economy

    • B. 

      B. Liberalization fixed the economy and led to less poverty and inequality

    • C. 

      C. The agrarian reform was made more efficient

    • D. 

      D. Liberalization did not affect the local economy

  • 55. 
    1. Which of the following was not a characteristic of the globalization process that took place in Mexico?
    • A. 

      A. feminization of the workforce

    • B. 

      B. capital mobility not accompanied by labor mobility

    • C. 

      C. patterns of trade moving towards more knowledge-intensive activities

    • D. 

      D. highly fragmented party system

  • 56. 
     
    1.  Which of the following areas in Mexico has a large number of industries, including maquiladoras?
    • A. 

      A. The North

    • B. 

      B. The South

    • C. 

      C. The area around Havana

    • D. 

      D. Chiapas

  • 57. 
    1.  According to the video we watched in class (“A Tale of Two Mexicos”) the maquiladoras were established to reduce
    • A. 

      A. Urban unemployment

    • B. 

      B. The income of the elite

    • C. 

      C. Rural unemployment

    • D. 

      D. Female employment

  • 58. 
    1. What were the effects of globalization on Mexico?
    • A. 

      A. All parts of the production process are now produced in Mexico

    • B. 

      B. There is an extreme reliance on local industries rather than on the global market

    • C. 

      C. As Mexico has been incorporated into the global market unemployment and income inequality have decreased dramatically

    • D. 

      D. The commercialization of agriculture, displacing small subsistence farmers

  • 59. 
    1. Brazil’s political party system can be characterized as one with
    • A. 

      A. Strong, disciplined and ideologically committed parties

    • B. 

      B. Weak and fluid political parties with little discipline

    • C. 

      C. One single hegemonic political party

    • D. 

      D. None of the above

  • 60. 
    1. Which of the following has Brazil experienced?
      I.    Military authoritarian government II.    Populism and corporatism III.   Monarchical government (Empire) IV. Communist government V.   Federalism  
    • A. 

      I, II AND III

    • B. 

      I, II, III, AND IV

    • C. 

      I, II, III, AND V

    • D. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • 61. 
    1. Which economic strategy was implemented during Brazil’s Estado Novo (1930-45)?
    • A. 

      A. Neoliberalism

    • B. 

      B. Import-Substituting Industrialization

    • C. 

      C. Socialism

    • D. 

      D. Export-import model

  • 62. 
     
    1. What characteristics of the 1945-64 period led many to consider Brazil “ungovernable” during this period?
      I.    the conflict between the populist and corporatist logic II.    increased dependency on foreign investment which exacerbated social conflict III.   the inability of any of the conflicting groups to effectively deal with the political and economic crisis through democratic means IV. Direct foreign intervention by the United States who heavily funded opposition guerrilla groups in Brazil  
    • A. 

      II AND IV

    • B. 

      I, II AND III

    • C. 

      II, II AND IV

    • D. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • 63. 
     
    1. Which of the following is true of Brazil?
      I.    It has a very high rate of income inequality                                         II.    Land ownership is highly concentrated III.   It has one of the largest economies in the world (among the top 10)                        IV.  It is has a relatively homogenous population V.   Income inequality has declined somewhat in the last 10 years  
    • A. 

      I AND II

    • B. 

      I, II AND IV

    • C. 

      I, II, III AND V

    • D. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • 64. 
    1.  Why is the party system in Brazil considered a “weak” party system?
    • A. 

      A. Very few parties exist

    • B. 

      B. Political parties have no influence in Brazil

    • C. 

      C. Regional interests dominate parties, leading to weak party discipline

    • D. 

      D. The party system is designed to be weak and centralized

  • 65. 
     
    1. The main economic system imposed by the Spanish empire on Cuba was
    • A. 

      A. Import-substituting industrialization

    • B. 

      B. the plantation system

    • C. 

      C. mining and metal extraction

    • D. 

      D. Neoliberalism

  • 66. 
    1. In pre-Independence Cuba, the need for workers was met by
    • A. 

      A. enslaving the large native population

    • B. 

      B. importing indigenous people from Mexico

    • C. 

      C. increasing wages in order to encourage migration from Spain

    • D. 

      D. importing slaves from Africa

  • 67. 
    1. Which of the following characterized the Cuban rural population before the revolution:
    • A. 

      A. they became rural workers rather than farmers

    • B. 

      B. they were rural farmers rather than workers

    • C. 

      C. they were better off than their urban counterparts

    • D. 

      D. B and C

  • 68. 
     
    1. In Cuba, before the revolution:
    • A. 

      A. rural workers were completely at odds with urban workers

    • B. 

      B. rural workers strongly supported the Batista government

    • C. 

      C. urban workers supported Batista but rural workers did not

    • D. 

      D. rural workers developed close ties with urban workers

  • 69. 
    1. One of the first measures that Castro took after gaining power was:
    • A. 

      A. Land distribution which benefitted thousands of rural workers

    • B. 

      B. Drastic decrease in fiscal expenditures

    • C. 

      C. Land distribution which benefitted Batista supporters who had been abandoned by Batista

    • D. 

      D. The privatization of the health care system in order to make it more efficient

  • 70. 
     
    1. The Castro regime’s ideology in the initial periods of the Cuban Revolution has been characterized as:
    • A. 

      A. socialist

    • B. 

      B. humanist

    • C. 

      C. Communist

    • D. 

      D. Marxist-Leninist

  • 71. 
     
    1. Initially, the revolutionary regime’s reforms in Cuba resulted in:
      I.    A drastic reduction in rural unemployment II.    Increase in rural wages III.   Decrease in rural wages due to lack of employment opportunities IV.  Widespread rural unemployment, but decrease in urban unemployment  
    • A. 

      I AND II

    • B. 

      III AND IV

    • C. 

      II AND III

    • D. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • 72. 
     
    1. The first stage of the revolutionary government after it obtained power can be characterized as
    • A. 

      A. Being very market-oriented and focused on increasing foreign investment on the island’s sugar industry

    • B. 

      B. Being very idealistic, emphasizing “moral incentives” rather than economic incentives

    • C. 

      C. one with very close ties with the United States

    • D. 

      D. A and C

  • 73. 
    1. The Bay of Pigs invasion was
    • A. 

      A. the battle that enabled Castro and his followers to oust Batista from power

    • B. 

      B. a failed attempt by Cuban expatriates to remove Fidel Castro from power

    • C. 

      C. an attempt by the Soviet Union to remove Batista from power and install Castro as president of Cuba

    • D. 

      D. successful in that it achieved its objective

  • 74. 
    1. During the 1970s and 1980s, Cuba
    • A. 

      A. replaced dependency on the United States with dependency on the Soviet UnionV

    • B. 

      B. replaced dependency on the Soviet Union with dependency on the United States

    • C. 

      C. suffered a large increase in poverty, illiteracy and child mortality rates

    • D. 

      D. became the most industrialized nation in Latin America

  • 75. 
    1. During the 1960s and early 1970s, the Castro regime
    • A. 

      A. supported left-wing guerrilla groups in other Latin American countries and Africa

    • B. 

      B. provided training in Cuba to some Latin American revolutionaries

    • C. 

      C. sent troops and advisers to various countries in Latin America and Africa to aid in revolutionary movements

    • D. 

      D. All of the above

  • 76. 
    1. Among the characteristics of the current regime in Cuba is/are:
      I.    Highly restricted freedom of speech II.    Unlimited freedom of speech III.   A limited market liberalization policy IV.        Very tightly controlled elections where only approved candidates  
    • A. 

      I

    • B. 

      II AND III

    • C. 

      II, III AND IV

    • D. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • 77. 
      1. Among the structural causes of the Salvadoran revolution was/were
    1.   I.    the large influx of Cubans who spread the ideas of the Cuban revolution across El Salvador and brought with them large donations of cash and weapons from the Soviet Union and Mexico II.    the commercialization of agriculture, which eventually led to small farmers losing their lands and becoming landless III.   the extreme levels of land and income inequality IV.  the exclusionary political system controlled by a very small elite supported by the Salvadoran military  
    • A. 

      I

    • B. 

      III AND IV

    • C. 

      II, III, AND IV

    • D. 

      ALL OF THE ABOVE

  • 78. 
    1. The Salvadoran conflict was
    • A. 

      A. resolved with a peace agreement in 1992 and democratic elections have been held regularly since then

    • B. 

      B. never resolved and the guerilla is still fighting against the Salvadoran army

    • C. 

      C. resolved with a peace agreement in 1992, but shortly after the military took power and has not allowed democratic elections to be held since then

    • D. 

      D. significantly different than those in the rest of Latin America because the United States funded the guerrilla and not the military

  • 79. 
    1. The FSLN (Sandinista National Liberation Front), the guerrilla group that led the Nicaraguan revolution, believed that
    • A. 

      A. the revolution should impose the Soviet economic and political model based on the Soviet Union’s experience on Nicaragua

    • B. 

      B. the revolution should impose on Nicaragua the Chinese economic and political modelV

    • C. 

      C. the revolution should impose a capitalist model based on the US experience on Nicaragua

    • D. 

      D. the revolution should take into account the reality of Nicaragua and the Nicaraguan people

  • 80. 
    1. Which group was funded by the United States to counter the Sandinistas in Nicaragua?
    • A. 

      A. The “Contras”

    • B. 

      B. The Shining Path

    • C. 

      C. The FMLN

    • D. 

      D. The PRI

  • 81. 
    1. The Nicaraguan conflict ended when
    • A. 

      A. the Nicaraguan military managed to defeat the guerrillas and arrest Daniel Ortega, the leader of the Sandinistas

    • B. 

      B. the United States and the United Nations managed to broker an accord whereby the Nicaraguan military and the Sandinistas would share power by alternating control of the legislature and the presidency

    • C. 

      C. the Sandinistas defeated Somoza’s army, forcing him to flee the country, and established a provisional revolutionary government

    • D. 

      D. El Salvador invaded Nicaragua

  • 82. 
     
    1. When Guatemalan president Jacobo Arbenz implemented a series of reforms, such as land reform, to reduce poverty in the rural areas,
    • A. 

      A. the United States decided to help and provided millions of dollars in aid to alleviate poverty and inequality

    • B. 

      B. the Guatemalan oligarchy, backed by the United States, ousted Arbenz from power through a military coup

    • C. 

      C. Fidel Castro sent a a large contingent of revolutionary fighters, including Che Guevara, to try to remove Arbenz from power

    • D. 

      D. the urban poor revolted and removed him from power

  • 83. 
    1. One of the factors that contributed to the formation of the revolutionary movement, led by the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), in Colombia was
    • A. 

      A. the nature of national politics, where two political parties monopolized political power and prevented others from having a legal means to challenge their power and policies

    • B. 

      B. a backlash against the Socialist nature of the economy

    • C. 

      C. the success of the Mexican revolution in the 1970s, which provided a viable alternative to the Cuban revolution

    • D. 

      D. the fact that it was able to ally itself with paramilitary groups, who were also being excluded from power by the elite

  • 84. 
    1. The conflict in Colombia between the FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) and the government
    • A. 

      A. was resolved in 1990 by a peace agreement brokered by the United Nations and the United States

    • B. 

      B. ended when the FARC defeated the Colombian government and established a provisional revolutionary government which is still in effect today

    • C. 

      C. is still ongoing

    • D. 

      D. was resolved when the Colombian military managed to defeat the FARC and arrest all of its members

  • 85. 
    1. The Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) revolutionary movement in Peru
    • A. 

      A. was successful because it was able to elicit widespread support from all sectors of Peruvian society: urban poor, middle class, rural poor and working class.

    • B. 

      B. was never able to elicit widespread popular support due to its violent and repressive methods towards anyone who disagreed with their philosophB. was never able to elicit widespread popular support due to its violent and repressive methods towards anyone who disagreed with their philosophyy

    • C. 

      C. failed because they followed Ghandi’s boycott of salt and could not get enough people to give up a delicious spice

    • D. 

      D. they never advertised in any towns other than Lima, the capital city

  • 86. 
     
    1. The MST movement in Brazil emerged as a result of
    • A. 

      A. fraudulent elections that prevented their candidate from assuming the presidency even though he had won with 60% of the vote

    • B. 

      B. repression by the Spanish crown which led to a violent revolt against it

    • C. 

      C. poverty caused by the implementation of ISI in the countryside

    • D. 

      D. extremely high degree of land concentration which leaves many rural dwellers without access to land

  • 87. 
    1. The MST movement in Brazil and other new social movements in Latin America try to achieve their aims through
    • A. 

      A. violent guerrilla warfare

    • B. 

      B. participating in elections and hoping that their candidate wins

    • C. 

      C. a combination of electoral tactics and popular mobilizations

    • D. 

      D. guerrilla warfare that only targets those in power, not the civilian population