Intra-cranial Abnormalities

36 Questions

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Medical Quizzes & Trivia

Ob quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    _____________ is a large excess of CSF contained in the cranium.
  • 2. 
    Check all that apply to the sonographic findings of hydrocephalus:
    • A. 

      Dangling choroid plexus

    • B. 

      Oligohydramnios

    • C. 

      Polyhydramnios

    • D. 

      Presence of excess fluid in lateral ventricles with an atrial measurement exceeding 10mm

    • E. 

      Cerebellar hemispheres are separated and flattened

  • 3. 
  • 4. 
  • 5. 
    Hydrocephalus may be caused by ________________ of CSF or impaired CSF ___________.
  • 6. 
    Other than stenosis occuring at the aqueduct of sylvius, stenosis may also occur at the ____ ventricle or at the foramen of _________.
  • 7. 
    Check all that apply to the key features of DWM:
    • A. 

      Enlargement of 4th ventricle

    • B. 

      Enlargement of lateral ventricles

    • C. 

      Partial or complete absence of cerebellar vermis

    • D. 

      Medial displacement of cerebellar hemispheres

    • E. 

      Lateral displacement of cerebellar hemispheres

  • 8. 
    This is a rare congenital brain malformation, causing abnormal development of the cerebellum and the fluid filled spaces surrounding it.
  • 9. 
    The cerebellar _______ is the area between the two cerebellar hemispheres.
  • 10. 
    The etiology of DWM is unknown, but it has been linked to which of the following: (more than one)
    • A. 

      Rubella

    • B. 

      CMV (cytomegalo virus)

    • C. 

      TORCH

    • D. 

      Diabetes

    • E. 

      Chromosomal anomalies

  • 11. 
    ______________  ___________  is the connecting tissue between the two cerebral hemispheres.
  • 12. 
    DWM is often associated with CNS anomalies, such as _______ or ________ of the corpus callosum, microcephaly, and encephalocele.
  • 13. 
    DWM often occurs in early _____, include ______ motor development and progressive ___________ of the skull.  In order children, they have symptoms of _________ (increased or decreased) intracranial pressure such as irratibility, vomiting, and convulsions.
  • 14. 
    Check those that apply to the sono findings of DWM:
    • A. 

      Large midline cystic structures in posterior fossa; enlarged 4th ventricle

    • B. 

      Enlarged of posterior fossa (enlarged cisterna magna > 10mm)

    • C. 

      Cerebellar hemispheres are separated and flattened

    • D. 

      Lateral ventricles may exhibit "tear drop" appearance

  • 15. 
    Treatment for DWM usually consists of a ________ to drain excess fluid, which will reduce ____________ pressure and help control ____________.
  • 16. 
    This malformation is a herniated cerebellum, known as ________  _______ _______  ____ malformation.
  • 17. 
    This is a midline structure located above the CSP, and is the anatomical connection between the cerebral hemispheres. This is known as ___________   _____________.
  • 18. 
    Corpus Callosum is a _______ band of _______ fibers that connect the right and left hemispheres of the brain.
  • 19. 
    Copus callosum allows ____________ between the two hemispheres and acts as a ________.
  • 20. 
    Development of corpus callosum is not complete before how many weeks? (#)
  • 21. 
    This is failure of the corpus callosum to develop:
  • 22. 
    Agenesis of the corpus callosum may occur as an isolated anomaly but 80% of cases are asssociated with which other 4 anomalies: (alphabetically)
  • 23. 
    Prognosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum varies depending on the _______ of associated conditions or syndromes.
  • 24. 
    Check all of the following that correspond with the sonographic appearance of agenesis of corpus callosum:
    • A. 

      Diagnosis is difficult

    • B. 

      CSP is absent

    • C. 

      3rd ventricle rides low

    • D. 

      Lateral ventricle rides high

    • E. 

      3rd ventricle rides high & may be visualized at level of lateral ventricles

    • F. 

      Lateral ventricles exhibit "tear drop" appearance

  • 25. 
    Sonographic appearance of arnold chiari:
    • A. 

      Obliterated cisterna magna

    • B. 

      Acrania

    • C. 

      Spina bifida

    • D. 

      Dilated 3rd and 4th ventricles

    • E. 

      Dilated 3rd and lateral ventricles

    • F. 

      Banana sign cerebellum

    • G. 

      Lemon shaped head

  • 26. 
    Check all that apply to arnold chiari:
    • A. 

      Accompanied by myelomeningocele

    • B. 

      Displaced structures block and disrupt flow of CSF resulting in ventriculomegaly

    • C. 

      Severity varies

    • D. 

      Cerebellum is pulled down through 4th ventricle into cervical spinal canal

    • E. 

      Downward displacement of posterior fossa structures into cervical neck canal

    • F. 

      Displacement of cerebellum into upper cervical column causes cerebellum to change shape

    • G. 

      Obliterated cisterna magna

    • H. 

      Complex disorder of hindbrain

    • I. 

      Structural defects of cerebellum; downward displacement of cerebellum through foramen magnum

  • 27. 
    Holoprosencephaly is associated with:
  • 28. 
    This is a birth defect that occurs during the 1st few weeks of intrauterine life and is a disorder in which the fetal brain does not divide as it should.  This is known as _________________.
  • 29. 
    Holoprosencephaly is an __________ cleavage of the embryonic forebrain and is the failure of the ____________ to cleave into the cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles.
  • 30. 
    Regarding Holoprosencephaly, midline facial abnormalities occur in about 80% of cases such as:
    • A. 

      Hypotelorism

    • B. 

      Clefts

    • C. 

      Cyclopia

    • D. 

      Probiscus

  • 31. 
  • 32. 
    This is the mildest form of holoprosencephaly, and is almost the complete separation of hemispheres, with the absence of the corpus callosum
  • 33. 
    This type of holoprosencephaly resembles alobar and is associated with celft lip/palate:
  • 34. 
    _________ holoprosencephaly is the most severe form of holoprosencephaly, lacking 2 hemispheres that are fused, a single ________, and an absent _________, with no midline brain structures. It is associated with ____________ or __________.
  • 35. 
    Sono Appearance of Holoprosencephaly
    • A. 

      Hydrocephalus

    • B. 

      Facial anomalies

    • C. 

      Presence of single midline ventricle

    • D. 

      Fetal cranium appears to have large midline cystic space

  • 36. 
    Severe forms of holoprosencephaly are ________ and the mild to moderate forms may lead to ________  ___________.