The _______ ______ destroyed 1/3 to ½ of Europe’s population
within less than a century. It originated in ____ and was spread by the ______ tribes. The plague was carried into Europe by black ____ w/ ____ infesting
commercial ships. Buboes grew on the groin or armpits and filled with pus,
turning the body black, hence the name, “the _____ _____”. It then gave people
a _____ which made them die. The medical profession of the day was helpless.
The plague hit hardest in _____. ____ waves of the plague spread throughout
Europe. The plague also caused ________ problems because everyone died so there
were few left to do ____. This led to many violent working-class revolts.
French peasants (known as _______) staged an angry protest (the _______) that
took the lives of 100s of noblemen before it was oppressed by the French king.
In England, the ______’s _____ of 1381, led by ___ ____ and described in the
“Chronicles” of the French historian Jean Froissart. Despite their failure,
these revolts lent an instability to class relationships that hastened the
demise of the old _____ order.
Rise of constitutional
The _____ classes had taken a major step toward demanding
equality with the rest of society. The barons of the realm had forced King ____ of England to sign the landmark document called the _____ ____, which forbade
the king to levy additional feudal _____ without the consent of his royal
council. The _____ _____, which was also interpreted as guaranteeing such other
freedoms as trial by ____, is regarded as a constitutional landmark b/c it
asserted the primacy of ___ over the will of the ruler—a principle that paved
the way for the development of constitutional _______. 50 years after the
signing of the _____ _____, the English nobility, demanding equal authority in
ruling England, imprisoned King _____ III and invited _____-_____ representatives to participate in the actions of the Great Council
(________). Peasants and laborers still had no real political influence.
The Hundred Years’
The _______ _____ ___ was fought entirely on ______ soil.
The Hundred Years’ War was the result of a longstanding ______ claim to
continental lands: From the time of the Norman Conquest, the kings of England
had held land in France, a situation that caused chroni resentment among the
French. But the immediate cause of the war was the English claim to the French
______, occasioned by the death of _______ __, the last of the male heirs in a
long line of French kings that had begun with Hugh Capet in 987 CE. In many
battles, the ______ outnumbered the ______, but the ______ won most of the
battles despite this. The English “secret” weapons were the ____ soldier, the
_______, and ________ (________ was first used in Western combat during the
_______ _____’ ___). The ______ had thin arrows that could go through
chainmail. The ______ army was under the leadership of ____ __ ___. English
finally withdrew from France because of the financial burdens of the French
lands. ____ __ ___ was 17, she was a girl, and a ______, and she basically
begged the French king to allow her to obey the voices of the Christian _____ who had directed her to expel the English. She led the French into battle on a
_____ horse. Her success forced the ______ to withdraw from Orleans but initiated
her martyrdom. She was burned at the stake b/c she was condemned as a ______.
The Hundred Years’ War made _______ basically go down the drain. The “rules”
of medieval chivalry were outmoded by the technology of ________.
Decline of the Catholic
The two events that proved most damaging to the prestige of
the Catholic Church were the _______ ______ and the _____ ______. The term
“______ ______” describes the relocation of the papacy from ____ to the city
of _______ in southern France in response to political pressure from the French
king Philip IV. Attempting to compete w/ the rulers of Europe, the Avignon
popes made a powerful court using ______ means to accomplish their purpose.
The need for church revenue led some of the popes to sell Church office (a
practice known as ______), to levy additional _____ upon clergymen, and to
elect members of their own families to office, and to step up the sale of
__________ (pardons from temporal penalties for sins committed by lay
Christians.) Christians bought these to speed their progress to ______ or
benefit their friends/family in purgatory. The _______ popes basically damaged
the _______ of the church by doing this kind of stuff. Later on, a rift
between ______ and _____ factions of the ______ of ______ caused the election of 2 different ____. This schism produced 2
conflicting claims to universal sovereignty and violent controversy w/in the
Church. As each pope __________ the other, laypeople questioned whether any
Christian soul might enter heaven. The _____ ______ was worse for the Church
than the _______ ______.
________ _______ was one of the greatest masters of 14th
century _______ literature. Writing in ______ ______ , the everyday
language, _______ shaped the development of English literature. He wrote the
“_______ _____,” modeled broadly on Boccaccio’s “Decameron”. In the
“_________ _____,” _______ tells of a pilgrimage where the people tell stories
to entertain eachother while traveling to the shrine of _____ ______ __ ______ in ________. In this, they tell 20 stories. _______ brought his characters to
live by means of memorable details.
features (What was their thinking?):
Renaissance= “_____”. It was a revival of ______ and also
inquiry. It was the turning point between medieval and modern times. Between
1300 and 1600 a revival of the culture of Greco-Roman civilization spread from
its birthplace in Italy to all parts of Western Europe. But the Age of the
Renaissance marks other kinds of rebirth and renewal as well. A vigorous spirit
of _____ led to greater accuracy in geography and to the invention of new
technologies for travel and record keeping. In such vibrant cities as Florence,
Italy, an ambitious sense of self motivated the worldy pursuits of money, fame,
The Age of the Renaissance opened with a century of European
___fare and devastating ______. The 15th and 16th
centuries, however, saw the growth of European nation-states, the rise of a
______ _____, the advancement of classically based ________, and the revival
of classically inspired ___ and architecture. Robust __________ and an
______ view of the human potential for knowledge and pleasure here on earth
cultivated a spirit of ________ that left the world many of its most
________ _______ refers to the revival of
Greco Roman culture. _______ culture was preserved by Christian and Muslim
scholars after the fall of Rome. Renaissance ________ advocated the recovery
and uncensored study of the entire body of Greek and Latin manuscripts and the
self-conscious imitation of classical art and architecture. Renaissance
________ discovered in the Greek and Latin classics a rational guide to the
fulfillment of the human potential. Unattached to any single school or
university, the ________ of the Renaissance pursued what the ancient Romans
had called “studia humanitatis,” a program of study that embraced grammar,
rhetoric, history, poetry, and moral philosophy. Most Renaissance humanists
were ______. To the ________, life on earth was not a vale of tears, but,
rather, an extended occasion during which human beings might cultivate their
unique _____ and abilities. _________ _________ saw no conflict between
________ and ________ belief.
The most famous of the early Florentine
humanists was the poet and scholar Francesco _______. Often called the “_____ of _______,” ______ devoted his life to the recovery, copying, and editing
of ____ manuscripts. He made his own private ______ of more than 200 volumes.
He wrote hundreds of letters describing his admiration for antiquity and his
enthusiasm for the ______. ______ had affection for Cicero’s writings and
Saint _______’s writings. ________ loved ________’s “________.” ________ was torn between the Judeo-Christian will to ______ and the classical will to
______. Such self-torment—evident in ________’s poems, over 300 examples which
make up the “________” (“Songbook”). In Rome he received an award for
outstanding literary achievement. The objet of _______’s affection and the
inspiration for the “________” was a married Florentine woman named _____ de
Sade. To _____, ______ dedicated 100s of love lyrics, many written after she
died of the bubonic ______. He wrote in vernacular ______ and his favorite poetic form was the ______, a 14 line lyric poem. 1.
Renaissance ________ advocated the recovery and
uncensored study of the entire body of Greek and Latin manuscripts and the
self-conscious imitation of classical art and architecture. After the fall of
Constantinople, Greek manuscripts and Byzantine scholars poured into Italy,
contributing to what the humanist philosopher Marsilio _____ called, “a ______ ___.” Encouraged by the availability of greek resources and supported by his
patron Cosimo de’ Medici, ______ translated the entire corpus of ____’s
writings from _____ into _____, making the mavailable to Western scholars for
the first time since antiquity. _____’s translations and the founding of the ______ _______ in _______ launched a reappraisal of _____. _____’s
writings—especially the “Symposium,” in which love is exalted as a divine
force, advanced the idea, popularized by ______, that “_______” (or spiritual)
love attracted the soul to ___.
The most provocative analysis of Renaissance
individualism is that found in “The ____ __ ___ ________” a treatise written by
the Italian diplomat Baldassare _________. _______’s “______” was
inspired by conversations that had taken place among a group of aristocrats at
the court of ______, a mecca for humanist studies in Italy. The subject of
these conversations concerns the qualifications of the _____ Renaissance man
and women. Debating on the subject, the members of the court arrive at a
consensus that affords the image of “l’uomo universal,” aka a “____-______person”. ________ reports that the ideal man should master the skills of the
medieval ______ and display the physical proficiency of a champion athlete.
Also, he must posess the refinements of a _________ education. All of this
while he maintaines nonchalance and _____, a quality summed up in the Italian
word sprezzatura. Book Four of “The ______” explains the primary duty of the
well-rounded gentleman is to influence the ruler to ______ wisely. According to
________, the Renaissance gentle_____ should have knowledge of letters,
music, and art, she should have a humanistic education, but in no way should
she violate that “soft and delicate tenderness that is her defining quality.”
Printing press and its
significance for the Renaissance:
The _____ _____ in Venice printed “___ _____” in an edition of more than 1,000 copies. The humanist enterprise was
greatly aided by a landmark in Renaissance technology: the printing press.
Block printing originated in China, and then it went to Europe later on. ______ _______, a German goldsmith perfected a _____ that made it possible to
fabricate books cheaply, rapidly, and in great numbers.
The revival of classical architecture was
inaugurated by the architect, sculptor, and theorist Filippo ________.
________ won a civic competition for the design of the ____ of _______ _______. ________’s ____ became a legend in its time. _________ was
among the first architects of the Renaissance to defend ______ principles of
symmetry and proportion in architectural design. He built the _____ ______.
Leon Battista _____ was a Florentine humanist who had scientific treatises on
painting, sculpture, and architecture. In his “___ _____ on ________” (modeled
after Roman engineer Vitruvius’s book), ______ argued that architectural
design should proceed from the _____ and the _____, the 2 most perfect
geometric shapes. This proposition was the guiding precept for all of ______’s
6 buildings; it would become the definitive principle of High Renaissance
In painting, Renaissance artists used the study
of the physical world—the reliance on direct observation (this was the first step they used to
recreate the “look” of nature. One technique artists invented was the linear or
___-____ perspective, an ingenious tool for the translation of 3-dimensional
space onto a 2-dimensional surface. ________ formulated the first laws of
linear perspective. These laws describe the manner in which all _______ lines
in a given visual field appear to converge at a single _______ point on the
horizon. The first artist to master _______’s new spatial device was the
Florentine painter Tommaso Guidi, called _______, or “Slovenly Tom”. _______ demonstrated his remarkable artistic talent in frescoes he painted for the
churches of ______. _______ painted a fresco he called “The ______ _____”.
_______ also made use of _____ and _____. He painted many frescoes at the
________ ______ in Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence. In the _______ _____ frescoes, _______ anticipated the 3 principal features of Early
Renaissance painting: the adaptation of _______ prototypes, the empirical
study of _____, and the application of the new _________ of spatial
illusionism. ________’s follower, Sandro ________ was less interested in
achieving illusionistic effects. He was mostly a painter of ______ subjects,
he liked painting the classical ____, he painted the “_____ __ _____,” which
was his landmark painting.
The art of the Early Renaissance was an _______ effort to reinterpret Greco-Roman themes and principles. Such originality is
evident in the architecture of Brunelleschi and the paintings of Botticelli.
The most creative force in Early Renaissance sculpture was the Florentine
artist Donato Bardi, known as ______. _______’s efforts in ______ and
______ set the benchmark for technical proficiency and the expression of
emotional intensity in 3 dimensional representation. ________’s sculpture of
the biblical hero _____ was the first freestanding, life-sized nude since
antiquity. _______’s friend Lorenzo _______ was a goldsmith and a sculpture.
_______ made bronze relief panels for the _____ of the Florence Baptistry of
San Giovanni. Overwhelmed by the beauty of the doors, the great sculptor of the
next generation, _________, could comment that they were worthy of being the
Gates of ______. The revival of portraits during the Renaissance was an
expression of the desire to immortalize the self (kind of like modern
________) and the wish to advertise publicly the greatness of a civic leader
or notable personality. Famous portraits of this day include the ____ ____ and
the Arnolfini Marriage. The sculpture of Florence’s ruler and patron of the arts,
Lorenzo de’ Medici, was the work of one of the most notable Florentine artists,
Andrea del ________. ________ trained many artists, including Leonardo da
Vinci. __________ also did a statue of Bartolommeo Colleoni.
________ was another great High Renaissance
artist. He was less devoted to scientific speculation than Leonardo. He was a
master ______. He painted a portrait of his lifeling friend Baldassare
________. In “The ____ _______”, one of Raphael’s many renderings of the
Madonna as a Child, he sets the ______ in a landscape framed by the hills of
central Italy. He organized the composition according to simple geometric
shapes: the triangle, the circle, and the trapezoid. Pope _____ __, the
greatest of the Renaissance Church patrons, commissioned Raphael to execute a
series of frescoes for the ______ _______ della Segnatura—the pope’s personal
_______ and the room in which official Church papers were signed. The paintings
were to represent the 4 domains of human learning: theology, philosophy, law,
and the arts. To illustrate ________, ______ painted “The _____ of _____.”
In this fresco, _______ immortalized the great philosophers and scientists of
ancient history. “The ______ of _____” advanced a set of principles that came
to epitomize the Grand Style: spatial clarity, decorum (good taste), balance,
unity of design, and grace.
_________ Buonarroti was an architect, poet,
painter, and engineer, and mainly a ______. He carved a free-standing
larger-than-life statue of the biblical _____. The rulers of Florence placed
the sculpture at the entrance to the ____ ____ as a symbol of Florentine
vigilance. ___________ spent 4 years fulfilling a papal commission to paint
the 5760 square foot _____ of the Vatican’s ______ _____. In 1546, _________ accepted the papal
commission to design the ____ and east end of the new _____ _____’s cathedral.
In the year of his death, he finally mounted the ____. However, its enormous
double shell of brick and stone proved impractical: _____ appeared less than 10
years after its completion.
THE MOST NOTABLE PAINTINGS OF THE
_____ RENAISANCE CAME FROM _______, THE MOST NOTABLE ONES FROM THE ____ RENAISANCE CAME FROM ______. ________ EMPHASIZED ___-_____ PERSPECTIVE WHILE
VENICE EMPHASIZED ______!
______ __ _____ was a Florentine artist,
scientist, skilled mathematician, composer, and inventor. He painted the ____ ____. ____ ____ was the wife of a Florentine merchant, Francesco del Gioconda.
_________ was extremely good at portraits, but he also made a few religious
paintings. He painted the “____ ______”. _______ also examined the organic
functions of _____, _______, and _____ beings. He also studied the properties
of wind and water and invented several devices, including an armored tank, a
diving bell, and a ______ machine, most of which never left the notebook stage.