Human Nutrition Midterm

105 Questions | Total Attempts: 63

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Human Nutrition Midterm

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Nutrition is the _______ that studies food and how food nourishes our body and influences our health.
  • 2. 
    When scientists describe individual nutrients as organic they mean that these nutrients are:
    • A. 

      Grown without the use of synthetic pesticides

    • B. 

      Composed of both carbon and hydrogen

    • C. 

      Certified by organic by the USDA

    • D. 

      A and C

  • 3. 
    The primary energy sources are:
    • A. 

      Carbohydrates and Fats

    • B. 

      Carbohydrates and Protein

    • C. 

      Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats

    • D. 

      Protein and Fats

  • 4. 
    What is set of standards defining the recommended intake values for various nutrients called?
    • A. 

      EER-Estimated Energy Requirement

    • B. 

      AMDR- Acceptable Macro-nutrient Distribution Range

    • C. 

      DRI-Dietary Reference Intakes

    • D. 

      DSM

  • 5. 
    Which one do you like?
    • A. 

      Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior

    • B. 

      Muscle and Fitness

    • C. 

      American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

  • 6. 
    The term complex carbohydrates refers to 
    • A. 

      Monosaccharides

    • B. 

      Disaccharides

    • C. 

      Polysaccharides

    • D. 

      Glucose

  • 7. 
    Calculate the percentage of total energy that comes from carbohydrate, with the following information from a diet analysis: 2,000 Kcal/day total energy, 275 g/day carbohydrate, 60g/day fat, and 138 g/day protein.
    • A. 

      25%

    • B. 

      50%

    • C. 

      60%

    • D. 

      80%

  • 8. 
    Moderate alcohol intake is defined as the consumption of up to ____ drink(s) per day for women, and up to ___ drink(s) per day for men.
  • 9. 
    ________ is a psychological desire to consume specific foods and is triggered when external stimuli arouse our senses, and it often occurs in combination with social and cultural cues.
    • A. 

      Anorexia

    • B. 

      Appetite

    • C. 

      Hunger

  • 10. 
    Proper nutrition contributes to health by:
    • A. 

      Providing the body with the energy it needs to function properly

    • B. 

      Preventing certain diseases

    • C. 

      Helping individuals achieve and maintain a desirable weight

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 11. 
    Two hormones responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels
    • A. 

      Estrogen

    • B. 

      Insulin

    • C. 

      Glucagon

  • 12. 
    The entire process of the digestion and absorption process of one meal typically takes approximately 48 hours?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    A healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients, and has what four characteristics?
  • 14. 
    Foods containing _______ have the highest satiety value.
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate

    • B. 

      Protein

    • C. 

      Fat

  • 15. 
    Check all functions of cell membranes.
    • A. 

      Produce energy from basic food components

    • B. 

      Enclose cell contents

    • C. 

      Act as a gatekeeper for entry and exit of molecules

  • 16. 
    Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the _______ .
    • A. 

      Mouth

    • B. 

      Stomach

    • C. 

      Small intestine

    • D. 

      Esophagus

  • 17. 
    The gallbladder releases a greenish fluid called _____ which emulsifies fat to make it more accessible for digestion.
  • 18. 
    The rgion of the brain responsible for hunger and prompting us to seek food is the ______
    • A. 

      Peripheral nervous system

    • B. 

      Pituitary gland

    • C. 

      Hypothalamus

  • 19. 
    Most peptic ulcers are caused by ______.
    • A. 

      Eating spicy foods

    • B. 

      H.pylori Infection

    • C. 

      Stress

  • 20. 
    The human body is composed of billions of ____ which are the smallest units of matter that exhibit the properties of living things, such as growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
    • A. 

      Tissues

    • B. 

      Cells

    • C. 

      Atoms

  • 21. 
    Five primary components of information must be included on food labels, to determine the nutritional adequacy of a given food, except:
    • A. 

      A statement of identity

    • B. 

      The net contents of the package

    • C. 

      A barcode

    • D. 

      Ingredient list

    • E. 

      The name and address of the food manufacturer, packer, or distributor

    • F. 

      Nutrition information

  • 22. 
    Structure-function claims on food labels must be approved by the FDA.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    Since he was a child, Ronald's favorite home-cooked meals have ben protein-rich and fat-rich dinners of steak and french fries and fried chicken with mashed potatoes and gravy.  How would Ronald modify his choices to more closely follow MyPlate's recommendations? 
    • A. 

      Serve each meal with 1 cup low-fat dairy

    • B. 

      Eliminate the potatoes from his meals

    • C. 

      Choose lean meats and bake, broil, or grill them

    • D. 

      Serve fruits and vegetables on half of the plate

  • 24. 
    MyPlate's serving-size recommendations counter which significant social trend that contributes to excess calorie intake and weight gain?
    • A. 

      Increasing popularity of ethnic food choices

    • B. 

      Lack of affordable fresh fruits and vegetables at most supermarkets

    • C. 

      Dramatic increase in potion sizes

  • 25. 
    MyPlate's recommended serving size for grains and proteins is measured in ounce-equivalents.  Identify the correct example of an ounce-equivalent.
    • A. 

      1 slice of bread = 1 cup oats

    • B. 

      1 ounce chicken = 1/2 chickpeas

    • C. 

      1/2 cup raw spinach = 1/2 cup cooked kale

  • 26. 
    To help individuals consume appropriate calories and nutrients, MyPlate emphasizes choosing foods with:
    • A. 

      No added oils or dairy protein

    • B. 

      No added sugar or solid fats or "empty calories"

    • C. 

      No artificial ingredients or preservatives

  • 27. 
    A condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels is called
    • A. 

      Hyperglycemia

    • B. 

      Hypoglycemia

    • C. 

      Type 1 diabetes

    • D. 

      Type 2 diabetes

  • 28. 
    Functional foods provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    Which of the following carbohydrates is the end product of photosynthesis?
    • A. 

      Glycogen

    • B. 

      Galactose

    • C. 

      Lactose

    • D. 

      Glucose

  • 30. 
    Carbohydrates contain the elements___, ___, and ____.
  • 31. 
    A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
    • A. 

      2 monosaccharides

    • B. 

      2 polysaccharides

    • C. 

      1 monosaccharides + 1 polysaccharides

    • D. 

      2 oligosaccharides

  • 32. 
    Insulin is synthesized and released by the _____ (organ in the body).
  • 33. 
    Which of the following is a monosaccharide
    • A. 

      Sucrose

    • B. 

      Maltose

    • C. 

      Galactose

    • D. 

      Lactose

  • 34. 
    Please fill answer below_______
  • 35. 
    In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the muscles and ______.
    • A. 

      Liver

    • B. 

      Kidneys

    • C. 

      Gallbladder

    • D. 

      Pancreas

  • 36. 
    Gluconeogenesis is _________
    • A. 

      The synthesis of new glucose from amino acids

    • B. 

      The release of stored glycogen from the liver

    • C. 

      The process by which plants use sunlight to synthesize glucose

    • D. 

      The uptake of glucose by the body's cells

  • 37. 
    Obesity, genetics, physical inactivity, and poor diet increase overall risk of developing Type 2 diabetes
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells?
    • A. 

      Estrogen

    • B. 

      Insulin

    • C. 

      CCK

    • D. 

      Glucagon

  • 39. 
    • A. 

      Starch

    • B. 

      Disaccharides

    • C. 

      Dietary fiber

    • D. 

      Simple sugars

  • 40. 
    • A. 

      Estrogen

    • B. 

      Insulin

    • C. 

      CCK

    • D. 

      Glucagon

  • 41. 
    It is important for individuals with diabetes to limit their intake of alcoholic beverages, because drinking alcohol can cause hyperglycemia
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 42. 
    The body does not produce enough insulin with type___ diabetes.
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

  • 43. 
    Check all essential nutrient groups:
    • A. 

      Carbohydrate

    • B. 

      Protein

    • C. 

      Fat

    • D. 

      Vitamins

    • E. 

      Minerals

    • F. 

      Water

    • G. 

      Alcohol

    • H. 

      Calories

  • 44. 
    The insoluble fiber that provides the main structural component of plant cell walls is?
    • A. 

      Lignan

    • B. 

      Pectin

    • C. 

      Mucilage

    • D. 

      Cellulose

  • 45. 
    Which of the following complications are due to uncontrolled diabetes?
    • A. 

      Amputation

    • B. 

      Nerve damage

    • C. 

      Kidney damage

    • D. 

      Blindness

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 46. 
    Diabetes remains among the top 10 causes of death in the United States
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 47. 
    Which of the following are major classes of dietary lipids?
    • A. 

      Phospholipids

    • B. 

      Triglycerides

    • C. 

      Glycogens

    • D. 

      Sterols

  • 48. 
    What is the primary form of fat in the diet?
    • A. 

      Phospholipids

    • B. 

      Triglycerides

    • C. 

      Glycogens

    • D. 

      Sterols

  • 49. 
    A triglyceride is comprised of ____ molecules of fatty acids and __ molecule glycerol.
  • 50. 
    A fatty acid that contain a chain of 14 carbons and NO double bond is called?
    • A. 

      Saturated, medium-chain

    • B. 

      Saturated, long-chain

    • C. 

      Monounsaturated, medium-chain

    • D. 

      Monounsaturated, long-chain

  • 51. 
    Unsaturated fats are which of the following?
    • A. 

      Found in whole milk and beef

    • B. 

      Liquid at room temperature

    • C. 

      Found primarily in foods derived from plants

    • D. 

      Protective of our health

  • 52. 
    Hydrogenation is the process of adding _____ to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat.
  • 53. 
    Essential fatty acids do not need to be obtained from food because the body makes them.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 54. 
    Which of the following organ(s) assist in the digestion of lipids?
    • A. 

      Pancreas

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Gallbladder

    • D. 

      Large intestine

    • E. 

      Small intestine

  • 55. 
    The acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat is what percentage of total energy intake?
    • A. 

      0-5%

    • B. 

      5-20%

    • C. 

      20-35%

    • D. 

      35-50%

  • 56. 
    Which of the following foods contains hidden fats?
    • A. 

      Apple

    • B. 

      Flaxseed oil

    • C. 

      Lard

    • D. 

      Oatmeal cookies

  • 57. 
    Which types of fatty acid contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer??
    • A. 

      Polyunsaturated & Monounsaturated

    • B. 

      Monounsaturated & Saturated

    • C. 

      Saturated & Trans

    • D. 

      Trans & Polyunsaturated

  • 58. 
    Coronary hart disease occurs when blood vessels supplying the ____ with oxygen and nutrients become blocked or constricted and may cause a heart attack.
    • A. 

      Liver

    • B. 

      Heart

    • C. 

      Lungs

    • D. 

      Brain

  • 59. 
    Stroke is caused by a blockage of one of the blood vessels supplying the ____ with oxygen and nutrients which stops brain function and creates various outcomes, including difficulty swallowing, speaking, and/or walking and even death
    • A. 

      Liver

    • B. 

      Heart

    • C. 

      Lungs

    • D. 

      Brain

  • 60. 
    High blood pressure is also known as _________ which means that the force of the blood flowing through your arteries is above normal.
  • 61. 
    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which arterial walls accumulate deposits of lipids and scar tissue that build up to such a degree that they improve blood flow.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 62. 
    Arteries damaged by atherosclerosis become stiff and lose their ability to spring back with each heart beat which forces the heart to:
    • A. 

      Beat slower

    • B. 

      Stop

    • C. 

      Lose the ability to function

    • D. 

      Work harder to push blood through the vessels

  • 63. 
    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have which of the following characteristics?
    • A. 

      HDLs are small, dense lipoproteins

    • B. 

      HDLs circulate in the blood and pick up cholesterol from dying cells

    • C. 

      HDLs reduce the risk of coronary artery disease

    • D. 

      HDLs may increase with regular physical activity

  • 64. 
    What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat?
    • A. 

      Carbon

    • B. 

      Hydrogen

    • C. 

      Oxygen

    • D. 

      Nitrogen

  • 65. 
    The part of a protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the_____ group.
  • 66. 
    A complete protein
    • A. 

      Contains all 20 amino acids

    • B. 

      Contains all 9 essential amino acids

    • C. 

      Has not been denatured

    • D. 

      Is composed of only di- and tripeptides

  • 67. 
    Which of the following foods is a source of complete protein
    • A. 

      Soy

    • B. 

      Apple

    • C. 

      Chicken

    • D. 

      Whole grain bread

  • 68. 
    • A. 

      Maintaining fluid balance

    • B. 

      Providing energy to the body

    • C. 

      Growth and maintenance of new tissue

    • D. 

      Synthesis of hormones

  • 69. 
    To conserve body protein for its vital functions and not use it to provide energy, you should:
    • A. 

      Eat adequate amounts of carbohydrate and fat to conserve protein for other functions

    • B. 

      Eat at least twice the recommended RDA for protein to ensure adequate protein stores

    • C. 

      Work out in the gym at least 3 times per week to store additional protein for later use

    • D. 

      Eat meat 3 times a week to ensure adequate protein storage

  • 70. 
    The process in which a protein loses its shape and function when exposed to acids, heat, and heavy metals is deamination.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 71. 
    During transcription, mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the cytoplasm for synthesis.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 72. 
    Which of the following health problems is not associated with high protein intakes?
    • A. 

      Heart disease

    • B. 

      Kidney disease

    • C. 

      Bone loss

    • D. 

      Sickle cell anemia

  • 73. 
    Which of the following diseases is the result of protein-energy malnutrition?
    • A. 

      Marasmus

    • B. 

      Sickle cell anemia

    • C. 

      Cystic fibrosis

    • D. 

      Kwashiorkor

  • 74. 
    Micronutrients include carbohydrates, fats & proteins; macronutrients include vitamins & minerals.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 75. 
    Of the 13 vitamins recognized as essential, humans can synthesize only small amounts of vitamins __ and ___, so we must consume virtually all of the vitamins in our diets.
  • 76. 
    Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins occur in people who:
    • A. 

      Avoid dairy products

    • B. 

      Have a fat malabsorption disorder

    • C. 

      Do not eat green vegetables

    • D. 

      Eat very small amounts of dietary fat

  • 77. 
    Consuming nutrients in amounts that are equally or less than 10 times higher than recommended levels is called:
    • A. 

      Normal-dosing

    • B. 

      Mega-dosing

    • C. 

      Minor-dosing

  • 78. 
    What is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in large amounts in the human body?
    • A. 

      Thiamin

    • B. 

      Vitamin B-12

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Vitamin D

  • 79. 
    Which of the following are trace minerals?
    • A. 

      Sodium

    • B. 

      Iron

    • C. 

      Niacin

    • D. 

      Zinc

    • E. 

      Calcium

    • F. 

      Iodine

  • 80. 
    Micronutrients are more efficiently absorbed by the body than macronutrients
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 81. 
    The binder found in high-fiber foods that inhibits the absorption of iron and zinc is
    • A. 

      Heme

    • B. 

      Phenol

    • C. 

      Vitamin C

    • D. 

      Oxalic acid

  • 82. 
    It is much easier to develop a toxic overload of nutrients from supplements than it is from foods
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 83. 
    Which of the following is not a function of water within the human body
    • A. 

      Fluids dissolve and transport substances

    • B. 

      Fluids account for blood volume

    • C. 

      Fluids help maintain body temperature

    • D. 

      Fluids signal our muscles to contract

    • E. 

      Fluids protect and lubricate our tissues

  • 84. 
    Identify the nutrients that function as electrolytes in our body
    • A. 

      Chloride

    • B. 

      Hydrogen

    • C. 

      Potassium

    • D. 

      Oxygen

    • E. 

      Phosphorus

    • F. 

      Sodium

  • 85. 
    Electrolytes support many body functions, including which of the following?
    • A. 

      Electrolytes help regulate fluid balance

    • B. 

      Electrolytes protect and lubricate our tissues

    • C. 

      Electrolytes enable our nerves to respond to stimuli

    • D. 

      Electrolytes signal our muscles to contract

  • 86. 
    Solutes attract water toward areas where they are more concentrated; this movement of water toward solutes, called ______, continues until the concentration of solutes is equal on both sides of the cell membrane
  • 87. 
    Cell membranes are permeable to water, meaning water flows easily through them.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 88. 
    Which of the following stimulates the thirst mechanism?
    • A. 

      Decreased concentration of solutes in the blood

    • B. 

      Elevated blood volume and pressure

    • C. 

      Dryness of the mouth and throat tissues

    • D. 

      Eating sweet-tasting foods

  • 89. 
    Insensible water loss includes water loss:
    • A. 

      During illness or trauma

    • B. 

      During intense exercise

    • C. 

      Through respiration

    • D. 

      Through urination

  • 90. 
    Hyponatremia is associated with:
    • A. 

      Excessive intake of dietary sodium

    • B. 

      Excessive intake of dietary potassium

    • C. 

      Dehydration

    • D. 

      Overhydration

  • 91. 
    Diets high in sodium are associated with:
    • A. 

      Breast cancer

    • B. 

      Diabetes mellitus

    • C. 

      Obesity

    • D. 

      High blood pressure

  • 92. 
    Urine that is medium to dark yellow in color is an indicator of good hydration status.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 93. 
    The nucleus of the atom has a positive charge
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 94. 
    In an atom, the electrons orbiting around the nucleus have what kind of charge?
    • A. 

      Positive

    • B. 

      Negative

    • C. 

      Equal

    • D. 

      Neutral

  • 95. 
    A chemical reaction in which atoms lose electrons is called _____
  • 96. 
    • A. 

      Smoking cigarettes

    • B. 

      Drinking alcohol

    • C. 

      Being a vegan

    • D. 

      Taking supplements of vitamin C

  • 97. 
    Beta-carotene is a precursor of 
    • A. 

      Retinol

    • B. 

      Alpha-tocopherol

    • C. 

      Zeaxanthin

    • D. 

      Ascorbic acid

  • 98. 
    • A. 

      Protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cell membranes from oxidation

    • B. 

      Enhancing the immune system and protecting white blood cells

    • C. 

      Improving the absorption of vitamin C if dietary intake is low

    • D. 

      Protecting low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidation

  • 99. 
    Frying decreases the amount of vitamin E in vegetable oil
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 100. 
    A group of fat-soluble plant pigments that are the basis for the orange, red, and deep yellow colors of many fruits and vegetables are called:
    • A. 

      Carotenoids

    • B. 

      Provitamins

    • C. 

      Prooxidants

    • D. 

      Chlorophylls

  • 101. 
    The most common form of cancer in the U.S. is cancer of the
    • A. 

      Skin

    • B. 

      Lung

    • C. 

      Colon

    • D. 

      Stomach