2 weeks; implantation
3 months; implantation
2 weeks; fertilization
3 months; fertilization
Major organs first begin to function.
Implantation in the uterus occurs.
Basic structures are laid down.
Growth and finishing take place.
Respond to touch
Move strongly enough to be felt by the mother.
Have a working circulatory system.
Have arms, legs, fingers, and toes.
Zygote; implantation occurs during
Fetus; the prenatal organism is developing most rapidly during
Embryo; the foundations for all body parts are laid down during
Fetus; birth takes place soon after
Are reduced only if the mother stops before the period of the embryo.
Are not reduced if the mother stops smoking, because the damage has likely already been done.
Are reduced immediately if the mother decides to stop smoking.
Are not reduced unless the mother stops before the placenta begins carrying food and oxygen to the prenatal organism.
Low intelligence and serious learning problems
Physical defects, such as cleft palate and pyloric stenosis
Central nervous system damage
Increased risk of hear disease and diabetes in adulthood
Many pregnant teenagers do not have access to medical care or are afraid to seek it
A teenager's body is not physically strong enough to fully support pregnancy
The uterus of a teenager is too small to maintain a pregnancy for the full 38 to 40 weeks
The uterus of a teenager is not developed enough to maintain a pregnancy for the full 38 to 40 weeks
Rh blood incompatibility
Can lead to anoxia, or inadequate oxygen supply, during delivery
Cause infants' heart rate and activity level to increase to dangerous high levels during childbirth
Help infants withstand oxygen deprivation during contractions sending a rich supply of blood to the brain and heart
Lead tot irritability and digestive disturbances in newborns
Length and weight
Vision, hearing, and sense of touch
Heart rate, color, and muscle tone
Reflexes, state changes, and responsiveness to physical and social stimull
Women began to use delivery mediation and instruments
More women began to have natural, or prepared, childbrith
More children were born at home than in hospitals
Women's knowledge of child birth and family participation declined
Does not reduce the rate of infant brain damage
Reduces the likelihood of cesarean delivery
Reduces the rate of infant death
Is necessary to detect hidden problems with the baby
Must be used if a mother has had a previous cesarean birth
Has become less common with invention of fetal monitoring
Has become increasingly common in the United States, accounting for over one-fifth of all births
Is much less likely to be used in the United States than in other countries
Ashley and Marissa are equally likely to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year
Ashley is more likely than Marissa to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year
There is no research evidence that either Ashley or Marissa is more likely to experience serious problems compared to full-term normal-both-weight babies
Marissa is more likely than Marissa to die, catch infections, and show evidence of brain damage during the first year
They are not likely to catch up to full-term infants during development in childhood
Their appearance and behavior affect the kind of care-giving they receive from parents
Compared with full-term infants, parents are more likely to cuddle and talk gently to preterm infants
Physically stimulating these fragile babies could be harmful
National paid maternity leave
Specially trained maternity helpers
Federally funded child care
Government-funded prenatal care