A. I, III, and IV
B. Only I
C. I, II, III, V
D. All of the above
A. The assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, June 28, 1914
B. The Austrian Ultimatum, July 29, 1914
C. Germany's invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
D. tensions over Balkan Territories, 1912-1913
A. Trench Warfare
B. Naval Blockades
C. None of the above
D. A and B
A. IV, II, III, I
B. I, III, IV, II
C. I, II, III, IV
D. III, I, II, IV
A. Constantinople had to be given back to Greece
B. All troops had to be withdrawn from Gallipoli
C. Free shipping had to be reopened through the Dardanelles
D. The Ottoman Empire did not have to make peace
A. Italy (1917)
B. Austria-Hungary (1918)
C. Greece (1916)
D. Bulgaria (1918)
A. Officially part of the Central Powers
B. At war only with Germany, not with Austria-Hungary
C. Officially part of the Allied forces
D. At war only with Austria-Hungary, not with Germany
A.The Dawes Plan
B.The Eastern Offence
C.The Schlieffen Plan
B.Web of Alliances
D.Germany, Japan, Russia
A.America emerging as a global superpower
B.Germany left the war with a thriving economy
C.League of Nations was formed
D.Monarchies were ended
A.To bring the Japanese to surrender
B.To intimidate Soviet powers with display of might
C.To bring an end to the war with Japan
D.To prevent Japan from possessing fertile agricultural land
A.Distracting theatrical or artistic displays
B.Use of propoganda
C.para-military group to enforce laws
D.elimination of opposition from overthrowing current regime
A.Taking loans from America to build weapons
B.A secret treaty was signed with Japan that gave Germany weapons
C.A secret treaty was signed with Russia that gave Germany weapons
D.having restored weapons from WW1
A. The Entente Cordial
B. An old treaty with Belgium, which Germany referred to as "An old piece of paper"
C. The prospect of expanding their empire
D. The Zimmerman telegram
A. Treaty of Lucarno
B. The Battle of Britain (possibility that America would no longer have a major ally in Europe)
C. Germany's continued use of unconditional submarine warfare, and the Zimmerman Telegram
D. A German-Mexican invasion of Texas
A. An establishment of a Polish State
B. Alsace-Lorraine should return to France
C. No secret alliances between countries
D. Germany should take full responsibility for the war
A. Great Britain, and the United States, no conflict ensued, the U.S and U.K were able to keep the peace.
B. Soviet Union and Great Britain, The Cold War
C. The United States and the Soviet Union, The Cold War
D. None of the above.
A. 1942, The Americans were appalled by Hitler's persecution of the Jews and felt that they had to enter the war
B. 1942, Japan bombed a primary naval base, Pearl Harbor
C. 1941, 1942, The Americans were appalled by Hitler's persecution of the Jews and felt that they had to enter the war C. 1941, 1942, The Americans were appalled by Hitler's persecution of the Jews and felt that they had to enter the war C. 1941, 1942, The Americans were appalled by Hitler's persecution of the Jews and felt that they had to enter the war C. 1941, 1942, The Americans were appalled by Hitler's persecution of the Jews and felt that they had to enter the war C. 1941, 1942, The Americans were appalled by Hitler's persecution of the Jews and felt that they had to enter the war C. 1941, 1942, The Americans were appalled by Hitler's persecution of the Jews and felt that they had to enter the war
D. 1941, Japan bombed a primary naval base, Pearl Harbor
A. 1942-1943, Nazi Germany and Soviet Union, it was a turning point in the war, Germany's forces were faced with heavy casualties, and were greatly weakened, resulting in no further strategic victories in the east.
B. 1941-1942, Nazi Germany and Italy, German and Italian troops combined forces in the invasion of Stalingrad, and successfully occupied it.
C. 1941-1943, Nazi Germany and Soviet Union, Germany gained control of the city, which led to further strategic victories in the east, as Stalingrad was in a critical location.
D. 1942-1944, Britain and Nazi Germany, it was a turning point in the war, Germany's forces were faced with heavy casualties, and were greatly weakened, resulting in no further strategic victories in the east.
A. The United States, Germany and Italy, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S.
B. The United States and Great Britain, the U.S. provided critical munitions and materials that was an important factor in the eventual Allied Victory
C. Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union, an act that strengthened their Triple Entente Alliance
D. The United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, the U.S. provided critical munitions and materials that was an important factor in the eventual Allied Victory
A. They failed to predict that the attack would take place
B. They expected an attack by ground forces rather than naval forces
C. They failed to predict where the attack would take place
D. They failed to place minefields along the border with Germany
A. First gain air superiority, then send ground forces
B. First establish naval superiority, then send ground forces
C. First send ground forces, then gain air superiority
D. Destroy London with posing gas attacks
A. Defense against Stalin
B. Germany needed more space for poulation
C. Hitler believed a war on two fronts would be advantageous
D. He wanted to avenge his brother's death
A. Italy and Greece
B. Britain and France
C. Norway and Denmark
D. The United States and the USSR
A. The Battle of the Coral Sea
B. The Battle of the Guadalcanal
C. The Battle of Iwo Jima
D. The Battle of Midway
A. Wilson's 14 points
B. European need to punish Germany
C. Japan, in order to get closer to Europe
D. Winston Churchill
A. 1924, Hitler's arrest
B. 1923, Hitler's arrest
C. 1922, the Nazi party being the most supported single party in Germany
D. 1921, German invasion of the Rhineland
A. Germany and Italy sided with the Fascist General Franco, while Britain, France and the United States supported the Republic, creating the alliances of WWII.
B. Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy supported Fascist General, Francisco Franco, who led the rebels, while the USSR supported the Republic. It served as testing ground for warfare like the Blitzkrieg, that would later be used in WW2.
C. Germany and Italy sided with the Fascist General Franco, while Britain, France and the USSR supported the Republic, creating the alliances of WWII.
D. Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy supported the Republic, while the USSR supported the Fascist General, Francisco Franco, who led the rebels. It served as testing ground for warfare like the Blitzkrieg, that would later be used in WW2.
A. 1936-1939, Rebel Victory
B. 1935-1939, Republic Victory
C. 1936-1939, Republic Victory
D. 1935-1939, Rebel Victory
A. The United States
B. The Soviet Union
A. To implement democratic reform and fair elections
B. To restore Spain's isolation policy and increase military forces
C. To restore the power of the privileged and control the working class
D. To galvanize the nation into war with the Allied Powers
A. It portrayed the tragedies of war, and helped bring the war to the world's attention
B. Positively Influenced the Rebel
C. Compared the destruction of Guernica to the slaughtering of animals
D. Helped stop future bombings by the Luftwaffe
A. 1938, Germany and Czechoslovakia
B. 1937, Germany and Hungary
C. 1939, Germany and Czechoslovakia
D. 1938, Germany and Austria
A. 1938, Germany and Czechoslovakia
B. 1937, Germany and Hungary
C. 1939, Germany and Czechoslovakia
D. 1938, Germany and Austria
A. Woodrow Wilson was against it
B. To protect the United States from getting involved in European affairs
C. Obtained to Japan's inclusion in the League
D. Wanted to keep it's notable politicians in America
A 1948, The Monroe Doctrine
B. 1948, The Balfour Declaration
C. 1949, Kellog-Briand Pack
D. 1954, The Jewish Homeland
A. because Americans were charged in prison
B. because he had many Italian helpers
C. with the help of German comandoes
D. because the Germans bombed it
C. militaristic expansionist
D. supported government ownership of property
A. His isolationist foreign policy that corresponded with communism
B. Westernization programs to enlighten and educate the public
C.Strategies to modernize the economy and enforce communism
D.A more open and friendly foreign policy towards China and Japan
A. A widespread food shortage throughout the USSR
B. A surplus in agriclutral goods that resulted in a boom in the population
C. An increase in the export of agricultural goods to Japan and the United States
D. The immediate creation of many small private farms in Uzbekistan
A. He didn't react to them; he let them be since Communism was already fundamentally established as the political ideology of the people.
B. Dissenters were sent to labour camps called Gulags.
C. Political opponents were murdered and exiled.
D. Both B and C.
A. Used secret police to eliminate and silence the opposition.
B.Implemented Five Year Plans
C. Spread the Russian Orthodox religion
D.Attempted to transition Russia into a Dictatorship run by the Proletariat
A. The Russian participation and failures during WWI against the Germans.
B. The Treaty of Brest Litovsk which gave over land to the Germans
C. The lack of food and abundance of poverty among lower classes
D. The dissatisfaction with the royal family and lack of reforms; dissatisfaction with Tsar Nicholas II
A. He approved of the Nazi Fascist regime in Germany.
B. He wanted to gain arms for the USSR's stockpile.
C. He sought an ally who would aid the USSR against the United States.
D. He wanted to gain control over territories in Eastern Europe such as Poland.
A. A variety of groups with various political views that did not belong to Communism and were therefore opposed to the Communist regime.
B. The elite of Russia who sought to reestablish the Tsar as head of Russia.
C. A group of Marxists who wanted to take power from the Bolsheviks that were in power.
D. A group of lower class farmers that wanted to overthrow the elitist government.
A. Uzbekistan; Because he was a threat to Stalin's absolute power as Soviet Premier
B. Mexico: Because he was a threat to Stalin's absolute power as Soviet Premier
C. Uzbekistan: He had formulated a plan to assassinate Stalin
D. Germany: He had assassinated Lenin
A. The USSR should be the only nation to be socialist
B. The USSR needed to dominate and expand its territory to spread Socialism within its territory.
C. The USSR first needed to become strong, and then try to bring about the world revolution.
D. The USSR needed to be stronger than any other Socialist and non-Socialist nation.
A. He did not pursue educational reform
B. Ataturk did not push for economic development, and was less interested in economics in general than Mehmet Ali and some of his successors were.
C. He did not make reforms based on religion
D. He did not make as many cultural reforms as Mehmet Ali and some of his successors were.
A. 1923, the decision stood for a rejection of the cosmopolitan Byzantine and Ottoman past in favor of an Anatolian Turkish future.
B. 1918, it was significant as it was a show of the influence that foreign powers had on the political decisions being made in Turkey.
C. 1930, the decision stood for a rejection of the cosmopolitan Byzantine and Ottoman past in favor of an Anatolian Turkish future.
D. 1927, it represented a step towards modernization.
A. Pan-Turkism: Republicanism, Statism, Secularism, Socialism, Interventionism
B. Atatürkism: Republicanism, Statism, Populism, Pan-Turkism, Secularism
C. Kemalism: Republicanism, Populism, Secularism, Nationalism, Revolutionism, Statism
D. Secularism: Pan-Turkism, Capitulations, Secularism, Statism, Republicanism, Populism
A. The Free Republican Party lead by the former Prime Minister Fethi Okyar.
B. The People’s Free Republic lead by Sheik Said the former Progressive
C.The People’s Free Republic lead by Sheik Said the Prime Minister.
D. The Free Republican Party lead by the former Progressive
A.“Free Ottoman Party”, 192
B.“Inspired Youth”, 1920
C.“Association for Defense of Rights for Anatolia and Roumelia”, 1919
D.“Turkish independent people’s party”, 1921
A. Hitler’s crackdown on the Jewish population in Berlin
B. Mussolini’s invasion of Abyssinia
C. Hitler’s reoccupation of the Rhineland
D. None of the above, Ataturk never attempted to gain full control over the Dardanelles
A.“Speak softly and carry a big stick.” Policy resulted in army invasion of the south of the USSR, as an anti-communist action.
B. “Peace at home and peace in the world.” Policy resulted in westernization and secularization of Turkey
C.“Isolate Turkey to build Turkey.” Policy resulted in the closing of the Dardanelles to all foreign ships.
D. “Eliminate all the Armenians.” Policy resulted in the Armenian Genocide.
A. 1928, to create a new national identity, it would give the word “Turk” a new connotation.
B. 1927, adopting the Latin alphabet meant that Turkey was one step closer to become Westernized.
C. 1927, to translate the Quran so it would be available in a language other than Arabic
D. 1928, the Perso-Arabic script was too hard.
A. an Islamic state
B. a secular republic
C. a “mega-state” through its merger with Greece
D. a sultanate
A. Greece, Albania, and Yugoslavia
B. Yugoslavia, Greece, and Romania
C. Bulgaria, Albania, and Romania
D. Greece, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria
A. The Papacy was granted temporal sovereignty over Vatican City
B. The Papacy was guranteed the free exercise of Roman Catholicism as the sole state religion throughout Italy
C. The Papacy accepted Italian sovereignty over the former Papal states
D. None of above
A. 1932, it granted Hitler the German territories lost in WWI.
B.1934, it granted Hitler limited power.
C.1933, it granted Hitler the right to pass laws without the Reichstag vote.
D.None of the above
A. "living space", to expand and gain more territory in the east in order to provide space for the growth of the German population.
B. "living area", to expand the cities of Germany for the increasing population.
C. "living space", to expand and gain more territory in the south in order to provide space for the growth of the German population.
D. "living space", to expand and gain more territory in the west in order to provide space for the growth of the German population.
A. Goebbels, to destroy the communist countries
B. Gilbert, to defeat the Allies in the war
C. Goebbels, to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and to make Germany great again.
D. None of the above
A. Italy fails to make major gains in Versailles Settlement
B. Nationalist d'Annunzio seizes the port of Fiume
C. Socialist Party and new Catholic Party gain over all votes and form a goverment
D. Mussolini founds a radical movement; gains support from soldiers
A. i only
B. i&ii only
C. ii,iii, & iv only
D. All above
A. October 24 1922, March on Rome
B. March 24 1920, March on Rome
C. March 24 1922, March on Rome
D. October 24 1920, March on Rome
B. Anti-Piracy Sinde
A. Mussolini adopted the title II Duce
B. Fascist Corporatism was created
C. Workers had few rights and were restricted from stricking
D. All above
A. in order to try to take control of Munich and then begin a march on Berlin
B. in resistance to the Rhur Crisis
C. to spark a national revolution against the Weimar government
D. All of the above
E. a & c
A. The wall street crash, Hitler as a powerful orator
B. Nazi propaganda, Hitler as a powerful orator
C. The wall street crash and Great Depression, Hitler as a powerful orator, Nazi propaganda, the worsening economic situation
D. The worsening economic situation, Nazi Propaganda
A. 1935, because Germany won the most gold medals
B. 1936, because Hitler (and Nazism) gained the respectability he had longed for by exploiting it to suit his needs without completely letting go of his ideolgies.
C.1936, because German Jews weren't allowed to participate.
D. 1935, because the U.S boycotted the olympics.
A. Aryan inferiority, at home
B. Nazi superiority, in school
C. Aryan superiority, in prison
D. German superiority, in prison
A. the Rome-Berlin pact of 1936
B. the Anschluss with Austria
C. the "liberation" of the Sudeten Germans in 1938
D.all of the above
A. autobahns, anti-Jewish
B. re-armament, liberated
C. autarky, self-sufficient
D. Lebensraum, bigger
A. April 1940
B. March 1942
C. November 1950
D. February 1945
A. A state that is against communism, it created more allies for the Unites States
B. An independent state that is heavily influenced politically and economically by theSoviet Union , it created a secure border or buffer region for the Soviet Union
C. An independent state that is heavily influenced politically and economically by the United States, it created a secure border or buffer region for the United States against the Soviet union and communism
D. A state that is not independent, it promoted communism.
A. Most of the fighting took place in the Soviet Union, which was very cold.
B. The direct military action was labeled as 'cold' due to excessive amount of deaths.
C. "Cold" refers to the start of the war, which was in winter.
D. There was no direct military action
A. 1960, North American countries and its associated European nations, it was signed in response to NATO
B. 1955, communist states in Europe, and the Soviet Union, it was signed in response to NATO
C. 1955, North American countries and its associated European nations, it was signed in response to the Triple Entente
D. 1960, communist states in Europe and its associated European nations, it was signed in response to the Triple Entente
A. 1950, the defense of communist states in Europe and the Soviet Union against the perceived threat of North Atlantic aggression
B. 1960, signed in response to the Warsaw Pact
C. 1949, the defense of Europe and the North Atlantic against the perceived threat of Soviet aggression
D. 1955, signed to protect England and France from any threats from the Cold War
A. Two superpowers with profound economic and political differences
B. Germany's occupation of Poland
C. England and France's differences over the division of the Ottoman Empire
D. The promotion of democracy through active and direct military action
A. The USA were blocking trading routes in the Dardanelles.
B. The USSR refused to trade weaponry with the USA.
C. They no longer had a mutual ally, Germany.
D. They had a dispute over the borders within the Balkans
A. The name given to all communist government officials.
B. The USSR's secret police.
C. The type of Machine Gun that the Soviet Union produced.
D. The Treaty by which the the Baltic states formally became a part of the USSR.
A. Mutually Assured Destruction, Due to equally destructive amounts of nuclear weaponry from both the US and the USSR.
B. Mutually Attainable Destruction, To prevent the use of atomic weaponry from either side
C. Mutually Assured Defence, American and Western-European defense pact against Soviet missiles.
D. Manditory Airforce Drafting, To gain American Soldiers for the vietnam war.
A. Between United Kingdom, United Sates, and Soviet Union, discussed Europe's post war re-organization
B. Between United Kingdom, France, and Soviet Union, discussed the division of Germany
C. Between United Kingdom, France, and United States, discussed the division of Germany
D. Between United Kingdom, United Sates, and Germany, discussed Europe's post war re-organization
A)The Berlin Wall
B)The Iron Dome
C) The Iron Curtain
A. Due to Soviet pressure on Gamal Abdel Nasser.
B. Because British and US funding for the Aswan High Damn was revoked.
C. There was a growing threat that Israeli investors could have domination of the company.
D. Part of a plan formulated by the Non Aligned Movement to display their independence from the USSR and the US.
A.1967 It was key to American Success in the Vietnam War
B.1956 It was a significant example of how Superpowers could successfully mediate a conflict
C.1955 It was a catalyst for the war of five kings
D.1948 It determined who would possess vital lands in Mediteranean Sea
A) A group formed to counter the influence of the USSR.
B) A humanitarian organization aimed at supplying aid to Eastern European countries under the influence of the USSR
C. is a group of states which are not aligned formally with or against any superpower
D. An organization dedicated to decreasing the amount of nuclear war heads.
A. Soviet Union, a plan using numerous strategies that attempted to prevent the spread of capitalism
B. United States, a plan using numerous strategies that attempted to prevent the spread of communism
C. France and United Kingdom, a plan using numerous strategies that attempted to contain Hitler's development of nuclear weapons
D. United States, a plan using numerous strategies that attempted to prevent the spread of fascism.
A. "Socialism in One Country" - Cultivation policies that barred any economic freedom in the Soviet Union
B. "Prestroika and Glasnost" - Ended Soviet command economy and liberalized the USSR to an extent
C. "Destalinization" - Reduced economic freedoms of the Soviet people
D. "Socialism in One Country" - Introducing and achieving economic independence and liberalized government
A. the USSR agreed to remove Nuclear warheads from Cuba.
B.The US agreed to remove its nuclear war heads from Injirlik, Turkey.
C. Soviet Premier was assasinated
D. Kruschev was removed from power
A. I and II
C. I and III
D. None of these
A. An unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba by the Soviet Union, strengthened diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United StatesA. An unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba by the Soviet Union, strengthened diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States
B. A successful military invasion of Cuba by the Soviet Union, strengthened diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and the Cuban leftist revolutionary regime
C. A successful military invasion of Cuba by the Unites States, weakened diplomatic relations with the United States and the Cuban leftist revolutionary regime
D. An unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba by the United Sates, weakened diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba
A. I, III, IV
B. I, III, II
C. IV, II, V
D. I, III, V
A. It was symbolic of the USSR's technological superiority to the Americans
B. ICBM's could be fired from Space into US territory
C. Because the US wanted to have an advantage in space
D. Because unconfirmed reports by US scientists stated that their was oil on the moon.
A. A license granted to trained personell to operate nuclear submarines.
B. A highly toxic and radioactive substance used as in biological warfare.
C. A submarine that is capable of firing nuclear warheads.
D. Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
1. Winston Churchill
2. Nikita Kruschev
3. Adolf Hitler
A. They appealed to the UN security council to sanction the USSR.
B. They airlifted food and other resources due to the fact that the USSR had closed all ground routes
C. The US responded with a series of military exercises which intimidated the USSR
D. A ground attack was initiated on Soviet forces that enforced the blockade.
A. I, II, and III
B. I, II, and IV
C. II, III, and IV
D. All of the above
A. Romania, Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland
B. Bulgaria, East Germany, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia
C. East Germany, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia
D. East Germany, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia
A.He threatened to wipe out cities in Britain with his vast arsenal of ICBM's
B. Secretly met with Winston Churchill to deescalate the conflict
C. Sent Soviet military experts to assist Nasser in his military showdown
D. Threatened to set up nuclear warheads on Egyptian land.
A. Stalin, Gorbachev, Khrushchev, Brezhnev
B. Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Gorbachev
C. Stalin, Brezhnev, Khrushchev, Gorbachev
D. Stalin, Brezhnev, Gorbachev, Khrushchev
A. Stalin's policy of sending his own representatives to ensure Stalinism was implemented in Soviet satellite states, 1963
B. Stalin's policy of sending his own representatives to ensure Stalinism was implemented in Soviet satellite states, 1951
C. West Germany policy that tried to increase communication and links with East Germany, 1960
D. West Germany policy that tried to increase communication and links with East Germany, 1969
A. II, III
B. II, III, IV
C. I, II, III
D. II, IV
A. It aimed to secure the USA's position of defense; Originally by building up nuclear arms, and later by drafting foot soldiers.
B. It aimed to gain more allies for the USA; originally by establishing new treaties, and later with the use of propaganda.
C. It aimed to re-establish the European military; originally by providing military assistance and later by technical assistance.
D. It aimed to stop the spread of communism in Europe; originally by providing aid to build the general economy, and later by providing aid specifically to build up the military.
A. I and II
C. II and IV
D. None of these
A. 1947, it was a speech requesting for military and economic assistance in Turkey and Greece as well as a warning to an unnamed country (USSR) that the US policy would be to support free peoples who resist atempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure.
B. 1946, it was a letter directly warning the USSR that any attempted attacks on minorities would result in retaliation from the USA, especially in the areas of Turkey and Greece.
C. 1945, it was a telegram to the UK reassuring their control over Mediterranean areas, but also warning that further failures will result in the USSR's occupation of the region.
D. 1948, it was an announcement that the USA would suport European areas economically and militarily until they were strong enough to defend themselves from the USSR.
A. Only I
B.I, II and IV
C. All of these
D. None of these
A. I and II
C. I and III
D. None of these
A. Glasnot and Stolypina
B. Stolypina and the Five Year Plan
C. Perestroika and the Five Year Plan
D. Glasnost and Perestroika
A. 1905 to 1919
B. 1908 to 1918
C. 1908 to 1921
D. 1905 to 1918
A. An exile community of long standing, a collection of discontent civil servants and students, a collection of disaffected army officers stationed in Ottoman Europe.
B. An exile community of long standing, a group of young students who had been educated in France, a group of religious leaders from all around the Ottoman Empire.
C. An exile community of long standing, a group of young students who had been educated in France, a group of women who fought for equal rights and the privilege to vote.
D. A group of religious leaders from all around the Ottoman Empire, a group of young students who had been educated in France, a group of women who fought for equal rights and the privilege to vote.
A. Students of the International student exchange program, 1889.
B. Students in the military-medical academy, 1889.
C. Students in the military-medical academy, 1885.
D. Students of the International student exchange program, 1885.
A. Ottoman 3rd army, because the salaries and the quality of the equipment fell drastically.
B. Ottoman 7th army, because the salaries and the quality of the equipment fell drastically.
C. Ottoman 5th army, because certain officers and soldiers were sent on exile due to their political ideas.
D. Ottoman 4th army, because certain officers and soldiers were sent on exile due to their political ideas.
A. Spring 1909, led by army generals and women.
B. Fall 1909, led by common soldiers and theological students.
C. Spring 1909, led by common soldiers and theological students.
D. Fall 1908, led by army generals and women.
A. 1913; Talat, Mehmet V, Jamal Pasha
B. 1914; Enver, Abdul Hamid, Mehmet V
C. 1913; Enver, Talat and Jamal Pasha
D. 1914; Enver, Talat and Jamal Pasha
A. Party of Ottoman Administrative Decentralization, 1915
B. Party of Ottoman Administrative Decentralization, 1913
C. Party of Ottoman Arab representation, 1913
D. Party of Ottoman Arab representation, 1915
A. Religion was used to solve any disputes and as a basis for the constitution.
B. Science was to be considered a crime and anyone who was thought to be carrying out scientific experiments was considered a criminal.
C. Science was the new religion, and religion would have nothing to do with political decisions.
D. Science and religion would be equally important in the new government.
A. October 13th, 1918; loosing the WWI and having to surrender
B. October 13th, 1919; loosing WWI and having to surrender
C. June 11th, 1918; having lost the respect of foreign leaders and thus their influence.
D. June 11th, 1919; having lost the respect of foreign leaders and thus their influence.
A. November 2nd 1918; from Constantinople
B. November 2nd 1918; from Ankara
C. July 8th 1919; from Constantinople
D. July 8th 1919; from Ankara
A.October 1914, Turco France Alliance
B.August 1914, Turco German Alliance
C.August 1915,Triple Entente
D. October 1914, Triple Alliance
A. Arouse of nationalism in Turkey
B. Turkey joining Triple Alliance
C. Assasination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
D. Bombing of Russian Seaport
A. German pressure as German won early in the war
B. To use the war as an opportunity to strike at Russia
C. To expand the empire
D. Both a and b
D.Both A and C
A. Colonel Ahmed Orabi & Tewfik Pasha
Blah and blah
A.February 1914, to open new fronts against the Ottomans
B.February 1915, to force open the Dardanelles and capture Mesopotamia.
C.February 1915, to force open the Dardanelles and capture Istanbul
D.February 1914, to open Russia to Entente supply lines through the Black Sea
A. leading army of 60,000 men across Black sea to attack the Russians
B. attacking the British army troops in Egypt
C. leading army of 20,000 to attack the British defence as a revolt against army base
D. leading army of 80,000 men across the Sinai Peninsula for a quick strike against the Suez Canal
A. 1918, Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, to Independence of Ottoman Turks
B.1918, Sultan Abdul Hamid, to form a new government
C.1916, Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, to create a single unified Arab state
D.1916, Jamal Pasha, to unite Arab states in to a single state.
A. Because he enforced the Tanzimat
B. Because he was able to appease the Janissaries and still move the country forward
C. Because he was able to lay down a path for his successors to continue his work and his downfall brought further change
D. Because he was able to unite the Janissaries with his new toops, the nizam-i jedid.
A. The donation of land to religious institutions from the general population
B. The reorganization of the army and administration
C. The establishment of sustainable diplomatic relations with Western Europe
D. An imperial expansion into Northern Sudan, West Coast of Arabia, all of Greater Syria, parts of Southwest Anatolia
A. Gain essential raw materials
B. Create a market for Egypt's output of materials
C. Answers A and B.
D. None of the above
A. France gained influence in Egypt through this treaty and the main point was that Egypt had to limit the size of its army to 18,000 men
B. Great Britain gained influence in Egypt and the main point was that Egypt had to limit the size of its army to 18,000 man
C. France gained influence in Egypt and the main point was that Mohammad Ali established a hereditary dynasty
D. Great Britain gained influence in Egypt and the main point was that Mohammad Ali established a dynasty
A. The Greeks saw the Ottomans as primarily a protector however the influence of nationalism caused this perception to change to an obstacle impeding progress
B. The Greeks saw the Ottomans as primarily a protector however the influence of nationalism changed this perception to change to see them as an "alien oppressor"
C. Nationalism had no effect on the perception of the Ottomans as they were already hated before its rise
D. Nationalism had no affect on the perception of Ottomans as they were still seen as an protector of Greece
A. The desire of the victors of WWI to benefit from the spoils- that is to say gain territory from the losers
B. The desire of the victors of WWI to gain land from the weakened losers, specifically referring to the Ottoman Empire
C. The desire of the victors of WWI to help establish and stabilize the weakened and new countries both politically and economically
D. The confusion of former Ottoman Empire countries that were weakened or newly established after the war, regarding self-determination after the degradation of the Ottoman Empire.
A. Sultan Abdul Hamid II committed these acts because he didn't agree with a limited monarchy
B. Rashid Pasha committed these acts because he didn't agree with a limited monarchy.
C. Sultan Abdul Hamid II committed these acts because he deemed the assembly too conservative for his ambitions
D. Fuad Pasha committed these acts because he deemed the assembly too conservative for his ambitions of reforming the country
A. Convince and encourage Russia to stay politically neutral in regards to Ottoman politics
B. Convince Great Britain that a war against Russia was too drastic a measure when only trying to protect their regional interests
C. Find a peaceful way to divide up the Ottoman Empire among the Great Powers
D. Encourage and unite the Slavic people so that they could free themselves from Ottoman control
A. It began in 1860 and was made up of the Maronites and other Christian groups as well as the Druze and Sunnis
B. It began in 1870 and was made up of Maronites and other Christian groups as well as the Druze and Sunnis.
C. It began in 1870 and was made up of the Ottoman forces and the Druze
D. It began in 1860 and was made up of the Sunnis and Ottoman forces
A. Mixed and National Courts
B. Completion of the Suez Canal
C. Egypt's right to use its own currency
D. All the above
A: The Soviet Union, gave Turkey a favorable settlement of the north-eastern frontier at the expense of the newly created Armenian state
B: Britain, aimed at resolving dispute over control of the Dardanelles and shipping through its waters
C: The Soviet Union, solely aimed at creating an alliance against the Allied powers
D: Germany, to continue the Berlin to Baghdad railroad and further military ties with the two powers
A: 1918, due to demands from the victorious Allied powers
B: 1925, to distance Turkey's capital from foreign invaders
C: 1920, to be able to assert more control over Anatolia
D: 1923, represented a replacement of former Byzantine and Ottoman past, with an Anatolian, Turkish future
A: Western-style dress
B: Secular, rather than religious education
C: A completely democratic system of government
D: The right to vote for women
D: Nothing was returned to Turkey in the Treaty of Lausanne
A: His father's demands that obtain a religious education
B: The Ottoman Empire's limited military capabilities
C: Military Academy in Salonica
D: His period of exile in Damascus
A: 1939, against Nazi Germany
B: 1941, against Britain and the Allied forces
C: 1945, against Nazi Germany
D: Never, Turkey did not participate in WWII
A: Russian invasion of Turkey in 1938
B: German invasion of Poland in 1939
C: German attack on Britain in 1940
D: German occupation of the Rhineland in 1936
A: Regulations on US military spending that significantly weakened the nation's military
B: The program under which the US supplied the Allies with weapons and supplies, a decisive step from non-interventionist policy
C: Laws that limited the public's ability to critique the war effort, which had a devastating impact on freedom of speech
D: A program that leased cargo ships to both Germany and Britain, angering both sides
A: 1943, to plan the Allied invasion of France
B: 1942, to organize intervention at Stalingrad
C: 1939, to plot assassination attempts on Hitler
D: 1945, to plan the war in the Pacific
A: Months of intense bombardment from the sea and air, followed by a massive amphibious invasion
B: A lull in air raids and island invasions, followed by the surprise dropping of the atomic bomb
C: Massive air raids aimed at beating Japan into submission, followed by the drop of the first atomic bomb
D: Thorough, peaceful negotiations with Japanese officials
A: The Tehran Conference
B: The Yalta Conference
C: The Casablanca Conference
D: The Potsdam Conference