Growth And Heredity Part 1 Unit Test Review

60 Questions

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Growth And Heredity Part 1 Unit Test Review

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The process of copying a gene's DNA sequence into a sequence of RNA is called
    • A. 

      Replication

    • B. 

      Transcription

    • C. 

      Translation

    • D. 

      PCR

  • 2. 
    The transcribing enzyme is
    • A. 

      Ligase

    • B. 

      DNA polymerase

    • C. 

      RNA polymerase

    • D. 

      Amino-acyl transferase

  • 3. 
    Which molecule contains the genetic code?
    • A. 

      DNA

    • B. 

      MRNA

    • C. 

      TRNA

    • D. 

      RRNA

  • 4. 
    Transcription occurs along a _____________ template forming an mRNA in the ___________________ direction.
    • A. 

      5' to 3'; 5' to 3'

    • B. 

      5' to 3'; 3' to 5'

    • C. 

      3' to 5'; 5' to 3'

    • D. 

      3' to 5'; 3' to 5'

  • 5. 
    The first mRNA codon to specify an amino acid is always
    • A. 

      TAC

    • B. 

      UAA

    • C. 

      UAG

    • D. 

      AUG

  • 6. 
    RNA contains which bases?
    • A. 

      Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine, uracil

    • B. 

      Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine

    • C. 

      Thymine, guanine, cytosine, uracil

    • D. 

      Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil

  • 7. 
    The effort to decipher the genetic code was led by ______________ who was awarded a Nobel Prize for his work.
    • A. 

      Nirenberg

    • B. 

      Lederberg

    • C. 

      Watson

    • D. 

      Crick

  • 8. 
    A DNA strand with the sequence AACGTAACG is transcribed.  What is the sequence of the mRNA molecule synthesized?
    • A. 

      AACGTAACG

    • B. 

      UUGCAUUGC

    • C. 

      AACGUAACG

    • D. 

      TTGCATTGC

  • 9. 
    Which process joins amino acids together to form proteins?
    • A. 

      Replication

    • B. 

      Translation

    • C. 

      Transcription

  • 10. 
    Which process makes mRNA?
    • A. 

      Replication

    • B. 

      Translation

    • C. 

      Transcription

  • 11. 
    Which process occurs at the ribosomes?
    • A. 

      Replication

    • B. 

      Translation

    • C. 

      Transcription

  • 12. 
    This is called messenger RNA.
    • A. 

      TRNA

    • B. 

      RRNA

    • C. 

      MRNA

  • 13. 
    This RNA carries the code from DNA to the ribosome.
    • A. 

      TRNA

    • B. 

      RRNA

    • C. 

      MRNA

  • 14. 
    This enzyme joins the mRNA nucleotides together.
    • A. 

      RNA polymerase

    • B. 

      DNA polymerase

    • C. 

      Helicase

    • D. 

      Option 4

  • 15. 
    The structure made of a phosphate, sugar, and a base is called a
    • A. 

      Codon

    • B. 

      Anticodon

    • C. 

      Nitrogen base

    • D. 

      Nucleotide

  • 16. 
    Which scientist worked with Francis Crick to propose the structure of DNA?
    • A. 

      Rosalind Franklin

    • B. 

      Erin Chargaff

    • C. 

      James Watson

  • 17. 
    Which scientist conducted an x-ray diffraction of crystals of purified DNA?
    • A. 

      Rosalind Franklin

    • B. 

      Erin Chargaff

    • C. 

      James Watson

    • D. 

      Francis Crick

  • 18. 
    Which scientist measured the amounts of each nitrogen base found in different species?
    • A. 

      Rosalind Franklin

    • B. 

      Erin Chargaff

    • C. 

      James Watson

    • D. 

      Francis Crick

  • 19. 
    RNA contains which sugar?
    • A. 

      Deoxyribose

    • B. 

      Ribose

  • 20. 
    Choose the base that does not belong in RNA.
    • A. 

      Adenine

    • B. 

      Guanine

    • C. 

      Thymine

    • D. 

      Uracil

  • 21. 
    According to Chargaff's Rule only one of the following is true.
    • A. 

      G = T

    • B. 

      A = C

    • C. 

      G = C

    • D. 

      C = T

  • 22. 
    Which base pair is correct?
    • A. 

      Adenine and cytosine

    • B. 

      Guanine and cytosine

    • C. 

      Thymine and guanine

    • D. 

      Thymine and cytosine

  • 23. 
    The base sequences of DNA is ATA GCA TCC.  The sequence of RNA transcribed from this strand is
    • A. 

      ATA GCA TCC

    • B. 

      CCT ACG ATA

    • C. 

      CCU ACG AUA

    • D. 

      UAU CGU AGG

  • 24. 
    An mRNA base sequence is UUA GCA.  The two anticodons complementary to this are:
    • A. 

      AAT CGT

    • B. 

      AAU CGU

    • C. 

      TTA GCA

    • D. 

      UUA GCA

  • 25. 
    The rungs of the DNA ladder are
    • A. 

      Paired sugars

    • B. 

      Paired nucleotides

    • C. 

      Paired nitrogen bases

    • D. 

      Sugar and phosphate molecules

  • 26. 
    The nucleic acid that is single stranded is
    • A. 

      DNA

    • B. 

      RNA

  • 27. 
    The nucleic acid that remains in the nucleus is
    • A. 

      DNA

    • B. 

      RNA

  • 28. 
    A section of chromosomes that codes for a trait can be called a(n):
    • A. 

      Nucleotide

    • B. 

      Base-pair

    • C. 

      Gene

    • D. 

      Nucleus

  • 29. 
    A person who receives an extra chromosome, could have
    • A. 

      Heightened intelligence

    • B. 

      Down Syndrome

    • C. 

      Red eyes

    • D. 

      Polygenic traits

  • 30. 
    If a person receives an X and a Y chromosome, that person is:
    • A. 

      Female

    • B. 

      Male

    • C. 

      Red eyed

    • D. 

      Blue eyed

  • 31. 
    Two alleles for pea plant height are designated T (tall) and t (dwarf).  These alleles are found on:
    • A. 

      Genes

    • B. 

      Sex chromosomes

    • C. 

      Ribosomes

    • D. 

      Homologous chromosomes

  • 32. 
    A picture of a person's chromosomes is called a(n):
    • A. 

      Karyotype

    • B. 

      Syndrome

    • C. 

      Chromatin

    • D. 

      Fingerprint

  • 33. 
    Protein synthesis in eukaryotes takes place on:
    • A. 

      The plasma membrane

    • B. 

      The nucleus

    • C. 

      Ribosomes

    • D. 

      Lysosomes

  • 34. 
    The number of nucleotides required to specify an amino acid is:
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

  • 35. 
    Transcription produces RNA growing from the 5' end to the 3' end.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
    Examine the picture of the cell.  What phase is the cell in?
    • A. 

      Prophase

    • B. 

      Anaphase

    • C. 

      Metaphase

    • D. 

      Telophase

  • 37. 
    What is the structure labeled "X" on the picture?
    • A. 

      Centriole

    • B. 

      Spindle

    • C. 

      Chromosome

    • D. 

      Chromatid

  • 38. 
    During which phase do chromosomes first become visible?
    • A. 

      Interphase

    • B. 

      Telophase

    • C. 

      Metaphase

    • D. 

      Prophase

  • 39. 
    A cell with 10 chromosomes undergoes mitosis.  How many daughter cells are created?  ______Each daughter cell has _________ chromosomes.
    • A. 

      2, 10

    • B. 

      10, 2

    • C. 

      1, 10

    • D. 

      2, 20

  • 40. 
    What structure is responsible for moving the chromosomes during mitosis?
    • A. 

      Nucleolus

    • B. 

      Nuclear membrane

    • C. 

      Spindle

    • D. 

      Cytoplasm

  • 41. 
    Cytokinesis begins in which phase?
    • A. 

      Metaphase

    • B. 

      Telophase

    • C. 

      Prophase

    • D. 

      Anaphase

  • 42. 
    Each chromosome consists of 2 ___________.
    • A. 

      Centrofibers

    • B. 

      Chromatids

    • C. 

      Daughter cells

    • D. 

      Centrioles

  • 43. 
    Meiosis results in ______________.
    • A. 

      2 haploid daughter cells

    • B. 

      4 haploid daughter cells

    • C. 

      2 diploid daughter cells

    • D. 

      4 diploid daughter cells

  • 44. 
    Which of the following cells undergo meiosis?
    • A. 

      Sperm cells

    • B. 

      Liver cells

    • C. 

      Unicellular organisms

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 45. 
    The picture depicts what phase of meiosis.
    • A. 

      Prophase 1

    • B. 

      Prophase 2

    • C. 

      Anaphase 1

    • D. 

      Anaphase 2

  • 46. 
    Crossing-over occurs during:
    • A. 

      Anaphase 1

    • B. 

      Metaphase 1

    • C. 

      Prophase 1

    • D. 

      Prophase 2

  • 47. 
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that produces:
    • A. 

      Zygotes

    • B. 

      Chromosomes

    • C. 

      DNA

    • D. 

      Gametes

  • 48. 
    Which of the following distinguishes prophase 1 of meiosis from prophase of mitosis?
    • A. 

      Homologous chromosomes pair up

    • B. 

      Spindle forms

    • C. 

      Nuclear membrane breaks down

    • D. 

      Chromosomes become visible

  • 49. 
    A cell with a diploid number of 24 undergoes meiosis, how many chromosomes are in each daughter cell?
    • A. 

      6

    • B. 

      12

    • C. 

      24

    • D. 

      48

  • 50. 
    The picture depicts what stage of meiosis?
    • A. 

      Prophase 1

    • B. 

      Anaphase 1

    • C. 

      Metaphase 1

    • D. 

      Metaphase 2

  • 51. 
    Bacteria reproduce asexually by a process called
    • A. 

      Replication

    • B. 

      Binary fission

    • C. 

      Splitting in two

    • D. 

      Meiosis

  • 52. 
    In binary fission how does the DNA of the daughter cells compare to the DNA of the parent cell?
    • A. 

      It is identical.

    • B. 

      It has some similarities and some differences.

    • C. 

      It is a mix of the parent's DNA.

    • D. 

      It is only half of the amount of DNA found in the parent.

  • 53. 
    How many parents are required for asexual reproduction?
    • A. 

      One

    • B. 

      Six

    • C. 

      Four

    • D. 

      Two

  • 54. 
    How can asexually reproducing organisms gain some genetic diversity?
    • A. 

      Mitosis

    • B. 

      Mutations

    • C. 

      Crossing over

    • D. 

      Meiosis

  • 55. 
    What process creates gametes for sexual reproduction?
    • A. 

      Crossing over

    • B. 

      Independent assortment

    • C. 

      Mitosis

    • D. 

      Meiosis

  • 56. 
    What type of reproduction is more conducive to evolution due to the increased genetic diversity it offers?
    • A. 

      Budding

    • B. 

      Sexual

    • C. 

      Binary fission

    • D. 

      Asexual

  • 57. 
    Which of the following is a disadvantage for sexual reproduction?
    • A. 

      The offspring are genetically different.

    • B. 

      The genetic diversity makes organisms respond differently to environmental changes.

    • C. 

      A lot of time and energy is required for making gametes and finding mates.

    • D. 

      Offspring can be produced more quickly than by asexual means.

  • 58. 
    The process by which stem cells develop into specialized cells is known as...
    • A. 

      Cell specialization

    • B. 

      Cell differentiation

    • C. 

      Mitosis

    • D. 

      Cytokinesis

  • 59. 
    Specialized cells that work together to perform a function are known as...
    • A. 

      Organelles

    • B. 

      Organs

    • C. 

      Organ systems

    • D. 

      A tissue

  • 60. 
    Which of the following is an example of a tissue?
    • A. 

      Heart

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Epithelium

    • D. 

      Small intestine