What does the chief of staff do? His or her typical workday includes selecting who is allowed to speak with the president, sort documents the president must read, schedule appointments and prioritize daily policy decisions.
Because of the increase in staff, some argue that the balance of power is tipped in favor of the executive versus legislative branch. At the end of the day, it is still the Constitution that dictates formal limits to the scope of power.
What are the roles of the president?
The roles of the president are managing crises, providing policy leadership, managing the economy, and managing the government. The president is Chief executive, chief legislature, chief diplomat, commander-in-chief, and chief of state.
- Governing without an executive under the AoC proved inept and ineffective.
- While the Founders wished to prevent ___________________ and dictatorial power from an executive such as King George III, they vested authority in the legislative body without providing it power to enforce those decisions. At the Constitutional Convention, the Founders decided the president should have real and significant powers. These can be found in Article __ of the Constitution.
- Included in the Founder’s discussion was the executive’s ability to exercise powers not included in the Constitution when the need arises. John Locke uses the term ___________________ power: powers above the stated law used out of necessity to maintain the public good.
- The Founders knew that at certain times, the need would arise for a single executive to use necessary power to maintain the general welfare. The most famous example of this is ____________________________________________________________________.
There are two models of presidential power: the _____ model, and the _______ model.
Original view of office. An administrator who carried out the will of the congress. Powers confined to those enumerated by the constitution.
A strong assertive role of the office not confined to those ideas in the constitution charged with meeting the needs of the pople. Wide lattitude to do anything unless forbidden by constitution or law.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) is responsible for bringing the _______________________________ to life. For example, after being in office less than a week, he declared a nationwide banking holiday to close banks for inspection by government officials. Despite the fact that Congress is to regulate commerce, FDR banned the buying and selling of gold and linking the value of coinage to a gold reserve. He also urged an emergency banking bill which Congress passed in 38 minutes. In the first __________ of his presidency, FDR did more to expand and broaden presidential powers than ever before or ever since. Even though many of his initiatives failed to be approved, new presidents today are still measured and compared to FDR by how much they can accomplish in the same amount of time.
QUALIFICATIONS TO BE PRESIDENT:
__ years of age,
Born in the _____ _____,
A resident of the U.S. for at least __ years.
Indirectly elected by the people via the ______ ______
The president serves a ____ year term with the possibility of re-election.
The president is only as effective as his ______________________: a powerhouse of advisors, experts, and staff.
The executive branch now includes an institution of departments and agencies, all of which fall under the president’s authority and carry out legislation by Congress. Each is crucial to effective governance.
Although the Founders rejected the idea of multiple executives or a council of powerful advisors, George Washington immediately recognized the need for key staff members to manage specific spheres of executive power, as the executive branch was too large for a one-man show. He created a ________________ of staff, whom answer directly to the president. He appoints a person to fill the post, and the Senate must confirm or reject the appointment. Members of the cabinet cannot also by members of Congress, unlike a Parliamentary system, because the Constitution forbids a person to hold more than one post in the Federal government at the same time.
Washington began with four cabinet posts to run each department:
Secretary of State: _________________________________, who was responsible for foreign affairs.
Secretary of the Treasury: _____________________________, who coincidentally, did not get along with Jefferson.
Attorney General: __________________________, who would later be appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Secretary of War: ___________________________, who was in charge of the U.S. Army.
Later, a Secretary of the Navy was added. The two departments combined after World War II to form the Department of Defense.
Departments of Interior, Agriculture, Post Office, etc. were added in time. Today there are ____ cabinet posts, most of which were created in the 20th century. The most recent addition is the ____________________________________________, which was added after the 9/11 attacks.
The ______ _____ is different than the cabinet. It manages the daily functions of the president’s office including schedule and policy initiatives. It was created in 1939. Some of the most important offices are:
National Security Council
Office of Management and Budget
Council of Economic Advisors
-The “Inner cabinet” that advises the president and coordinates foreign, defense, and intelligence activities.
-A body created in the US by Congress after World War II to advise the president (who chairs it) on issues relation to national security in domestic, foreign, and military policy.
A cabinet-level office; the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. It is the executive agency that advises the President on the federal budget.
-An executive agency responsible for providing economic advice to the president.
-A group of 3 economists who advise the president on economic policy. It is part of the Executive office of the president.
Obviously, running the Office of the President requires numerous people. FDR used about 47, Richard Nixon used about 555. Today, the number fluctuates around 500 and includes interns, fellows, assistants from the campaign trail, strategists, close friends, and “administrative assistants.” The supervisor for these men and women is known as the _________________________, who meets with the President daily and acts as gatekeeper. (kinda more important than the vice president!)
The concept of the Executive working collectively with a massive web of staff, analysts, and advisors.
You may can name all the Presidents in an hour, but can you name all the vice presidents? The vice presidency is often considered an insignificant post. (See quotes on p.282). Insignificant or not, the Vice President has assumed the Presidency nine (9) times. These are our unelected presidents: John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry Truman, Lyndon Johnson, and Gerald Ford.
The involvement of the vice president is up to the President. In the past, they were not always given full access to the president. For example, in April 1945, _____ ______ did not know the US had built an atomic bomb. Conversely, ____ ______ was an instrumental figure in intelligence operations. As it appears right now, Biden has more of a ceremonial role than proactive.
Informal versus Formal Powers:
The______________ powers of the Constitution (i.e. Whig model) amount to very little more than ceremonial administrative tasks.
The ______________ powers are those powers the president assumes in addition to those in the Constitution for the mere reason that he is president.
appointing _______ and ______ (confirmed by Senate).
commission officers in the ______ (and grant awards)
receive foreign ________ (ie have state dinners)
convene sessions of ______.
issue executive _________, (an agreement with a foreign country that does not require Congressional approval).
issue executive ______ (a directive to part of the executive branch)
- Powers of _______
The President is responsible for making about 6,000 appointments - the most important of which are his cabinet and federal judges (including the Supreme Court). Most of these must be approved by the Senate.
The President is the final authority in military matters and ultimately is responsible for the entire military might of the United States.
- ______ _____
The President has the right to conduct diplomatic missions and set foreign policy on behalf of the United States.
- _____ ______
The President has the power to pardon or commute the sentence of convicted criminals.
- ________ ______
The President has the ability to declare a 90 day period of Emergency during which he can use the full force of the military without seeking permission from Congress either in the form of a declaration of war or through funding.
The President can veto any bill signed by Congress - preventing it from passing unless both Houses can muster a 2/3rd majority in favor of passing the bill. In most cases, a veto will kill a proposed bill.
informal powers, meaning powers that are not the result of an established rule, policy
mechanism, or constitutional assignment of authority, for example,the power to
________.The president relies on the Cabinet, the Executive Office of the President, and
the White House Staff for successful leadership.
- _____ _____
Probably the most important "informal power" of the President is his ability to influence the legislative agenda and set economic policy. As the most powerful single individual in the US government, the President is able to "throw his weight around" and influence areas not under his direct control
Richard _______ defines presidential power as the power to persuade. “The real powers of any president are to use a combination of personality and political skills to lobby members of Congress.”
When deliberating what to call the President, ____ _____ suggested “His High Mightiness.” _______ chose “Mr. President.”
Responsible for granting reprieves and pardons (Article II,sect2), representing the nation as chief of state, and appointing federal court and supreme court judges.
_____ ______: As discussed in chapter 7, the president has the power to veto bills and conduct a “State of the Union” address.
There are two types of Vetoes:
____ ______-A statement submitted by the president to the Legislature explaining the reasons for the veto of a bill & basically stating that the bill is vetoed.
_____ ____-The president has 10 days to veto or approve a bill (doesn’t include Sundays). If congress is in session and he doesn’t sign, it becomes law. If congress isn’t in session, it’s vetoed if the president doesn’t sign. In other words, it’s an indirect veto of a legislative bill by the president or a governor by returning the bill unsigned until it is too late for it to be dealt with during the legislative session. (first def is better though…)
**To overturn either veto, a __/__ majority is needed from each chamber. Less than __% of bills have been overridden by Congress.
When the president crosses out (vetos) a portion of the bill by literally crossing it out.
The president saying that if congress passes a resolution, he will veto it.
This is an annual address presented by the president of the United States to the United States congress. The address not only reports on the condition of the nation but also allows the president to outline his legislative agenda (for which he needs the cooperation of Congress) and his national priorities.
Responsible for making treaties “with the Advice and Consent of the Senate” (Article II,Sect2), and making executive agreements (by custom and international law).)
A formally concluded and ratified agreement between countries.
An international agreement, regarding routine administrative matters not warranting a formal treaty, made by the executive branch of the US government without ratification by the senate.
-An agreement made between the executive branch of the US government and a foreign government without ratification by the Senate.
________ __ _____: The president takes an oath to “preserve, protect, and defend” the nation. He or she is the one person to be ultimately responsible for leading the nation in times of crisis. Under the Constitution, ______ has the power to declare war; however, most _______ bypass this. The last time Congress actually declared war was December 8, 1941.
___ _______ ______ of 1973: An attempt to limit the president’s urge to make war.
He or she must consult with _______ in every possible circumstance
Alert Congress within __ hours after sending in troops.
Any military engagement must end in __ days unless further approved by Congress.
Nearly every president since this Act passed in 1973 has declared this __________. The fact of the matter is- it is no longer practical in today’s society. To check this presidential action, Congress has threatened on a few occasions to pull funding for the military.
When the president signs the bill into law, he simultaneously issues a written proclamation of how he will enforce the new law- even if that’s not how Congress intended.
The responsibilities of the executive branch are spelled out in which article of the Constitution? What are these?
-Chief _______! (Responsible for implementing policy: “take care that the Laws be faithfully executed. (Article II,Sect3), supervising the executive branch of government, appointing and removing executive officials (Article II, sect2), and preparing executive budget for submission to Congress(by law of Congress). )
-Chief ______!( Responsible for initiating policy: “give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient” (Article II, sect3), vetoing legislation passed by Congress, subject to override by a two-thirds vote in both houses, and convening special session of Congress “on extraordinary Occasions” (ArticleII,sect3).)
-Chief _______! (Responsible for making treaties “with the Advice and Consent of the Senate” (Article II,Sect2), and making executive agreements (by custom and international law).)
-______-__-_____! (Responsible for commanding US armed forces and appointing military officers)
-Chief of ____! (Responsible for granting reprieves and pardons (Article II,sect2), representing the nation as chief of state, and appointing federal court and supreme court judges.
How do we elect the president?
First, voters cast their ballots in the presidential ______. Their votes actually select a group of ______ who pledge to vote for a specific candidate when the ______ ______ meets again. The “______ ______ is the unofficial term coined in the 1800s for this group of citizens who cast the official votes that elect the president and vice president. The presidential/vice-presidential pair who wins the popular vote in any given state receives all of the state’s ______ ______ votes. In the end, the winner of the race is the candidate who receives a majority (270) of the 538 ______ _____ votes. The results of the election won’t be official until the president of the Senate counts the votes out loud at a special joint session of Congress.
A _____ ______ is a public office or other position of authority of sufficiently high rank that provides the holder with an opportunity to speak out and be listened to on any matter. The ____ _____can bring issues to the forefront that were not initially in debate, due to the office’s stature and publicity. The term was coined by president Theodore Roosevelt, who referred to the White House as a “____ _____,” by which he meant a terrific platform from which to advocate an agenda. Roosevelt famously used the word _____ as an adjective meaning “suberb” or wonderful” (a more common expression in his time than it is today.
The ______= the heads (secretaries) of the executive departments together with other top officials accorded cabinet rank by the president; only occasionally does it meet as a body to advise and support the president.
-The ______ is not mentioned in the US constitution; it has no formal powers. It consists of the secretaries of the 15 executive departments and others the president may designate, including the vice president, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Director of National Drug Control Policy, and the Special Trade Representative. Some other positions in the cabinet include the secretary of state, the secretary of defense, the secretary of the treasury, and the attorney general.
-______ _______ formed the first ______.
-The ______ rarely functions as a decision-making body.
What is the purpose of the cabinet?
They head giant administrative _________.
ex: Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Director of National Drug Control Policy, and the Special Trade Representative. Some other positions in the cabinet include the secretary of state, the secretary of defense, the secretary of the treasury, and the attorney general.
What responsibilities does the vice-president have? Name three or so highly effective and active vice-presidents in the past 100 years.
The principal responsibility of the vice president is to be prepared to assume the responsibilities of the _______. Presidents determine what role their vice presidents will play in their administration. Constitutionally, the only role given to the vice president is to preside over the ______ and to vote in case of a ___ in that body. Vice presidents are obliged to support their president and the administration’s policies. Vice presidents are also useful in campaign fund raising.
- Walter ______ (in book) – had access to all important meetings and policy discussions.
- Al ____(in book) – routinely stationed behind President Clinton during major policy pronouncements.
- Richard _____(according to google…)
11. What type of role does the First Lady have? Name three or so highly visible first ladies and what they are known for.
The position of the First Lady is not an elected one, carries no official duties, and receives no salary. The role of the first lady is, however, first and foremost, the hostess of the White House. She organizes and attends official ceremonies and functions of state either along with, or in place of, the president.
Three highly visible first ladies:
Martha _______ and Abigail _____ gained fame from the ________ ___ and were treated as if they were “ladies” of the British royal court.
Dolley ______ popularized the first ladyship by engaging in efforts to assist ______ and women, by dressing in elegant fashions and attracting newspaper coverage, and risking her life to save iconic treasures during the War of 1812.
Michelle ______ is also and active first lady and she is involved in many things. She promotes healthy eating on Disney Chanel and is on many magazine covers and she does other things too.