Humans first learned to use fire.
Life expectancy declined.
People began hunting and gathering for food.
Traders from China
Conquering Mongol invaders
Vikings from northern Europe
Missionaries from the Byzantine Empire
Worldly achievements were emphasized.
Suffrage was granted to men and women.
Most literature was written in Arabic.
Most ancient Greek and Roman ideas were rejected.
Africa remained isolated.
Ottoman power decreased.
Colonies were established in Japan.
Interest in Asian cultures increased.
Development of the astrolabe
Introduction of the telegraph
Improvements to the printing press
Creation of the telescope
Prices based on supply and demand
Production quotas established by the central government
Distribution of goods determined by the customs of a traditional society
Some goods exchanged for other goods of equal value
Tracking the development and spread of diseases
Understanding the causes of ethnic rivalries
Examining the distribution and use of limited resources
Studying the growth and role of political parties
Land usage patterns
Great Rift Valley
Amazon rain forest
Began living in permanent settlements
Developed a nomadic way of life
Depended on hunting and gathering
Used crop rotation to increase agricultural output
Harvesting a surplus of crops to be sold for profit
Producing just enough food for a family’s survival
Domesticating animals to transport goods
Irrigating crops to increase production
Refraining from eating meat on Fridays
Praying five times a day
Following the Eightfold Path
Worshipping many gods
Invention of the wheel and gunpowder
Participation of citizens in government
Diffusion of Hindu beliefs
Preservation of Greek science and Roman engineering
Trade increased between Europe and the Middle East.
Islamic kingdoms expanded into Europe.
Arabs and Christians divided the city of Jerusalem between them.
Alexander the Great became a powerful leader in Eurasia.
Thought the church lacked structure
Disagreed with the sale of indulgences
Blamed the church for not curing people who had the plague
Believed that kings should have more power to appoint clergy
Domestication of cattle
Use of a steel plow
Terracing of mountains for farming
Development of floating gardens
The Aztec conquered a vast empire.
Potatoes were introduced into the diet of some Europeans.
Prince Henry the Navigator established a school for sailors.
China closed its borders to foreigners.
Many African communities faced economic disaster.
European industrial factories were established throughout Africa.
Animism was no longer practiced in Africa.
Africans across the continent hired Europeans to train their military.
Benefit the mother country
Trade openly with various countries
Be left alone to manage their own affairs
Attempt to gain independence as soon as possible
“government should leave businesses alone”
“countries should settle differences without war”
“do not question government authority”
“all men are created with natural rights”
The belief that one’s culture is superior to all others
Military preparation for a civil war
Love and devotion to one’s country
A belief in one god
Seek religious freedom
Establish a colonial empire
Find land for farming and grazing