Stem cells from the bone marrow
Vascular and nonvascular
Spongy and calcified
Compact and cancellous
Dense and pliable
The skin and soft tissue are exposed at the fracture site.
A bone is crushed into many small pieces.
The bone appears bent with a partial fracture line.
One end of a bone is forced into an adjacent bone.
The distal radius is broken.
The distal fibula is broken.
A vertebra appears crushed.
A spontaneous fracture occurs in weakened bone.
Is broken down and absorbed immediately.
Provides the base for bone cells to produce new bone.
Is the structure into which granulation tissue grows.
Produces fibroblasts to lay down new cartilage.
Can bear weight.
Serves as a splint across the fracture site.
Is the tissue that lays down new cartilage.
Is made up of new bone.
Excessive bone movement.
Severe ischemia and tissue necrosis.
Malunion or nonunion.
Fat emboli to form.
Pain and tenderness
Increased range of motion at a joint
Deformity at a joint
A sedentary lifestyle.
Long-term intake of glucocorticoids.
Bone resorption is greater than bone formation.
It causes compression fractures of the vertebrae.
Osteoporosis is always a primary disorder.
It often leads to kyphosis and loss of height.
Intermittent, increasing with activity
Sharp, increased with joint movement
Mild, aching when weight-bearing
Steady, severe, and persisting with rest
Autosomal recessive gene
X-linked recessive gene
Autosomal dominant gene
There is difficulty climbing stairs or standing up at 2 to 3 years of age.
It involves only the legs and pelvis.
Skeletal muscle atrophy can be seen in the legs of a toddler.
It cannot be detected in any carriers.
Inflammation and fibrosis develop at the joints.
Degeneration of articulating cartilage occurs in the large joints.
It progresses bilaterally through the small joints.
There are no changes in the bone at the affected joints.
Decreases over time
Quite severe in the early stages
Aggravated by general muscle aching
Increased with weight-bearing and activity
The osteophytes and irregular cartilage surface
The wider joint space
Decreased amount of synovial fluid in the cavity
Fibrosis involving the joint capsule and ligaments
Causing enzymes to be released that travel to other joints.
Bacteria traveling from the affected join to a healthy one through the bloodstream.
Inflammation and edema affecting the entire limb.
The affected individual’s exerting stress on the normal joint to protect the damaged one.
Random single joints, progressing to involve other joints
Bilateral small joints, symmetrical progression to other joints
Abused or damaged joints first, then joints damaged by compensatory movement
Progressive degeneration in selected joints
Degenerative disorder involving the small joints
Chronic inflammatory disorder affecting all joints
Systemic inflammatory disorder due to an autoimmune reaction
Inflammatory disorder causing damage to many organs
Enzymatic destruction by the pannus
Inflamed synovial membrane covers the cartilage
Fibrous tissue connects the ends of the bones
Blood supply to the cartilage is lost
Enlarged, firm, crepitus with movement
Deformed, pale, and nodular
Red, warm, swollen, and tender to touch
Skeletal muscle hypertrophies.
Fibrosis occurs in the joint.
Replacement cartilage changes alignment.
Ligaments and tendons shorten.
Nodules in various tissues, severe fatigue, and anorexia.
Headache, leukopenia, and high fever.
Swelling and dysfunction in many organs.
Progressive damage to a joint.