The birthrate of the population.
The death rate of the population.
The percentage of the population between the ages of 14 and 49.
The percentage of the population less than 14 years of age.
The average life expectancy of the population.
Earthquakes and volcanoes are randomly scattered about the Earth.
Earthquakes and volcanoes rarely occur in the same localities.
Earthquakes occur mostly in narrowly defined zones but volcanoes are randomly distributed about the Earth.
Earthquakes and volcanoes commonly occur in the same narrowly defined zones.
Volcanoes occur mostly in narrowly defined zones but earthquakes are randomly distributed about the Earth.
Terrestrial planets forming earlier in the history of the solar system, before gases had condensed enough to form atmospheres.
Terrestrial planets forming later in the history of the solar system, after most gases had been captured by the gas giants.
A period in the early history of the sun’s formation, during which an immense solar wind was emitted, blowing most of the lighter gases away from the region in which the terrestrial planets would eventually form.
The more rapid rate at which the terrestrial planets orbit the sun, causing the lighter gases to be blown away during the orbital cycles.
The terrestrial planets are all too small to hold a massive atmosphere like the gas giants.
Principle of uniformitarianism.
Principle of superposition.
Principle of cross-cutting relationships.
Principle of original horizontally.
Principle of fossil succession.
The probability of a given event occurring.
The consequences of a given event occurring.
The product of the probability of an even occurring multiplied by the consequences of that event occurring.
The ratio of the probability of an event occurring divided by the consequences of that event occurring.
The length of time available from the time a warning of a given event occurs until the event actually happens.
Measuring the actual size of the reservoir.
Comparing the input flux with the output flux.
Dividing the capacity of the reservoir by the flux rate.
Comparing the actual size of the reservoir with the maximum size it can possibly attain.
Comparing the age of the reservoir with the length of time it will take to fill or drain it completely.
Average residence time.
Infestation of airborne pathogens
Immediately following the “Big Bang” as soon as particles cooled sufficiently to solidify.
From a gaseous nebula that was produced by the collision of two or more ancient stars.
From a gaseous nebula that was produced when a first-generation star became a super nova.
From a gaseous nebula that was produced when a third- or fourth-generation star became a super nova.
Rule of 70
An atmosphere that is neither too dense or too sparse.
Global conditions allowing H2O to exist as a liquid, solid, and vapor.
A magnetic field that deflects harmful solar radiation.
All the above
B and c but not a
Land and water management
Resource use and greenhouse gas emissions
Use and conservation of forests.
Overpopulation and deforestation.
Desertification and water scarcity.
Continent-ocean subduction zone
Ocean-ocean subduction zone
Frozen water lines
Fossils of ferns
Fossils of land reptiles
Fossils of birds
Fossils of freshwater reptiles
Evidence of glaciation