Geo Final Exam

99 Questions

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Geography Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The orientation of rock layers can be determined by measuring: 
    • A. 

      Location

    • B. 

      Strike and dip

    • C. 

      Height

    • D. 

      Thickness

  • 2. 
    Brittle failure is associated with:
    • A. 

      A. Rocks deep within the crust, where high temperatures cause rocks to break.


    • B. 

      B. Rocks at the surface, where temperatures and pressures are low.


    • C. 

      C. The slow application of stress, which allows atoms to migrate from areas of maximum stress and rebound in areas of lower stress.


    • D. 

      D. None of the above.

  • 3. 
    3. Deformation is most easily seen

    • A. 

      A. In igneous plutons that contain a significant number of hydrous minerals.


    • B. 

      B. In sedimentary rocks because they were originally horizontal and deformation disturbs their horizontality in visually obvious ways.


    • C. 

      C. In non-foliated metamorphic rocks such as marble and quartzite.


    • D. 

      D. None of the above.

  • 4. 
    4.Along a fault, the rock masses on either side of the fracture have moved relative to each other.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 5. 
    5. Each type of fault

    • A. 

      A. Is produced by a particular type of stress.

    • B. 

      B. Occurs at a distinct depth in the mantle.

    • C. 

      C. Is caused by elastic strain.


    • D. 

      D. Is the result of a different type of strain.

  • 6. 
    6. Faults that form by horizontal slip of adjacent blocks of rock

    • A. 

      A. Are called strike-slip faults.


    • B. 

      B. Do not cause any ground displacement.


    • C. 

      C. Usually contain at least one block that has dropped down a significant distance.

    • D. 

      D. Generally form at divergent plate boundaries.

  • 7. 
    7. Faults with oblique slip combine vertical and horizontal motion. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    8. Fractures in rocks are evidence of 
    • A. 

      A. Plastic strain.

    • B. 

      B. Elastic strain.


    • C. 

      C. Brittle strain.


    • D. 

      D. None of the above.

  • 9. 
    9. In a reverse fault:

    • A. 

      A. Powerful compressional forces are needed to move the rocks above the fault plane up.

    • B. 

      B. The fault blocks first move down and then reverse direction, to move up.


    • C. 

      C. Shear stress causes the two fault blocks to move past each other horizontally.

    • D. 

      D. Tensional forces allow the rocks above the fault plane to drop down.

  • 10. 
    11. In dip-slip faults, the fault blocks move up and down, parallel to the dip of the fault plane.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    12. Overthrust is associated with thrust faults and can be responsible for placing older rock on top of younger rock.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    13. Rock fractures with no evidence of movement are called faults. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    14. Synclines and anticlines are evidence of tensional stress experienced by the rocks
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 14. 
    15. Folds are found mainly at
    • A. 

      
a. Transform plate boundaries, where rocks are being pushed together.


    • B. 

      B. Convergent plate boundaries, where rocks are being squeezed together.

    • C. 

      C. Divergent plate boundaries, where rocks are being pulled apart.


    • D. 

      D. All of the above.

  • 15. 
    16. Which of the following is the definition of an anticline?
    • A. 

      A. A fold that is concave-upward.


    • B. 

      B. A fold whose limbs plunge toward one another.

    • C. 

      C. A fold whose axis is horizontal.

    • D. 

      D. A fold whose limbs are inclined away from each other.

  • 16. 
    17. When an entire sequence of anticlines and synclines tilts so that the structure’s axes intersect the Earth’s surface they are called
    • A. 

      A. Symmetrical folds.

    • B. 

      B. Recumbent folds.

    • C. 

      C. Overturned folds.

    • D. 

      D. Plunging folds.

  • 17. 
    18. In a setting of tensional tectonics: 
    • A. 

      A. Normal faulting occurs


    • B. 

      B. Basin formation occurs

    • C. 

      C. Steep faults shallow with depth

    • D. 

      D. All of the above

  • 18. 
    19. Under compressive tectonics:

    • A. 

      A. Blocks of crustal rocks slide past each other sideways

    • B. 

      B. Layers of rocks are thrust over each other


    • C. 

      C. Basins are formed


    • D. 

      D. All of the above

  • 19. 
    20. An example of a strike-slip faulting is:
    • A. 

      A. The Rhine Valley

    • B. 

      B. The Keystone fault, Nevada

    • C. 

      C. The San Andreas


    • D. 

      D. The Basin and Range

  • 20. 
    21. Minerals are stable

    • A. 

      A. Under all conditions.

    • B. 

      B. Under no conditions, that’s why they weather.

    • C. 

      C. Under the conditions in which they originally formed.

  • 21. 
    22. The changes that occur to minerals during metamorphism
    • A. 

      A. Occur very quickly as temperature changes.


    • B. 

      B. Occur by the initiation of partial melting.


    • C. 

      C. Occur in the solid state.

    • D. 

      D. Occur when minerals dissolve in hot water.

  • 22. 
    23. Unstable minerals will recrystallize during metamorphism 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    24. Temperature beneath the continental crust increases at a rate of 2 to 3 degrees centigrade per meter
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    25. Equally exerted pressure within the crust is termed 
    • A. 

      A. Shear pressure.

    • B. 

      B. Confining pressure.

    • C. 

      C. Directed pressure.

    • D. 

      D. Partial pressure.

  • 25. 
    26. Which of the following factors is not a significant part of metamorphism 
    • A. 

      A. Fluids.

    • B. 

      B. Gravity.

    • C. 

      C. Heat.


    • D. 

      D. Pressure.

  • 26. 
    27. Which type of metamorphism has the steepest temperature gradient? 
    • A. 

      A. Burial

    • B. 

      B. Regional


    • C. 

      C. Contact


    • D. 

      D. High pressure

  • 27. 
    28. Convergent plate boundaries squeeze rocks, producing regional metamorphic rocks 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 28. 
    29. Burial metamorphism typically does not produce foliated rocks due to 
    • A. 

      A. The lack of clay minerals in the parent rock.


    • B. 

      B. The high-pressure environment.


    • C. 

      C. The absence of directed pressure.

    • D. 

      D. The low temperature environment.

  • 29. 
    30. Increasing metamorphic grade goes from: 
    • A. 

      A. Phyllite, schist, gneiss, migmatite

    • B. 

      B. Slate, schist, migmatite, phyllite


    • C. 

      C. Gneiss, schist, phyllite, slate

    • D. 

      D. Slate, schist, gneiss, phyllite

  • 30. 
    31. The composition of the parent rock has little influence on the formation of metamorphic minerals.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 31. 
    32. Metamorphic grade describes the

    • A. 

      A. Temperature conditions of metamorphism.

    • B. 

      B. Tectonic setting during metamorphism.


    • C. 

      C. Pressure conditions of metamorphism.


    • D. 

      D. The intensity of the metamorphism.

  • 32. 
    33. What is the name for a line on a geologic map that delineates where one metamorphic grade changes to another?
    • A. 

      A. Contact

    • B. 

      B. Isotherm

    • C. 

      C. Isograd

    • D. 

      D. Isobar

  • 33. 
    34. Which of the following rocks do not have shale as the parent rock?
    • A. 

      A. Marble

    • B. 

      B. Phyllite

    • C. 

      C. Gneiss

    • D. 

      D. Slate

  • 34. 
    35. Which of the following statements about eclogites is false?
    • A. 

      A. Eclogite form at high pressures.


    • B. 

      B. Eclogite form in subduction zones.


    • C. 

      C. Eclogite form next to granitic intrusions.

    • D. 

      D. Eclogites form at high temperatures

  • 35. 
    36. Which statement is false?

    • A. 

      A. Garnet occurs in amphibolite facies metamorphosed shale

    • B. 

      B. Epidote occurs in greenschists facies metamorphosed basalt

    • C. 

      C. Muscovite occurs in low-grade metamorphosed shale


    • D. 

      D. Garnet occurs in low-grade metamorphosed basalt.

  • 36. 
    37. Relative dating methods tell time by

    • A. 

      A. Using minerals to determine when a rock formed.


    • B. 

      B. Determining the time of formation of a rock.


    • C. 

      C. Examining the age of a rock relative to that of the Earth.


    • D. 

      D. Using rock properties to determine which is youngest or oldest of a group.

  • 37. 
    38. A fault may be used to tell relative time, and is an example of
    • A. 

      A. A cross-cutting relationship.

    • B. 

      B. An inclusion in the rock.


    • C. 

      C. A disconformity.

    • D. 

      D. An unconformity.

  • 38. 
    39. A stratigraphic succession is:
    • A. 

      
a. A chronologically ordered set of strata with young on top

    • B. 

      
b. A chronologically ordered set of strata with old on top

    • C. 

      
c. A chronologically ordered set of strata without a time hiatus

    • D. 

      D. A chronologically ordered set of strata that lies horizontally

  • 39. 
    40. Tracing of geologic units over large distances using fossils and other evidence is a process referred to as
    • A. 

      A. Horizontality.

    • B. 

      B. Faunal succession.

    • C. 

      C. Correlation.

    • D. 

      D. Uniformity.

  • 40. 
    41. A disconformity represents

    • A. 

      A. A sequence of rocks where relative dating is not possible.

    • B. 

      
b. A break in a sequence of sedimentary rocks.


    • C. 

      C. A sequence of sedimentary rocks overlying igneous or metamorphic rocks.

    • D. 

      D. A change in depositional environments from marine to terrestrial.

  • 41. 
    42. A gap in the geologic record is called 
    • A. 

      A. Lapse

    • B. 

      B. Hiatus


    • C. 

      C. Discontinuity

    • D. 

      D. Unconformity

  • 42. 
    43. Sedimentary rocks are originally laid down in vertical sheets or layers.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 43. 
    44. A fragment of sandstone found within a basaltic lava flow must be older than the lava: 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 44. 
    45. Animals with shells or bones are more likely to become fossilized than those without: 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 45. 
    46. A mafic dike is an example of a crosscutting relationship: 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 46. 
    47. What is the right order of decreasing age for the following periods:
    • A. 

      a. Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian COSD

    • B. 

      B. Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Cambrian


    • C. 

      C. Cambrian, Ordovician, Devonian, Silurian

    • D. 

      D. Ordovician, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian

  • 47. 
    48. What transition between to periods was NOT associated with mass extinction: 
    • A. 

      A. Cretaceous-Paleogene

    • B. 

      B. Jurassic-Cretaceous

    • C. 

      C. Traissic-Jurassic


    • D. 

      D. Permian-Triassic

  • 48. 
    49. The rate at which an isotope decays is known as its: 
    • A. 

      A. Neutron conversion rate.

    • B. 

      B. Isotopic change rate.

    • C. 

      C. Decay time.


    • D. 

      D. Half-life.

  • 49. 
    50. Carbon-14 dating is typically applied to:

    • A. 

      A. Organic sediments older than 1 million years.

    • B. 

      B. Paleozoic coal deposits.


    • C. 

      C. Organic material less than 70,000 years old.

    • D. 

      D. Dinosaur fossils.

  • 50. 
    51. Which of the following is not a long-lived (over 100 m.y.) isotopic dating method: 
    • A. 

      A. Potassium-argon

    • B. 

      B. Carbon-14


    • C. 

      C. Thorium-lead


    • D. 

      D. Rubidium strontium

  • 51. 
    52. The oldest rock formation on Earth are: 
    • A. 

      A. 40,000 years

    • B. 

      B. 4,000,000 years


    • C. 

      C. 400,000,000 years

    • D. 

      D. 4,000,000,000 years

  • 52. 
    53. A mineral containing 50% of its original parent isotope has gone through 50 half-lives: 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 53. 
    54. The longest time periods of geologic history are called: 
    • A. 

      A. Periods

    • B. 

      B. Eons.

    • C. 

      C. Epochs

    • D. 

      D. Era

  • 54. 
    55. Which one is incorrect?
    • A. 

      A. Eras divide eons.

    • B. 

      B. Periods divide epochs.

    • C. 

      C. Epochs divide periods

    • D. 

      D. Epochs divide eras

  • 55. 
    56. Pick the one with the right order of decreasing age: 
    • A. 

      A. Paleocene, Eocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene


    • B. 

      B. Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene
EOMP

    • C. 

      C. Pleistocene, Pliocene, Paleocene, Holocene

    • D. 

      D. Paleocene, Pleistocene, Pliocene, Eocene

  • 56. 
    57. The geologic timescale was largely developed using: 
    • A. 

      A. Fossil assemblages.

    • B. 

      B. The occurrence of limestone in the rock record.

    • C. 

      C. The age of oceanic crust.


    • D. 

      D. Radiometric age dates of lava flows

  • 57. 
    58. Which statements about the sun is true:

    • A. 

      A. In the sun mass is converted to energy


    • B. 

      B. The sun’s interior is over a million of degrees


    • C. 

      C. Inside the sun two hydrogens fuse to become helium

    • D. 

      D. All of the above

  • 58. 
    59. The planets are formed from: 
    • A. 

      A. Gas

    • B. 

      B. Dust


    • C. 

      C. Planetesimals


    • D. 

      D. All of the above

  • 59. 
    60. The core was formed:

    • A. 

      A. Very early on in the Earth’s history


    • B. 

      B. Well after the collision that formed the Moon

    • C. 

      C. When the Earth was solid


    • D. 

      D. After formation of the atmosphere

  • 60. 
    61. Which statement is false:

    • A. 

      A. Earth and Venus are close in size and composition


    • B. 

      B. Mercury has a disproportionally large core


    • C. 

      C. The Moon has the same composition as the Earth


    • D. 

      D. The proportion of the planet that makes up the core is similar for Earth and Mars.

  • 61. 
    62. The heavily cratered surface of moon indicates:

    • A. 

      A. The surface of the moon is old


    • B. 

      B. The surface of the moon is young


    • C. 

      C. Moon has recently seen many meteorite impacts

    • D. 

      D. None of the above

  • 62. 
    63. Volcanism is still active on: 
    • A. 

      A. Moon and Mars

    • B. 

      B. Mercury and Venus

    • C. 

      C. Mars and Venus


    • D. 

      D. Mercury and Mars

  • 63. 
    64. Most of the oldest rocks on the North American continent: 
    • A. 

      A. Are located in Canada.

    • B. 

      B. Are found along the west coast, where two plates are sliding horizontally past each other.

    • C. 

      C. Are found near the east coast, in the middle of the North American plate.


  • 64. 
    65. The basins in the Interior Platform of North America are formed by: 
    • A. 

      A. Faults on the edge of the basin


    • B. 

      B. Plate flexure


    • C. 

      C. Thermal subsidence

    • D. 

      D. Local extra loading on the plate

  • 65. 
    66. The Appalachian mountain chain is formed by: 
    • A. 

      A. Strike-slip faulting along two plates

    • B. 

      B. Ocean-continent collision


    • C. 

      C. Continent-continent collision

    • D. 

      D. Ocean-ocean collision

  • 66. 
    67. Which plate that has now disappeared interacted with the western end of the North American continent:
    • A. 

      A. Cocos Plate


    • B. 

      B. Juan da Fuca Plate


    • C. 

      C. Farallon Plate


    • D. 

      D. West Caribbean Plate

  • 67. 
    68. A continental craton

    • A. 

      A. Includes the continental shield and the continental platform.

    • B. 

      B. Is the youngest part of a continent.

    • C. 

      C. Is constantly recycled and therefore difficult to identify.


    • D. 

      D. Contains coastal mountains and plains.

  • 68. 
    69. In the Earth’s first few hundred million years of existence large oceans developed on the Earth’s surface as the planet was bombarded by comets.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 69. 
    70. The early stages of orogeny related to tectonism are characterized by:
    • A. 

      A. Subsidence of continental crust.


    • B. 

      B. Mountain building and thickening of continental crust.


    • C. 

      C. Thinning of oceanic crust.

    • D. 

      D. Thinning of the continental crust.

  • 70. 
    71. Which mountain range is still forming today: 
    • A. 

      A. Catskills.

    • B. 

      B. Appalachian.

    • C. 

      C. Himalaya.


    • D. 

      D. Urals.

  • 71. 
    72. Which one is a supercontinent: 
    • A. 

      A. Laurentia

    • B. 

      B. Rodinia

    • C. 

      C. Iapetus

    • D. 

      D. Thethys

  • 72. 
    73. What is not part of the Wilson cycle: 
    • A. 

      A. Rifting splitting the continent

    • B. 

      B. Subduction and accretion


    • C. 

      C. Intraplate volcanism

    • D. 

      D. Erosion

  • 73. 
    74. Cratons, stable continental shields Archean in age are found on: 
    • A. 

      A. North America

    • B. 

      B. South America

    • C. 

      C. Africa


    • D. 

      D. Asia


    • E. 

      E. All of the above

  • 74. 
    75. The best evidence that there was life on Earth 3.5 billion years ago is: 
    • A. 

      A. Microfossils in sedimentary formation


    • B. 

      B. Fossil microbial mats Achaean in age


    • C. 

      C. Increase in oxygen levels in the atmosphere

    • D. 

      D. None of the above, life started much later

  • 75. 
    76. The formation of an oxygen-rich atmosphere is the result of:
    • A. 

      a. Continuous outgassing of the Earth at volcanoes


    • B. 

      B. Photosynthesis by cyanobacteria


    • C. 

      C. The establishment of a magnetic field

    • D. 

      D. The dissolution of iron in the ocean

  • 76. 
    77. The formation of an oxygen-rich atmosphere is recorded in rocks by: 
    • A. 

      A. Occurrence of stromatolites


    • B. 

      B. Occurrence of banded iron formations


    • C. 

      C. Occurrence of fossil algae

    • D. 

      D. Evidence of erosion by water

  • 77. 
    78. What is the Cambrian explosion: 
    • A. 

      A. A meteorite impact

    • B. 

      B. Eruption of a super volcano


    • C. 

      C. The sudden appearance of new types of organisms

    • D. 

      D. A mass extinction

  • 78. 
    79. What is the name for a line on a geologic map that delineates where one metamorphic grade changes to another?
    • A. 

      A. Asteroid impact

    • B. 

      B. Abrupt global warming

    • C. 

      C. Large volcanic eruptions

    • D. 

      D. Natural enemies

  • 79. 
    80. The climate system does not include: 
    • A. 

      A. The cryosphere

    • B. 

      B. The lithosphere

    • C. 

      C. The asthenosphere

    • D. 

      D. The biosphere

  • 80. 
    81. The atmospheric layer closest to the Earth surface is the_____________ 
    • A. 

      A. Stratosphere

    • B. 

      B. Mesosphere

    • C. 

      C. Thermosphere

    • D. 

      D. Troposphere

  • 81. 
    82. Thermohaline circulation is:

    • A. 

      A. Currents of ocean water between the surface and the deep.

    • B. 

      B. Shallow circulation of ocean waters


    • C. 

      C. Pattern of airflow around the world


    • D. 

      D. The pattern of evaporation and rainfall

  • 82. 
    83. On a global scale glaciers, ice caps on land, are 
    • A. 

      A. Decreasing in volume

    • B. 

      B. Increasing in volume

    • C. 

      C. Constant in volume

    • D. 

      D. We do not know

  • 83. 
    84. The largest volume of land ice is at___________ 
    • A. 

      A. Greenland

    • B. 

      B. The arctic


    • C. 

      C. The Antarctic


    • D. 

      D. Alaskan and Canadian glaciers

  • 84. 
    85. The lithosphere has an effect on climate through 
    • A. 

      A. Absorption and radiation of solar heat


    • B. 

      B. Topography


    • C. 

      C. Soil type effects evaporation

    • D. 

      D. Volcanism


    • E. 

      E. All of the above

  • 85. 
    86. A planet’s albedo is:

    • A. 

      A. The fraction of solar energy a planet reflects back into space


    • B. 

      B. The fraction of energy a planet would reflect if it were perfectly white.


    • C. 

      C. The fraction of solar energy a planet absorbs


    • D. 

      D. The fraction of solar energy a planet would absorb if it were perfectly white

  • 86. 
    87. Greenhouse gases:
    • A. 

      A. Block incoming solar radiation


    • B. 

      B. Reflect surface radiation


    • C. 

      C. Facilitate incoming infrared radiation

    • D. 

      D. Facilitate outgoing infrared radiation

  • 87. 
    88. Which one is not a negative feed back for the greenhouse effect? 
    • A. 

      A. Plant growth

    • B. 

      B. Water vapor

    • C. 

      C. Radiation

  • 88. 
    89. How do we know that the twentieth century increase in CO2 levels in the atmosphere is anthropogenic?
    • A. 

      A. More fossil fuels were burned


    • B. 

      B. Increased deforestation


    • C. 

      C. The isotopic signature of atmospheric CO2

  • 89. 
    90. The concentration of __________ in seawater rises during glacial times: 
    • A. 

      A. The carbon-14 isotope

    • B. 

      B. Hydrogen


    • C. 

      C. The oxygen-18 isotope

    • D. 

      D. The oxygen-16 isotope

  • 90. 
    91. Ice cores from Antarctica give us an approximately _________long record of the climate: 
    • A. 

      A. Hundred years

    • B. 

      B. Thousand years


    • C. 

      C. Hundred thousand years


    • D. 

      D. More than hundred thousand years

  • 91. 
    92. How many ice ages were there in the last 400,000 years? 
    • A. 

      A. 1

    • B. 

      B. 2

    • C. 

      C. 3

    • D. 

      D. 4

  • 92. 
    93. What parameter in the ice cores allows us to calculate the paleotemperature? 
    • A. 

      A. Amount of carbon dioxide

    • B. 

      B. Amount of methane

    • C. 

      C. Oxygen isotopes


    • D. 

      D. Amount of dust

  • 93. 
    94. What is typical of a glacial valley? 
    • A. 

      A. Steep sides

    • B. 

      B. U-shaped valley floor

    • C. 

      C. Waterfalls


    • D. 

      D. All of the above

  • 94. 
    95. Glacial sediments like a moraine are:
    • A. 

      A. Very well sorted and coarse grained


    • B. 

      B. Very well sorted and fine grained


    • C. 

      C. Very poorly sorted ranging from sand to boulder

    • D. 

      D. Very poorly sorted ranging from clay to boulder

  • 95. 
    96. Milankovitch cycles are not caused by changes in:
    • A. 

      a. Luminosity of the sun

    • B. 

      B. Eccentricity of Earths’ orbit


    • C. 

      C. Earths’ tilt with respect to the sun

    • D. 

      D. Earths’ precession

  • 96. 
    97. Are the variations in solar energy of the magnitude that they can explain the glacial and interglacial periods for the last 2 million years?
    • A. 

      A. Yes


    • B. 

      B. No, they are too large; negative feedback factors must dampen it

    • C. 

      C. No, they are too small; positive feedback must enhance their effect

  • 97. 
    98. Glacial abrasion is enhanced by all of the following EXCEPT:
    • A. 

      A. The underlying bed consists of readily eroded material.

    • B. 

      B. The sliding velocity of the ice is rapid.


    • C. 

      C. There is a steady supply of rock fragments.

    • D. 

      D. The glacier’s base contains fragments that are softer than the underlying rock.

  • 98. 
    99. Large glacial grooves are an example of glacial: 
    • A. 

      A. Abrasion

    • B. 

      B. Quarrying

    • C. 

      C. Excavating

    • D. 

      D. Tunneling