Generalisation

66 Questions | Total Attempts: 35

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Generalisation

This is a quiz on the concepts covered in the generalisation workshop that took place in ABA Supervisor Training Session in TreeHouse on 30th April 2010.


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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    In the seminal paper by Baer, Wolf & Risley (1968) one of the dimensions of ABA is...
    • A. 

      Generous

    • B. 

      Generality

    • C. 

      Genome

    • D. 

      Gender

    • E. 

      Genesis

  • 2. 
    On page 96. of a key paper 'Generality' was defined as:"a behaviour change may have said to have generality if it proves durable over time, if it appears in a wide variety of possible environments, or if it spreads to a wide variety of related behaviours" by who?
    • A. 

      Baer, Wolf & Risley (1968)

    • B. 

      Baer & Stokes (1977)

    • C. 

      Cooper et al (1995)

    • D. 

      Lovaas (1972)

    • E. 

      Leslie (1969)

  • 3. 
    In Cooper et al they say "Applied Behaviour Analysts face no more challenging or important task than that of designing, implementing and evaluating interventions that produce..."
  • 4. 
    There is only one ultimate criterion of functionality:
    • A. 

      Its cool

    • B. 

      Its funky

    • C. 

      Its functional

    • D. 

      A behaviour is functional only to the extent that it produces reinforcement for the learner

    • E. 

      Its general

  • 5. 
    If you want generalisation of a given response, what should you avoid doing?
    • A. 

      Train & hope

    • B. 

      Select target behaviours that will meet natural contingencies of reinforcement

    • C. 

      Specify all desired variations of the target behaviour

    • D. 

      Empower individual to ask reinforcement

  • 6. 
    How many of the following statements about Generalisation are correct:
    • A. 

      The trained behaviour transfers from training situation to the natural environment

    • B. 

      Training leads to the development of appropriate new behaviour that has not been specifically trained

    • C. 

      The trained behaviour is maintained in the natural environment over time

    • D. 

      The trained behaviour is behaviour which is operantally and differentially exposed to exegesis or relation frame theory.

  • 7. 
    Response maintenance is 
    • A. 

      Where the learner fails to maintain a target behaviour

    • B. 

      Where the learner continues to perform target behaviour when prompted by teacher

    • C. 

      Where the learner continues to perform intra-responses

    • D. 

      Where the learner continues to perform target behaviour after a portion or all of the intervention has been terminated

  • 8. 
    Generalisation will be unlikely to occur if you forget to which two things:
    • A. 

      You don't fade or thin the schedule of reinforcement

    • B. 

      You don't fade prompts

    • C. 

      You don't eat ice cream

    • D. 

      You don't train dragons

    • E. 

      You don't invite stimulus controlled activities

  • 9. 
    Generalisation is more likely to occur if you:
    • A. 

      Teach goosely

    • B. 

      Teach loosely

    • C. 

      Teach moosely

    • D. 

      Teach lucy

  • 10. 
    Generalisation is more likely to occur if you:
    • A. 

      Program systematically for it

    • B. 

      Operant

    • C. 

      Pavlov

    • D. 

      Skinner

    • E. 

      Watch GMTV

  • 11. 
    One should assume that...
    • A. 

      Generalisation will occur naturally

    • B. 

      Generalisation does not occur

    • C. 

      Generalisation does not occur except through some form of programming

    • D. 

      Generalisation will occur if you train and hope

  • 12. 
    Behaviours that are NOT followed by reinforcers on at least some occasions will 
    • A. 

      NOT be maintained

    • B. 

      Be maintained

    • C. 

      Be generalised

    • D. 

      Be operant

    • E. 

      Be learned

  • 13. 
    Ayllon & Azrin (1968) describe their 'relevance of behaviour' rule. Choose behaviours to change that:
    • A. 

      Will produce punishment in the post-intervention environment

    • B. 

      Will produce punishment in the pre-intervention environment

    • C. 

      Will produce reinforcers in the pre-intervention environment

    • D. 

      Will produce reinforcers in the post-intervention environment

  • 14. 
    Generalisation will be more likely to occur if you
    • A. 

      Teach stimuli

    • B. 

      Teach the full range of relevant stimulus conditions and response requirements

    • C. 

      Teach a limited range of relevant stimulus conditions and response requirements

    • D. 

      Teach responsiveness

  • 15. 
    Generalisation will be more likely to occur if you
    • A. 

      Make the instructional/training setting similar to the generalisation setting

    • B. 

      Make the instructional/training setting dissimilar to the generalisation setting

    • C. 

      Make the teaching setting events

    • D. 

      Make antecedents stronger than consequences

  • 16. 
    Generalisation will be more likely to occur if you which two of the following:
    • A. 

      Teach sufficient stimulus examples

    • B. 

      Teach insufficient response examples

    • C. 

      Teach insufficient stimulus examples

    • D. 

      Teach stimulus discriminatively

    • E. 

      Teach sufficient response examples

  • 17. 
    Setting/situation generalization is
    • A. 

      The extent to which a learner emits the target behavior in a setting or stimulus situation that is different from the instructional setting

    • B. 

      The descent to which a learner emits the target behavior in a setting or stimulus situation that is different from the instructional setting

  • 18. 
    Sidman & Tailby (1982) would say procedures to establish functional equivalence of physically different stimuli (e.g. 4, IV, :: , four) are generally referred to as 
  • 19. 
    Response generalisation is: the extent to which a learner emits untrained responses that are functionally equivalent to the trained target behaviour.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    • C. 

      Don't know

  • 20. 
    An example of response generalisation is where
    • A. 

      If you've learnt a forehand shot in tennis, chances are you'll be able to perform a forehand shot in squash or racquetball

    • B. 

      If you've learnt a forehand shot in tennis, chances are you'll be able to cook a steak dish

    • C. 

      If you've learnt a forehand shot in tennis, chances are you'll be able to drive a car

    • D. 

      If you've learnt a forehand shot in tennis, chances are you'll be able to perform the tango

  • 21. 
    Another example of response generalisation is where
    • A. 

      Being able to roller blade would make it easier to learn how to run

    • B. 

      Being able to roller blade would make it easier to learn how to an aeroplane

    • C. 

      Being able to roller blade would make it easier to learn how to ice-skate

    • D. 

      Being able to roller blade would make it easier to learn how to stitch

  • 22. 
    Another example of perhaps response over-generalisation is where: a child follows the grammatical rule of adding an 's' to the end of words pertaining to more than one object and says
    • A. 

      Foot

    • B. 

      Feet's

    • C. 

      Boot

  • 23. 
    Another example of response generalisation is when wanting to light a fire you do which of the following:
    • A. 

      Obtain and strike a match

    • B. 

      Watch the news about fire

    • C. 

      Sing bruce springsteen's song 'fire'

    • D. 

      Use a cigarette lighter

    • E. 

      Rub two sticks together

  • 24. 
    Another example of response generalisation is when a child taught to 'be honest' they then 
    • A. 

      Tells the truth when asked

    • B. 

      Returns valuable articles left by others

    • C. 

      Walks to the shops

    • D. 

      Rides a bus

    • E. 

      Refrains from copying another students answers

  • 25. 
    Another example of response generalisation is when you subscribe to ethical guidelines you...
    • A. 

      Consistently treat others as you like to be treated

    • B. 

      You take time to berate and bemoan the efforts of others

    • C. 

      You take time to check in with other colleagues

    • D. 

      You find the faults in others rather than work on your own

    • E. 

      You stand up and speak up for other people

  • 26. 
    Another x4 examples of response generalisation is when you subscribe to ethical guidelines (e.g. pursuing excellence) you might
    • A. 

      Make time to read salient research or chapters

    • B. 

      Request overlaps and oversight from colleagues

    • C. 

      Spend time avoiding challenging tasks

    • D. 

      Present or publish your work in order to get feedback

    • E. 

      Are quick to admit mistakes and try to learn from them (rather than cover them up or make excuses)

  • 27. 
    • A. 

      William Blake

    • B. 

      Mark Twain

    • C. 

      Bill Hicks

    • D. 

      Christopher Hitchens

    • E. 

      William Shakespeare

  • 28. 
    A student learns to raise their hand in small group work at TreeHouse; they then raise their hand (emit the same response) during time in mainstream... this is an example of:
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting/situational generalisation

    • D. 

      A DRO

  • 29. 
    A student learns to perform the classic Michael Jackson "Thriller" dance routine for a Summer Ball; then at a New Years Eve disco they reproduce this "Thriller" performance... this could be considered which two of the following: 
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting/situational generalisation

    • D. 

      DRL

  • 30. 
    A student learns to recite 7 dimensions of ABA (Baer et al 1968) in january 2010; they then reproduce the same response when re-tested in April 2010. this is an example of 
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting/situational generalisation

    • D. 

      DRI

  • 31. 
    Yo-yo Ma spends 300 hours learning to play Bach cello Suite No.1 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dZn_VBgkPNY) in his home studio. He then performs this at the Royal Albert Hall... this is an example of:
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting generalisation

    • D. 

      DRE

  • 32. 
    A unethical politician lies to members of his constituency, cheats on his wife and fiddles his expenses; this is an example of what?
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting generalisation

    • D. 

      DRP

  • 33. 
    An ABA Supervisor absorbs the ethical principles set out by Koocher & Keith-Speigel (1998), especially- 'be truthful'; they then give accurate and honest feedback to tutors, they admit mistakes to colleagues and they provide accurate reports to parents. this demonstrates what kind of generalisation?   
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting generalisation

    • D. 

      Richard feynman

  • 34. 
    A student learns to eat food with knife and fork at home, they then produce this response when they start attending school... this indicates a degree of what?
    • A. 

      Response generalisation

    • B. 

      Response maintenance

    • C. 

      Setting generalisation

    • D. 

      Richard dawkins

  • 35. 
    A student learns to eat food with knife and fork; they then eat food using their hands, chopsticks and spoons... this shows what?  
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting generalisation

    • D. 

      Bill hicks

  • 36. 
    If a students responses indicate over-generalisation you could:
    • A. 

      Make teaching more chaotic

    • B. 

      Make teaching more rigid

    • C. 

      Make teaching more structured

    • D. 

      Make teaching more flexible

  • 37. 
    If a students responses indicate over-selectivity you could:
    • A. 

      Make teaching more flexible

    • B. 

      Make teaching more rigid

    • C. 

      Make teaching more structured

    • D. 

      Make teaching more chaotic

  • 38. 
    A generalisation probe is...
    • A. 

      Any measurement of a learners performance of a target behaviour in a setting and/or stimulus situation in which direct training has been provided.

    • B. 

      Any measurement of a learners performance of a target behaviour in a setting and/or stimulus situation in which direct training has NOT been provided.

    • C. 

      Any guess of a learners performance of a target behaviour in a setting and/or stimulus situation in which direct training has not been provided.

    • D. 

      Any anecdote or story of a learners performance of a target behaviour in a setting and/or stimulus situation in which direct training has not been provided.

  • 39. 
    Baer suggests that if the natural environment is able to provide reinforcement, but doesn't know it has to, then we should help it:
  • 40. 
    A Chinese Proverb goes; Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime... this hints at the importance of which type of generalisation?
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting generalisation

    • D. 

      Ben harper

  • 41. 
    An unplanned benefit from learning to swim 'front crawl' is that a student may also learn back-stroke, breast stroke, doggy paddle or butterfly... this illustrates the potential power of:
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting generalisation

    • D. 

      George carlin

  • 42. 
    A young child learns to say 'please' when making a request for desired items at home. When at a friends house or in school- they also spontaneously produce this behaviour. This shows a degree of 
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Situational generalisation

    • D. 

      Bob marley

  • 43. 
    When fading (thinning) the schedule of reinforcement in order to increase likelihood of generalisation, you notice the frequency of the target behaviour reduces- this is sometimes referred to as...
    • A. 

      Ratio pain

    • B. 

      Ratio strain

    • C. 

      Ratio reduction

    • D. 

      Ratio deficit

    • E. 

      Ratio conditioning

  • 44. 
    Who said "Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten"
  • 45. 
    A child who learns to read fluently is then able and more likely to access the vast wealth of information contained in any textual document or sign... this illustrates the highly functional power of
    • A. 

      Response maintenance

    • B. 

      Response generalisation

    • C. 

      Setting generalisation

    • D. 

      Jon stewart

    • E. 

      Bandura

  • 46. 
    If a target behaviour meets no reinforcement post intervention then...
    • A. 

      It will increase in frequency

    • B. 

      It will decrease in frequency

    • C. 

      It will stay about the same

  • 47. 
    Negative (or 'don't do it') teaching examples help a learner identify which stimulus situations the target behaviour...
    • A. 

      Should occur in

    • B. 

      Should always occur in

    • C. 

      Should not be performed in

  • 48. 
    One tactic for 'waking up' a natural contingency of reinforcement is to teach the learner how to... 
    • A. 

      Recruit reinforcement in the maintenance rotations

    • B. 

      Recruit reinforcement in the instructional setting

    • C. 

      Recruit punishment in the generalisation setting

    • D. 

      Recruit reinforcement in the generalisation setting

  • 49. 
    With most successful behaviour change programs it is impossible, impractical, or undesirable to continue the intervention indefinitely 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    • C. 

      Don't know

  • 50. 
    As a general rule, the _________ examples the teacher uses during the instruction, the ________ likely the learner will be to respond correctly to untrained examples or situations.what is the missing word?
    • A. 

      Less

    • B. 

      Plentiful

    • C. 

      Freqeuncy

    • D. 

      General

    • E. 

      More

  • 51. 
    One highly effective method for mediating generalisation is to teach the learner:
    • A. 

      Stimulus control factors

    • B. 

      Self-management skills

    • C. 

      Generalisation

    • D. 

      To like earl grey tea

  • 52. 
    The greater the similarity between the instructional setting and the generalisation setting; the more likely the target behaviour will be emitted in the...
    • A. 

      Instructional setting

    • B. 

      Stimulus settings

    • C. 

      Generalisation setting

    • D. 

      Settings

  • 53. 
    The greater the similarity between the instructional setting and the generalisation setting; the more likely the target behaviour will be emitted in the generalisation settting. true or false?
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 54. 
    Do not blame the learner for not behaving as we think he should... as someone once said "thus it is not the learner who is dull, learning disabled, or immature, because all learners are alike in this regard; no-one learns a generalised lesson unless a generalised lesson is taught" who wrote these wise words?
    • A. 

      B F Skinner

    • B. 

      Bandura

    • C. 

      Thorndike

    • D. 

      Don Cheadle

    • E. 

      Don Baer

  • 55. 
    Wearing all red tutu, dancing in a tree, whilst rubbing olive oil into your skin, humming charlie parker- this could be considered teaching that might be what for the learner?
    • A. 

      Rigid

    • B. 

      Structured

    • C. 

      Flexible

    • D. 

      Chaotic

    • E. 

      Structured yet flexible

  • 56. 
    A good general principle to govern your teaching approach is to be
    • A. 

      Structured yet flexible

    • B. 

      Rigid

    • C. 

      Chaotic

    • D. 

      Structured

    • E. 

      Flexible

  • 57. 
    Generalised behaviour change has three facets across
    • A. 

      Time

    • B. 

      Settings

    • C. 

      Chocolate

    • D. 

      Tenses

    • E. 

      Behaviours

  • 58. 
    "Failure to prepare is preparing to fail."- J Wooden... which area of behaviour change might these words apply to?
    • A. 

      Genetics

    • B. 

      Geneobi

    • C. 

      Genome

    • D. 

      Generation

    • E. 

      Generalisation

  • 59. 
    For any individual, all of life might just be a process of what? 
    • A. 

      Discrimination and generalisation

    • B. 

      Romeo and juliet

    • C. 

      Generalised discrimination

    • D. 

      Music and art

    • E. 

      Discriminative stimuli control

  • 60. 
    One way of describing what response generalisation is...
    • A. 

      When you do the same response in different settings

    • B. 

      When can you do a different, but very similar behaviour to the one you previously learned

    • C. 

      When your stimulus control is strong

    • D. 

      When you believe you can fly

  • 61. 
    A way of describing setting/situational generalisation is
    • A. 

      You learn a behaviour in one setting and are unable to perform anywhere else

    • B. 

      You learn a behaviour and can repeat it anytime in the futurea

    • C. 

      You learn a behaviour in one setting and are able to perform it anywhere else

    • D. 

      You learn and then re-learn any behaviour

  • 62. 
    A way of describing 'response maintenance' is 
    • A. 

      A response decreases after time

    • B. 

      A response increases over time

    • C. 

      A response will continue to occur after training

    • D. 

      A response will discontinue after training

  • 63. 
    If a target behaviour fails to generalise beyond instructional setting this indicates a 
    • A. 

      Failure of situational generalisation

    • B. 

      Failure of response maintenance

    • C. 

      Failure of stimulus controls

    • D. 

      Failure of the learner

  • 64. 
    If a target behaviour doesn't generalise
    • A. 

      Its probably the learners fault

    • B. 

      Its probably the lack of natural diasporadic reinforcement

    • C. 

      The teacher should look again as to how else to teach the response

    • D. 

      The learner should do the same thing again and again

  • 65. 
    The responsibility for generalising any given target behaviour lies with 
    • A. 

      The parent and the teacher

    • B. 

      The learner

    • C. 

      The BFG

    • D. 

      Barack Obama

  • 66. 
    What is potentially difficult, but utterly essential in ABA; to plan, probe and programme for?
    • A. 

      Generation game

    • B. 

      Generalisation

    • C. 

      General kenobi

    • D. 

      General factor responses

    • E. 

      Generic teaching skills