First-year Pre-test

10 Questions

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Cardiology Quizzes & Trivia

Pre-test on echocardiography for first-year cardiology fellows


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    If the Nyquist limit is set too high, what effect will that have on the severity of valvular regurgitation, as judged by visual assessment of Doppler flow across that valve?
    • A. 

      Overestimate (regurgitation will look more severe than it actually is)

    • B. 

      Underestimate (regurgitation will look less severe than it actually is)

    • C. 

      What in the world is the Nyquist limit?

    • D. 

      Visual assessment of regurgitant lesions is not quantitative, so this question is irrelevant

  • 2. 
    The higher the frequency of the ultrasound beam...
    • A. 

      ...the shorter the wavelength

    • B. 

      ...the greater the penetration into the medium

    • C. 

      ...the better the radial resolution

    • D. 

      ...the easier to hear

  • 3. 
    What is the frequency of ultrasound?
    • A. 

      Less than 20 Hz

    • B. 

      Between 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz

    • C. 

      Greater than 20,000 Hz

    • D. 

      In a range that can only be heard by dogs

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      The speed that sound travels is determined by the medium

    • B. 

      The average speed of sound in soft tissue (cardiac ultrasound) is 1.54 mm/microsecond

    • C. 

      The speed of sound is determined by the medium's density

    • D. 

      Sound moves faster through air than through soft tissue

  • 5. 
    Which factor improves temporal resolution (increases frame rate):
    • A. 

      Decreasing the sector width

    • B. 

      Increasing the imaging depth

  • 6. 
    What cusp is identified by the arrow?
    • A. 

      Noncoronary cusp of the aortic valve

    • B. 

      Left coronary cusp of the aortic valve

    • C. 

      Right coronary cusp of the aortic valve

    • D. 

      Anterior leaflet of the mitral valve

  • 7. 
    When using the continuity equation, the measurement most likely to result in an inaccurate assessment of stenosis severity is:
    • A. 

      The VTI of the LV outflow tract

    • B. 

      The diameter of the LV outflow tract

    • C. 

      The VTI through the aortic valve

    • D. 

      The degree of valve calcification

  • 8. 
    The entire inferior wall is seen in which standard view?
    • A. 

      Apical four chamber view

    • B. 

      Apical two chamber view

    • C. 

      Apical long axis view

    • D. 

      Short axis view at the papillary muscle level

  • 9. 
    Identify the vascular structure seen:
    • A. 

      Inferior Vena Cava

    • B. 

      Superior Vena Cava

    • C. 

      Aortic Arch

    • D. 

      Abdominal Aorta

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is the most accurate description of this movie?
    • A. 

      Normal aortic valve

    • B. 

      Normal mitral valve

    • C. 

      Rheumatic mitral stenosis

    • D. 

      Bicuspid aortic valve