Final Practice Test - Critical Thinking

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Final Practice Test - Critical Thinking

With the finals just around the corner it is important for us to remember what we have studies so far on critical thinking and thinkers. The practice quiz below is challenging but guarantees you of a good grade when you tackle the exam. Try it out and get to train your brain on some questions.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Consensus requires that all members of a team agree on everything.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 2. 
    Studies show that the use of mind enhancing drugs, like LSD, actually increase creativity.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    A syllogism is a traditional method of expressing a logical argument. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 4. 
    Syllogisms are often expressed in mathematical terms, such as:  All A are B, all B are C, and so on.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 5. 
    One way of double checking an expert's opinion is to see whether or not the opinion is shared by other experts in the field of study. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    When is comes to burden of proof, the more controversial an issue is the greater the burden on the person suggesting a change.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 7. 
    Truth changes when new information is obtained.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    Studies have shown that the more ideas which are generated the greater the quality of the ideas.  This is why brainstorming is such an effective technique for problem solving.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    A variable is the one thing which changes in a scientific experiment.  In a good experiment, nothing else changes.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    Personal experience is the strongest way of knowing something, and the way most people see the world is skewed by their own experiences and beliefs.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 11. 
    You personal experience is often the strongest way of knowing something, and it menas that others probably share your experience.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 12. 
    Another good word for "unpublished reports" is "rumors".  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 13. 
    Some people put more faith in the person who says something, than in the idea itself.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 14. 
    Creativity has many benefits.  Not only do creative people invent wonderful new products, but they can often find new ways to use things that already exist.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 15. 
    A movement that is supposed to look like a "grassroots" movement, but is really a fake movement backed by powerful forces is known as "astroturf."
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 16. 
    Before we can trust any new data from scientific experiements, we must wait until they are replicated by other legitimate scientists.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 17. 
    Expressions of taste don't have to be justified because they invovle things like whether the individual prefers chicken or fish. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Legislation that provided equal time for candidates of all parties on television was known as the Fairness Doctrine.  This law was eliminated during the Ronald Reagan administration.  Whether or not it should be brought back is still a controversial issue.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    We all may be a little guilty of the common problem of "mine-is-better" thinking when we favor our own home town, our local sports team, or our alumnus.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    You can trust that whatever you see on a TV news station or read in a newspaper is completely unbiased and free of error.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    In the American judicial system, we have rules about who carries the greater burden of proof in a criminal or civil trial. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    The definition of a "fact" is something which can be proven.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Judy found it hard to believe that her cousin, Kendra, was knowledgeable about politics.  After all, Kendra was a student at a fashion college!  Judy was guity of which of the following?
    • A. 

      Self-deception

    • B. 

      Stereotyping

    • C. 

      Conformity

    • D. 

      Mine-is-better thinking

    • E. 

      Oversimplifying

  • 25. 
    Amanda wants to know how her customers are reacting to a new display in her store.  So, she installs a video to see how many people walk over to the display and pick up merchandise.  This method of research is known as:
    • A. 

      Observational study

    • B. 

      Experiment

    • C. 

      Survey

    • D. 

      Research review

  • 26. 
    Melissa wanted to get information for her marketing plan for her Marketing Essentials class.  So, she decided to interview someone who had been running a marketing firm for 10 years.  Melissa is using which type of research?
    • A. 

      Statistics

    • B. 

      Unpublished report

    • C. 

      Research review

    • D. 

      Expert opinion

  • 27. 
    James hasn't spent much time studying for his Critical Thinking final.  He tells himself, "I'll worry about that after the weekend.  I don't want to think about it now."  James is engaging in which of the following?
    • A. 

      Double standard

    • B. 

      Avoiding the issue

    • C. 

      Rationalization

    • D. 

      Oversimplifying

  • 28. 
    "We should legalize marijuana because most Californias approve of it." is an example of which of the following?
    • A. 

      Appeal to common belief

    • B. 

      Tu quoquo

    • C. 

      Bifurcation

    • D. 

      Appeal to tradition

  • 29. 
    "If you want to graduate you must either give up your job or your friends." is an example of which of the following?
    • A. 

      Appeal to common belief

    • B. 

      Tu quoquo

    • C. 

      False dilemma

    • D. 

      Begging the question

    • E. 

      Tatutology

  • 30. 
    One technique for problem solving is to imagine what the solution to a problem would look like.  This is known as:
    • A. 

      Visualization

    • B. 

      Free association

    • C. 

      Begging the question

    • D. 

      Bifurcation

    • E. 

      Variables

  • 31. 
    To test the validity of a hyphothesis a researcher conducts an experiment with controls and only one variable.  This is known as a/an:
    • A. 

      Research review

    • B. 

      Experiment

    • C. 

      Expert opinion

    • D. 

      Observational study

    • E. 

      Double blind

  • 32. 
    Brittany is writing her Master's thesis about how video games generate violent behavior in teenagers.  She studies two groups of teens.  Group A does not play video games, and Group B does.  Whenever a teen in Group B does anything slightly physical to a friend, like playfully shoving or slapping them on the back, Brittany carefully makes a note in her journal.  However, when observing Group A (the one that doesn't play video games) she only makes a note in her journal when a teen does something really violent, like punching someone.  Brittany is guilty of which of the following problems in research? 
    • A. 

      Blind study

    • B. 

      Double blind study

    • C. 

      Observer bias

    • D. 

      Nonrepresentative sampling

    • E. 

      Participant bias

  • 33. 
    One method of coming up with good ideas is to let your mind wander and let one thing suggest another.  This is known as:
    • A. 

      Visualization

    • B. 

      Analogy

    • C. 

      Free association

    • D. 

      Syllogisms

    • E. 

      Research review

  • 34. 
    Ashley knows that her new Honda Fit will be a reliable car because all her friends and family told her it was a great car.  Ashley is depending on which type of research?
    • A. 

      Survey

    • B. 

      Published reports

    • C. 

      Research review

    • D. 

      Unpublished reports

    • E. 

      Observational study

  • 35. 
    • A. 

      Booby trap

    • B. 

      Genetic fallacy

    • C. 

      Escalation of commitment

    • D. 

      Stereotyping

    • E. 

      Slippery slope

  • 36. 
    One of the principles of logic states "If a statement is true, then it is true."  This represents which of the following rules?
    • A. 

      Principle of contradictions

    • B. 

      Principle of the excluded middle

    • C. 

      Principle of syllogisms

    • D. 

      Principle of identity

    • E. 

      Principle of logic

  • 37. 
    Stacey stood up in her speech class and said: "All Americans should give up the wearing of fur."  Stacey is stating which of the following?
    • A. 

      Premise

    • B. 

      Opinion

    • C. 

      Fact

    • D. 

      Inference

    • E. 

      Conclusion

  • 38. 
    A news station or reporter sometimes read a press release provided by a political party without checking to see if it is true.  This practice is often referred to as:
    • A. 

      Propaganda

    • B. 

      Talking heads

    • C. 

      Whistleblowing

    • D. 

      Astroturf

    • E. 

      Unbiased reporting

  • 39. 
    When the former president said: "You are either with us or with the terrorists" he was engaging in which of the following common fallacies in reasoning?
    • A. 

      Straw man

    • B. 

      Faulty cause

    • C. 

      Slippery slope

    • D. 

      Bifurcation

    • E. 

      Tautology

  • 40. 
    When NASA is developing vehicles to move on the surface of other planets, they often will think about what a vehicle that could move in a zero gravity environment might look like.  This method of creative problem solving is known as:
    • A. 

      Force uncommon responses

    • B. 

      Free association

    • C. 

      Visualization

    • D. 

      Analogy

  • 41. 
    Rachel has to do some marketing research for her Consumer Behavior class.  She creates 30 questions about what people think about before buying a new high tech device.  She puts these questions on her Facebook page and over 100 of her friends answer them.  Rachel has used which method of research? 
    • A. 

      Survey

    • B. 

      Research review

    • C. 

      Observational study

    • D. 

      Unpublished reports

    • E. 

      Statistics

  • 42. 
    "If you don't give me a passing grade on my paper, I won't be able to graduate this quarter." is which of the following common fallacies in reasoning?
    • A. 

      Appeal to authority

    • B. 

      Appeal to tradition

    • C. 

      Appeal to consequences

    • D. 

      Appeal to ignorance

    • E. 

      Appeal to the question

  • 43. 
    • A. 

      Taking a novel approach

    • B. 

      Improving things

    • C. 

      Inventing a new concept

    • D. 

      Devising or modifying a process or system

    • E. 

      Providing pro and con arguments

  • 44. 
    • A. 

      The person initiating the claim has the great burden

    • B. 

      The person making the more extreme argument has the greater burden

    • C. 

      Proof is not required when making controversial claims

    • D. 

      The person suggesting a change has the greater burden

  • 45. 
    A good definition of propaganda is:
    • A. 

      Any attempt to persuade another person

    • B. 

      Advertising any product or service

    • C. 

      A deliberate attempt to spread information widely using deceptive practices

    • D. 

      Any form of political debate or argument

    • E. 

      Any of these

  • 46. 
    An engineer in India was trying to find a way to save his grandfather a long walk every day to turn on the electrical pump.  After much thought and work, he came up with a way to use a mobile phone to trigger the pump, thus saving all the villagers the long and dangerous walk twice a day.  This engineer won a Nokia innovation award and his product is being used in Egypt and Australia.  This is an example of using which method of creative problem solving?
    • A. 

      Inventing a new product or service

    • B. 

      Taking a novel approach

    • C. 

      Devising or modifying a process or system

    • D. 

      Free association

    • E. 

      Finding new uses for existing things

  • 47. 
    When Janet was in Egypt she was told she ate with the "wrong" hand.  This could be seen as an example of: 
    • A. 

      Resistance to change

    • B. 

      Mine is better thinking

    • C. 

      Conformity

    • D. 

      Tautology

    • E. 

      Face saving

  • 48. 
    Despite the fact that Harry was fired from his last three jobs for lateness, he continued to say that he didn't have a problem wtih time management.  This could be considered an example of:
    • A. 

      Stereotyping

    • B. 

      Conformity

    • C. 

      Face-saving

    • D. 

      Self deception

    • E. 

      Rationalization

  • 49. 
    When you try to distract someone from taking on the real argument with something else, this is known as:
    • A. 

      Tu quoquo

    • B. 

      Red herring

    • C. 

      Slippery slope

    • D. 

      Conformity

    • E. 

      Bifurcation

  • 50. 
    • A. 

      Appeal to ignorance

    • B. 

      Appeal to tradition

    • C. 

      Slippery slope

    • D. 

      Tautology

    • E. 

      Faulty cause

  • 51. 
    If a blogger decides not to talk about a political issue because she thinks a potential employer might not like it, this is a form of:
    • A. 

      Sourcing information

    • B. 

      Self-censorship

    • C. 

      Media bias

    • D. 

      Slippery slope

    • E. 

      Echo chamber

  • 52. 
    While in graduate school, Katie wanted to get a broad understanding of her topic before starting on her dissertation, so she read hundreds of articles written on the subject.  Katie was doing which kind of research?
    • A. 

      Survey

    • B. 

      Experiment

    • C. 

      Research review

    • D. 

      Observational study

    • E. 

      Unpublished reports

  • 53. 
    When something is implied in an argument, but not explicity stated we say there is which of the following?
    • A. 

      Hidden premise

    • B. 

      Irrational argument

    • C. 

      Valid argument

    • D. 

      Complex argument

    • E. 

      Expressed premise

  • 54. 
    When the Pew Institute wanted to find out how people felt about proposed changes to Medicare, they looked for a group of people to ask who shared the same characterisitcs and demographics as the general population.  This is known as a/an:
    • A. 

      Inferential statistic

    • B. 

      Representative sample

    • C. 

      Nonrepresentative sample

    • D. 

      Hypothesis

    • E. 

      Research review

  • 55. 
    When an older man dates a younger woman, most people think nothing of it.  When an older woman is involved with a younger man, people often judge the woman harshly, using negatively charged terms like "cougar" to describe her.  This could be seen as an example of:
    • A. 

      Dogmatic thinking

    • B. 

      Shifting the burden of proof

    • C. 

      Oversimplifying

    • D. 

      Double standard

    • E. 

      Mine is better thinking

  • 56. 
    • A. 

      Face saving

    • B. 

      Resistance to change

    • C. 

      Rationalization

    • D. 

      Stereotyping

    • E. 

      Oversimplifying

  • 57. 
    Jenny risked her own job when she reported that her company was manufacturing and selling unsafe toys for children.  Jenny would be known as a/an:
    • A. 

      Spin doctor

    • B. 

      Whistleblower

    • C. 

      Talking head

    • D. 

      Propagandist

    • E. 

      None of these

  • 58. 
    Norman said that it was no big deal that the president lied to justify a war in Iraq.  "After all," he said, "people lie about their age all the time."  Norman may be guilty of:
    • A. 

      Overgeneralizing

    • B. 

      Hasty generalization

    • C. 

      Red herring

    • D. 

      Oversimplifying

    • E. 

      Straw man

  • 59. 
    "Anyone who says we should allow flag burning is clearly an unpatriotic traitor."  This argument is guilty of which of the following fallacies?
    • A. 

      Appeal to common belief

    • B. 

      Tu quoquo

    • C. 

      Damning the source

    • D. 

      Equivocation

    • E. 

      Tautology

  • 60. 
    One of the reasons cell phones became so popular was because manufacturers looked for ways to enhance their usefulness by adding phones, calendars, internet search options, and all the features we now enjoy.  They were using which of the followign creative problem solving strategies?
    • A. 

      Free association

    • B. 

      Forcing uncommon responses

    • C. 

      Looking for unusual combinations

    • D. 

      Analogy

    • E. 

      Constructing relevant scenarios

  • 61. 
    There is an old joke which goes like this:  A truck is stuck in the entrance of the tunnel.  The driver can't budge the truck an inch.  Nearby a man is standing behind the fence of a mental institution watching the driver struggle.   After watching him for several minutes, the man says, "Hey buddy.  Why don't you let a little air out of your tires?"  The driver thinks about it, and realizes that it's the perfect solution!   He says to the man: "If you don't mind me asking, how did you come up with that idea?" to which the man replies: "I'm in here because I'm crazy, not stupid!"   This story is a good example of which problem solving technique?
    • A. 

      Devising or modifying a process or system

    • B. 

      Inventing a new product or service

    • C. 

      Taking a novel approach

    • D. 

      Looking for unusual combinations

    • E. 

      Free association

  • 62. 
    A team working on a project for their Trends Forecasting class try to figure out how to conduct their research on mall shopping habits.  The team captain asks the team the following questions:  "What if we went to the mall office and asked permission?"  "What if we each went to one store and talked with the manager?"  "What if we stopped people before they entered the mall to ask what they were shopping for?"  The captain is engaging in which of the following problem solving techniques?
    • A. 

      Visualizing

    • B. 

      Constructing relevant scenarios

    • C. 

      Free association

    • D. 

      Analogy

    • E. 

      Constructing pro and con arguments

  • 63. 
    "We praise people for being discriminating when they select good food and wine; therefore, discrimination can't be wrong."  This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Straw man

    • B. 

      Vagueness

    • C. 

      Genetic fallacy

    • D. 

      False cause

    • E. 

      Equivocation

  • 64. 
    When TV stations say that "37% of all Calfornians are opposed to increased spending on sports facilities" they do not ask every person in California.  They actually ask only a small number of people.  This type of information is known as:
    • A. 

      Inferential statistics

    • B. 

      Representative samples

    • C. 

      Representative statistics

    • D. 

      Nonrepresentative statistics

    • E. 

      Research review

  • 65. 
    • A. 

      Spin doctoring

    • B. 

      Fourth estate

    • C. 

      Sourcing information

    • D. 

      Data transfer

    • E. 

      Echo effect

  • 66. 
    One of the rules of logic states that a statement is either true or false.  It cannot be both.  This rule is known as which of the following?
    • A. 

      Principle of identity

    • B. 

      Principle of syllogisms

    • C. 

      Principle of the excluded middle

    • D. 

      Principle of contradictions

  • 67. 
    Jenny insisted drinking champagne on New Year's Eve even though she didn't like the taste of it.  When her friends asked her why, she said: "Because drinking champagne is what is always done!"  Jenny might be guilty of which of the following fallacies?
    • A. 

      Appeal to ignorance

    • B. 

      Appeal to tradition

    • C. 

      Appeal to common belief

    • D. 

      Appeal to authority

    • E. 

      Tautology

  • 68. 
    A professional who is hired to take an issue and reframe it to appeal to the public is known as a/an:
    • A. 

      Whistleblower

    • B. 

      Talking head

    • C. 

      Spin doctor

    • D. 

      Framer

    • E. 

      Market allocator

  • 69. 
    A good definition of a devil's advocate could be:
    • A. 

      Someone who worships the devil

    • B. 

      Someone who advocates radical changes in society

    • C. 

      Someone is disagrees with everyone for no reason

    • D. 

      Someone who is annoying and unreasonable whatever the issue

    • E. 

      Someone who challenges the ideas of a group to ensure all issues are considered

  • 70. 
    John told his father: "Playing sports in high school develops leadership skills."  John is stating a/an:
    • A. 

      Syllogism

    • B. 

      Fact

    • C. 

      Premise

    • D. 

      Fallacy

    • E. 

      Logic error

  • 71. 
    Mary felt like she had a good idea how the Republicans in her county would react to the new proposition because she asked her friend Gregg, who is a Republican, and he liked the idea.  Mary may be making which of the following mistakes in thinking?
    • A. 

      Overgeneralizing

    • B. 

      Oversimplifying

    • C. 

      Double standard

    • D. 

      Either/or thinking

    • E. 

      Tu quoquo

  • 72. 
    "Fran must have been at the party.  She can't prove she was home that night."  This is an example of which fallacy?
    • A. 

      Appeal to authority

    • B. 

      Appeal to common belief

    • C. 

      Appeal to ignorance

    • D. 

      Appeal to tradition

    • E. 

      Straw man

  • 73. 
    If an argument has a conclusion that is solidly supported by its premises, it is considered:
    • A. 

      To be a fallacy

    • B. 

      Valid

    • C. 

      To have a premise

    • D. 

      Unsound

    • E. 

      A booby trap

  • 74. 
    • A. 

      Resistance to change

    • B. 

      Stereotyping

    • C. 

      Rationalization

    • D. 

      Begging the question

    • E. 

      Mine is better thinking

  • 75. 
    "Al Gore is the best candidate because he would make the best president."  This statement is commiting which of the following fallacies?
    • A. 

      Tu quoquo

    • B. 

      Red herring

    • C. 

      Sweeping generalization

    • D. 

      Hasty generalization

    • E. 

      Tautology

  • 76. 
    Kelley and Brandy needed to decide whether or not to rent an apartment in Los Angeles or Orange County.  So, they made a list of all the things they liked and disliked about both places.  This is which of the following problem solving strategies?
    • A. 

      Free association

    • B. 

      Construct pro and con arguments

    • C. 

      Visualization

    • D. 

      Construct relevant scenarios

    • E. 

      Straw man thinking

  • 77. 
    • A. 

      Genetic fallacy

    • B. 

      Straw man

    • C. 

      Red herring

    • D. 

      Questionable use of statistics

    • E. 

      Tautology

  • 78. 
    • A. 

      Experiment

    • B. 

      Observational study

    • C. 

      Survey

    • D. 

      Research review

    • E. 

      Unpublished report

  • 79. 
    • A. 

      Non sequitur

    • B. 

      Slippery slope

    • C. 

      Faulty cause

    • D. 

      Red herring

    • E. 

      Tu quoquo

  • 80. 
    The media plays such an important role in a democratic society that it is often referred to as:
    • A. 

      Talking heads

    • B. 

      Fourth estate

    • C. 

      Echo chamber

    • D. 

      Non sequitur

    • E. 

      None of these

  • 81. 
    • A. 

      Appeal to authority

    • B. 

      Tautology

    • C. 

      Tu quoquo

    • D. 

      False dilemma

    • E. 

      Begging the question

  • 82. 
    • A. 

      Tu quoquo

    • B. 

      Red herring

    • C. 

      Appeal to authority

    • D. 

      Slippery slope

    • E. 

      Non sequitur

  • 83. 
    "Gladys can't be the one who smashed up my car in the parking lot.  She is such a fan of baseball."  This is an example of which of the following common fallacies in reasoning?
    • A. 

      Red herring

    • B. 

      Straw man

    • C. 

      Begging the question

    • D. 

      Non sequitur

    • E. 

      Appeal to tradition

  • 84. 
    Identify the following syllogism error:
    • All canaries are yellow.
    • All bananas are yellow.
    • Therefore, all canaries are bananas.
    • A. 

      Illicit process major

    • B. 

      Affirming the antecedent

    • C. 

      The undistributed middle

    • D. 

      Converting the conditional

    • E. 

      Illicit process minor

  • 85. 
    One of the rules of logic states: "No statement can be both true and false."  This rule is known as:
    • A. 

      Logic fallacy

    • B. 

      Undistributed middle

    • C. 

      Principle of contradiction

    • D. 

      Principle of identity

    • E. 

      None of these