Fdsc Final Questions

59 Questions

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Fdsc Final Questions

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    While food processing can be very useful in terms of providing more convenient foods, it can also present a challenge in terms of the ______________.
    • A. 

      Addition of vitamins

    • B. 

      Need for refrigeration

    • C. 

      Retail cost to consumers

    • D. 

      Packaging waste generated

    • E. 

      None of the above are true

  • 2. 
    Although not all highly-processed foods are unhealthy, many such as ___________ are a significant source of additional sugar and fat.
    • A. 

      Boneless, skinless chicken

    • B. 

      Apple slices

    • C. 

      Eggs

    • D. 

      Frozen vegetables

    • E. 

      Cookies

  • 3. 
    Fermentation of fruits and vegetables can be performed by all of the following EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Animals

    • B. 

      Yeast

    • C. 

      Molds

    • D. 

      Bacteria

  • 4. 
    Certain food preservation methods, such as __________________, have been used since ancient times. Others, such as __________________, are the result of more recent technological developments.
    • A. 

      Curing; drying

    • B. 

      Drying; canning

    • C. 

      Fermenting; pickling

    • D. 

      Canning; freezing

    • E. 

      Freezing; pickling

  • 5. 
    Minimally processed foods are that...
    • A. 

      Are not substantially changed from their raw form.

    • B. 

      Contain fewer than a certain number of preservatives.

    • C. 

      Are healthier than more processed foods.

    • D. 

      Are not washed, peeled, or sliced before they are sold.

    • E. 

      Always include ingredients in some other final product.

  • 6. 
    One example of a process used in food production is pasteurization. Pasteurization, developed by Louis Pasteur, is a process that...
    • A. 

      Was patented by the wine and beer industry.

    • B. 

      Uses irradiation to increase food safety.

    • C. 

      Only recently has been applied on a large scale.

    • D. 

      Uses controlled heat to the extend shelf-life of liquid foods.

    • E. 

      Can only be used for milk and dairy products.

  • 7. 
    In terms of food processing, what do enrichment and fortification refer to?
    • A. 

      Enhancing the color and appeal of food.

    • B. 

      Adding sugar to food.

    • C. 

      Increasing the shelf-life of food.

    • D. 

      Restoring or raising nutrient levels in food.

    • E. 

      Strengthening food structure to prevent damage.

  • 8. 
     Food preservation was an important advancement for early humans because it....
    • A. 

      Helped prevent heart disease.

    • B. 

      Lead to increasing obesity.

    • C. 

      Paved the way for the first landfill.

    • D. 

      Allowed them to save food for later use.

    • E. 

      Created a system for bartering.

  • 9. 
    Fermenting plant foods can have a variety of benefits, including improved _____________.
    • A. 

      Nutrition

    • B. 

      Digestibility

    • C. 

      Shelf-life

    • D. 

      Safety

    • E. 

      All of the above are possibilities

  • 10. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the common uses for food irradiation?
    • A. 

      Delay ripening

    • B. 

      Reduce foodborne illness

    • C. 

      Create radioactive food

    • D. 

      Limit food spoilage

    • E. 

      Make food safer

  • 11. 
    True or False: Food color additives come in two classes, certified and exempt.
    • A. 

      False: they come in 3 classes, certified, exempt, AND regulated.

    • B. 

      True: but neither are required to be safety tested.

    • C. 

      False: no color additives are called "exempt".

    • D. 

      True: certified colors are from synthetic sources and exempt are from natural sources.

    • E. 

      False: there are actually four color classes.

  • 12. 
    Which of the following is NOT a reason why colors are sometimes added to foods?
    • A. 

      Color a colorless food

    • B. 

      Smooth out color variations

    • C. 

      Extend shelf-life

    • D. 

      Enrich a natural color

    • E. 

      Offset color loss

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is an example of an indirect food additive?
    • A. 

      Radioactivity from irradiation

    • B. 

      Bacteria from contamination

    • C. 

      Paper from packaging

    • D. 

      Toxins from molds

    • E. 

      Broken glass from processing

  • 14. 
    What government agency is primarily responsible for regulating food additives (including colors)?
    • A. 

      FTC

    • B. 

      FDA

    • C. 

      APHIS

    • D. 

      EPA

    • E. 

      USDA

  • 15. 
    Which of the following sugar substitutes are correctly matched with the corresponding brand name?
    • A. 

      Aspartame; Sweet One

    • B. 

      Stevia; Truvia

    • C. 

      Saccharin; Splenda

    • D. 

      Sucralose; Sweet 'N Low

    • E. 

      Acesulfame K; Equal

  • 16. 
    Foods and drinks that commonly contain sugar substitutes include food/drinks labeled _____________.
    • A. 

      "light"

    • B. 

      "sugar-free"

    • C. 

      "reduced calorie"

    • D. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 17. 
    What is an example of a naturally occurring, sweet molecule that is an alternative to sugar?
    • A. 

      Sugar alcohols

    • B. 

      Sucralose

    • C. 

      Aspartame

    • D. 

      Saccharin

    • E. 

      Acesulfame K

  • 18. 
    What is the sugar substitute Aspartame composed of?
    • A. 

      Steviol glycoside

    • B. 

      Malitol

    • C. 

      Amino acids

    • D. 

      Potassium

    • E. 

      Sugar alcohol

  • 19. 
    All food additives must be tested and approved by the FDA before they can be used in food. Therefore, in moderation, sugar substitutes are safe for consumption with what specific exception?
    • A. 

      Stevia & people with cancer

    • B. 

      Aspartame & individuals with PKU

    • C. 

      Saccharin & people with a lot of cavities

    • D. 

      Sugar alcohols & diabetics

  • 20. 
    True or False: Natural (exempt) food colors do NOT have to appear on the food label.
    • A. 

      True: Exempt food colors are safe and do not have to be labeled.

    • B. 

      True: Natural food colors are exempt because they are safe.

    • C. 

      False: All ingredients in a food must appear on the label.

    • D. 

      False: Neither exempt nor certified food colors have to appear on the label.

    • E. 

      False: Certified colors are the ones that don't have to appear.

  • 21. 
    Common food allergens do not include which of the following?
    • A. 

      Walnuts

    • B. 

      Fish

    • C. 

      Soy products

    • D. 

      Jelly beans

    • E. 

      Eggs

  • 22. 
    The symptoms of a food allergy can vary but may include which of the following?
    • A. 

      Fever

    • B. 

      Sneezing

    • C. 

      Hives

    • D. 

      Hemorrhoids

    • E. 

      Fatigue

  • 23. 
    What diagnostic tests can be involved in diagnosis of food allergies?
    • A. 

      Skin prick test

    • B. 

      Diet diary

    • C. 

      Elimination diet

    • D. 

      Personal history

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 24. 
    According to the NIH, a food allergy is the body's adverse reaction to a particular food specifically resulting in production of the ___________ antibody by the immune system.
    • A. 

      IgA

    • B. 

      IgD

    • C. 

      IgE

    • D. 

      IgG

    • E. 

      IgM

  • 25. 
    True or False: Fat substitutes can be used to either partially or completely replace the fat in certain foods.
    • A. 

      True: Depending on the fat substitute, it can either partially or completely replace the fat.

    • B. 

      True: Because fat substitutes are already fat themselves, they can be used for partial or complete replacement.

    • C. 

      False: Fat substitutes can only ever completely replace the fat in foods.

    • D. 

      False: Fat substitutes can only ever partially replace the fat in foods.

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct.

  • 26. 
    If you have a food allergy, it's important to read food labels because ________.
    • A. 

      Food labels contain important nutritional information.

    • B. 

      You should always avoid foods with added colors.

    • C. 

      Prepared foods may contain allergens that aren't obvious according to the food name.

    • D. 

      Reading labels is the only way to tell how many calories are in the food.

    • E. 

      Only minimally processed foods are guaranteed allergen-free.

  • 27. 
    Which of the following are fat substitutes NOT typically composed of? 
    • A. 

      Fat-based

    • B. 

      Carbohydrate-based

    • C. 

      Protein-based

    • D. 

      Vitamin-based

    • E. 

      Polysaccharide-based

  • 28. 
    Which of the following is an example of a food allergy?
    • A. 

      Celiac disease

    • B. 

      Lactose intolerance

    • C. 

      Sulfite sensitivity

    • D. 

      Reaction to MSG

    • E. 

      None of the above are food allergies

  • 29. 
    True/False: Children's allergies can be outgrown.
    • A. 

      True: this can (e.g. for soy, milk, and egg) but does not always happen.

    • B. 

      True: this is correct for peanut allergies but not necessarily for other types.

    • C. 

      False: adults can sometimes lose allergies that they develop later in life but children have theirs always.

    • D. 

      False: if you have allergies, then you have them for life.

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct.

  • 30. 
    Fat substitutes can be used to competely replace fat in a food's formulation or to partially replace the mouth feel and other sensory properties that fat adds to food, the latter is otherwise known as a fat ___________.
    • A. 

      Non-fat

    • B. 

      Imitator

    • C. 

      Analog

    • D. 

      Replacer

    • E. 

      Mimetic

  • 31. 
    True/False: Studies of antioxidants have indisputably shown that their consumption prevents cancer.
    • A. 

      True: especially for the antioxidant betacarotene.

    • B. 

      True: they are particularly helpful against lung cancer.

    • C. 

      False: it's phytochemicals not antioxidants that help prevent cancer.

    • D. 

      False: they may help prevent age-related macular degeneration.

    • E. 

      None of the above are correct.

  • 32. 
    Free radicals can damage the body by...
    • A. 

      Damaging cell membranes.

    • B. 

      Altering your DNA's code

    • C. 

      Taking electrons from other molecules

    • D. 

      Contributing to atherosclerosis

    • E. 

      All of the above are true

  • 33. 
    Dietary antioxidants include which of the following?
    • A. 

      Manganese

    • B. 

      Selenium

    • C. 

      Beta-carotene

    • D. 

      Vitamin C

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 34. 
    In addition to talking to your doctor, if you think you've had an adverse reaction to a supplement what else should you do?
    • A. 

      Text your local health department

    • B. 

      Make an appointment with a career counselor

    • C. 

      Call SWAT

    • D. 

      Report it to the FDA

    • E. 

      Contact a private investigator

  • 35. 
    In contrast to initial hypotheses, some studies of antioxidants and health have shown that taking antioxidant supplements .....
    • A. 

      Is associated with increased cancer risk.

    • B. 

      Leads to cataracts in people over 65.

    • C. 

      Induces heart disease in combination with type 2 diabetes.

    • D. 

      Causes Alzheimer's disease.

    • E. 

      Brings on bacterial infections.

  • 36. 
    Dietary supplements can sometimes interact with other supplements, medicines, and/or foods a person takes and lead to problems. Which of the following is an example of this?
    • A. 

      Taking a multi-vitamin in addition to drinking OJ to boost vitamin C intake.

    • B. 

      Using St John's Wort may decrease the effectiveness of medicines like antidepressants.

    • C. 

      Consuming folic acid supplements and whole grains to decrease the risk of birth defects.

    • D. 

      Women who drink milk and take calcium supplements to prevent osteoporosis.

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 37. 
    Which option BEST completes this sentence "Phytochemicals can be..."
    • A. 

      Used as food additives without FDA approval.

    • B. 

      The basis of some medicines.

    • C. 

      Similar to minerals.

    • D. 

      Only derived from fruits and vegetables.

    • E. 

      Utilized to dye fabrics.

  • 38. 
    Though the FDA has recommendations available for many supplements, they do not test supplements for safety prior to sale. What is an example of a third party testing service that supplement manufacturers can use?
    • A. 

      IHeartSupplements.org

    • B. 

      SafeSupplements.com

    • C. 

      Testing USA, LLC

    • D. 

      NSF International

    • E. 

      Supplement Services North America

  • 39. 
    Some antioxidants are known vitamins, for example ______.
    • A. 

      Vitamin E

    • B. 

      All the B vitamins

    • C. 

      Vitamin K

    • D. 

      Vitamin G

    • E. 

      Vitamin X

  • 40. 
    What entity traditionally served as the go between for food processors/manufacturers and retailers?
    • A. 

      Convenience stores

    • B. 

      Warehouse stores

    • C. 

      Wholesaler

    • D. 

      Distributors

    • E. 

      Discounter

  • 41. 
    How does a discount food store compare to a traditional food retailer (e.g. grocery store or supermarket)?
    • A. 

      Discounters only sell brand-name products while traditional retailers only sell their own brands.

    • B. 

      Discounters sell a more limited array of products than traditional retailers sell.

    • C. 

      Traditional retailers have less power (sell less food) than discounters.

    • D. 

      Traditional retailers employ fewer people than discounters employ.

    • E. 

      Discounters allow customers to shop for free while tradiitonal retailers often require a membership.

  • 42. 
    Which of the following match the type of food label date with its general definition?
    • A. 

      "use by” date is not a date that is considered useful to consumers

    • B. 

      “best if used by” date provides an estimate of the date after which food will no longer be at its highest quality

    • C. 

      “production” or “pack” date provides information to retailers for stock control purposes

    • D. 

      "freeze by" date is the last date recommended for the use of the product while at peak quality

    • E. 

      “enjoy by” date is a reminder that quality can be maintained much longer by freezing product

  • 43. 
    The term "food miles" refers to
    • A. 

      Large scale food transportation

    • B. 

      The ability to transport perishable food before it spoils

    • C. 

      How food is produced (e.g. grown/raised by organic agriculture, conventional agriculture, etc)

    • D. 

      How many miles from a particular city to it's primary food source

    • E. 

      The distance a particular food travels to get to the consumer

  • 44. 
    Which of the following is NOT one of the contributors to fast food's success as an industry in the U.S.?
    • A. 

      Wide variety

    • B. 

      Predictability

    • C. 

      Speed of service

    • D. 

      Convenience

    • E. 

      Eating at non-traditional times

  • 45. 
    Aside from logistics, one of the important challenges presented by mass catering (as highlighted by the hotel, hospital, and airline examples from the reading) is maintaining ______________.
    • A. 

      Standardization

    • B. 

      Food color and texture

    • C. 

      Food safety

    • D. 

      Ice carvings

    • E. 

      Vitamin C content

  • 46. 
    It is estimated that food waste costs the average American $___________ per year.
    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      40

    • C. 

      400

    • D. 

      4,000

    • E. 

      40,000

  • 47. 
    Which of the following is NOT a reason food is transported?
    • A. 

      To get foods to areas that cannot grow/raise enough of their own

    • B. 

      To capitalize on opportunities to sell certain foods in certain markets

    • C. 

      To provide variety

    • D. 

      to increase shelf life and prevent spoilage

  • 48. 
    Even though New Zealand is very far away, transporting milk from there to England can be more energy efficient than producing milk in England because
    • A. 

      The cost of production in New Zealand is much less.

    • B. 

      Of how the cows are raised in New Zealand versus in England.

    • C. 

      The New Zealand currency exchange rate to the English Pound is favorable.

    • D. 

      In New Zealand milk is only produced in small, Organic farms.

    • E. 

      None of the above. It's not more energy efficient to do this.

  • 49. 
    As a general rule, foods past their label date are safe to consume, however, there is one area of food safety that is an exception to this generalization. It is important to follow date labels for what type of foods?
    • A. 

      Refrigerated deli meat

    • B. 

      Refrigerated eggs

    • C. 

      Raw hamburger

    • D. 

      Frozen ice cream

    • E. 

      Shelf-stable flour

  • 50. 
    By what age is it thought that 90% of our hunter-gatherer ancestors died?
    • A. 

      20

    • B. 

      30

    • C. 

      40

    • D. 

      50

    • E. 

      60

  • 51. 
    More recent GMOs being designed target the needs of developing countries. One example of this is...
    • A. 

      Iron fortified rice; Asia & Africa

    • B. 

      Virus-resistant sweet potatoes; Africa

    • C. 

      Vitamin-A rich rice; south east Asia

    • D. 

      Edible vaccines; various countries

    • E. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 52. 
    In order to help manage risk, some farmers find contract work appealing. Contract farming refers to the system where....
    • A. 

      Agricultural trade follows a contract laid out in GATT policy.

    • B. 

      A processor signs a contract to buy a farmer's product.

    • C. 

      Crops are raised using rented seed as the input.

    • D. 

      Farming takes place using rented equipment.

    • E. 

      The farmer only grows crops on leased land.

  • 53. 
    The genetically modified corn called "Bt corn" was initially controversial because scientists were concerned about....
    • A. 

      Bt corn spreading its genes to other, non-genetically modified plants in nearby field, e.g. soybeans.

    • B. 

      Growth of Bt corn causing antibiotic resistance.

    • C. 

      Bt corn harming non-pest insects like monarch butterflies.

    • D. 

      The use of Bt corn leading to increased insecticide application.

    • E. 

      Bt corn causing allergies in people.

  • 54. 
    Loss of cooking skills in society today is demonstrated by the contrast in the percentage of young Britons who could cook a potato (~40%) versus the percentage who could use a computer ( ~_________ %).
    • A. 

      10

    • B. 

      30

    • C. 

      50

    • D. 

      70

    • E. 

      90

  • 55. 
    Which of the following is NOT a common reason for laws and regulations pertaining to food?
    • A. 

      To increase pollution in the food system

    • B. 

      To ensure that food is sold in the promised quantity (weight)

    • C. 

      Because people and businesses can put their own good above public good

    • D. 

      To prevent food adulteration

    • E. 

      To reduce the incidence of foodborne illness

  • 56. 
    Choose the option in which the contaminant is correctly matched with its corresponding category.
    • A. 

      Heavy metals : Biological

    • B. 

      Hepatitis A virus: Chemical

    • C. 

      Giardia lamblia : Biological

    • D. 

      DDT : Biological

    • E. 

      Salmonella : Chemical

  • 57. 
    Why is excess nitrogen in rivers and lakes a concern?
    • A. 

      Because it takes so long for nitrogen to be recycled.

    • B. 

      Because in high amounts nitrogen leads to "super plants".

    • C. 

      Because if it's in rivers and lakes then it's not on fields.

    • D. 

      Because it allows fish to grow too large.

    • E. 

      Because it can lead to overgrowth of algae.

  • 58. 
    Why are additives (colors or other ingredients) sometimes added to food?
    • A. 

      To improve appearance

    • B. 

      To maintain safety

    • C. 

      To improve taste

    • D. 

      To maintain nutrition

    • E. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 59. 
    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates what aspect(s) of food in the U.S.?
    • A. 

      What food is imported

    • B. 

      Nutrition facts panels on food

    • C. 

      Food label claims

    • D. 

      Food composition standards

    • E. 

      All of the above.