# Experimental Exam 2

32 Questions

This is just a review quiz for you to test your knowledge of the test material. THESE EXACT QUESTIONS ARE NOT ON THE TEST. These are questions that come from the notes, study guide, and optional homeworks.

• 1.
Match each statement with the correct type of validity:
• A. The extent to which your variable seems to include relevant questions that measure what you are interested in
• A.
• B. The extent to which your variable includes questions that probe all parts of a concept
• B.
• C. The extent to which your variable predicts performance in ways that relate meaningfully to the concept being studied
• C.
• D. The extent to which your variable scores covary with a criterion behavior observed at the same time
• D.
• E. The extent to which your variable scores are similar to scores on another measure of the construct
• E.
• F. The extent to which your variable scores are not related to other measures that are theoretically different
• F.
• G. The extent to which the operational definition of a variable reflects the true theoretical meaning of the variable
• G.
• H. The extent to which you are able to draw causal conclusions from your data; whether or not the outcome is due to your manipulation of the IV
• H.
• I. The extent to which you are able to generalize your results to other populations and settings
• I.
• J. The extent to which your conclusions are correct
• J.
• 2.
When increases in one variable relates to decreases in another variable they have a __________ __________ Relationship.
• 3.
When increases in one variable relates to increases in another they have a __________ __________ Relationship.
• 4.
When increases in one variable relates to both increases and decreases in another they have a __________ Relationship
• 5.
The hypothesis that your IV does NOT influence your DV is called the Alternative Hypothesis.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 6.
A precise description of what will be measured or manipulated is the __________ __________ of a variable.
• 7.
The two kinds of variation in subjects that can influence reliability are: __________ variation= people behave differently at different times __________ variation= people bahave differently from other people
• 8.
Match the statements with the correct terms
• A. the consistency of and experiment, measurement, or observation over time
• A.
• B. the extent to which a study can be repeated with similar results
• B.
• C. the factual accuracy of an experiment, measurement, or observation; the extent to which it measures what you mean to measure
• C.
• 9.
Check all the statements that are true of Independent Variables (IV)
• A.

It is what we hypothesize is the cause of observed changes

• B.

It is what we look at to observe a hypothesized change

• C.

Is graphed on the y-axis

• D.

Is graphed on the x-axis

• 10.
The Confirmation Bias is when during observation, an experimenter intentionally only pays attention to behaviors that support their hypothesis in order to yeild desired results
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 11.
Ways to increase reliability:
• A.

Test a lot of subjects

• B.

Include multiple measures

• C.

Include fewer measures

• D.

Have a good operational definition

• E.

Test fewer subjects

• F.

Include multiple items within each measure

• 12.
All of the individuals of interest to the researcher is called the __________
• 13.
I am doing a poll on the political attitudes of American women.  What kind of sample must I use?
• A.

Haphazard

• B.

Simple Random Sample

• C.

Quota Sampling

• D.

Stratified Random Sample

• 14.
A controlled observation designed to discover the antecedent conditions necessary for an event to occur is a(n) __________
• 15.
I am interested in looking at the relationship between caffeine intake and memory. I split my subjects into three groups (no caffeine (decaffeinated), moderate caffeine, and high caffeine) and compare recall scores after coffee intake. This is an example of a
• A.

Between-Subjects Design

• B.

Within-Subject Design

• C.

Mixed Design

• D.

Correlational Design

• 16.
Pitfalls of Within-Subjects Design:
• A.

Carryover Effects

• B.

Observer Bias

• C.

Ceiling Effects

• D.

Fatigue Effect

• E.

Practice Effects

• F.

Floor Effects

• G.

Demand Effects

• 17.
In order to use Complete Counterbalancing in and experiment with 5 conditions, I must have ___ total orders of my stimuli
• 18.
__________ __________ __________, a type of partial counterbalancing, controls for where in a series an item is presented (1st, 2nd, 3rd,...)
• 19.
I am interested in looking at the effect of feedback on test scores.  I have 90 students who all take the same test on the same day in the same room.  30 of them are mailed their corrected tests (paper feedback), 30 are given correct answers during a meeting in which the receive their corrected tests (personal feedback), and 30 are mailed their tests with incorrect answers indicated, but not corrected (no feedback).  They then return two weeks later and take another test that is the same as the origional with altered wording so that the answers are not identical.  Their scores were then compared to see how much they improved from time one and to assess the effect of the feedback. IV: __________ DV: __________ __________ Design: __________
• 20.
Potential IV that is held constant so it does not confound is a(n) __________ __________
• 21.
When a second, uncontrolled variable covaries with your IV and could cause a change in the DV, this is call a(n) __________
• 22.
I am intersested in exploring the differences in the way men and women perform of spatial tasks.  To do this, I must use a(n):
• A.

Correlational Study

• B.

Quasi-Experimental Study

• C.

Experiment

• 23.
Match the appropriate scale of measurement with each example
• A. Identifying gender (Male/Female)
• A.
• B. Putting subjects in height order
• B.
• C. Temperature
• C.
• D. Number of words recalled on a recall test
• D.
• 24.
The Belmont Report identifies 3 principles essential to the ethical conduct of research with humans which are:
• A.

Respect for Persons

• B.

Equality

• C.

Beneficence

• D.

Disclosure

• E.

Justice

• 25.
• A.

-.05

• B.

+.92

• C.

+.01

• D.

-.96

• 26.
A correlational relationship that may lead a researcher to believe two variables are not related when, in reality, they are strongly related is a _________ _________.
• 27.
I am doing a study in which the participants recieve \$10 to sit in a room and watch an hour long movie and then fill out a survey.  If a participant reads and signs informed consent, starts the study, and then decides not to complete it, they do not get the \$10.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 28.
What can plotting correlational data tell you which inferential statistics can not?
• A.

Restriction of range

• B.

Outliers

• C.

Curvilinear relationships

• D.

Level of significance

• E.

Positive/negative linear relationships

• F.

Confounds

• 29.
Number of murders and icecream sales have a correlation of +.78, this tells us that murderers like to eat lots of icecream while they murder.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 30.
ABA and AAA designs are used to counterbalance between-subjects designs.
• A.

True

• B.

False

• 31.
When is it important to use ABA or AAA designs?
• A.

Large n design

• B.

Small n design

• C.

More than one IV

• D.

More that one DV

• 32.
I am conducting research with children.  One of the kids does not want to participate, but their parent signed informed consent.
• A.

The child must participate because their parent signed informed consent

• B.

The child must participate, but I must test them quickly

• C.

The child must give assent in order to participate

• D.

The parent should be brought in to force the child to participate

• E.

The child should be bribed into partcipation

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