Exam III

64 Questions

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RNA Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    During ___, RNA molecules are linked together by the enzyme RNA polymerase
    • A. 

      Transcription

    • B. 

      Translation

    • C. 

      Mutation

    • D. 

      Elongation

  • 2. 
    In eukaryotes, non-coding sequences called ___ are removed from mRNA transcripts before the transcript leaves the nucleus
    • A. 

      Exons

    • B. 

      Introns

    • C. 

      Codons

    • D. 

      Morons

  • 3. 
    Translation occurs on the surface of which organelle?
    • A. 

      Golgi apparatus

    • B. 

      Mitochondrion

    • C. 

      Ribosome

    • D. 

      Lysosome

  • 4. 
    In the first step of translation, the mRNA transcript binds to the
    • A. 

      Start codon

    • B. 

      TRNA molecule

    • C. 

      Small ribosomal subunit

    • D. 

      Large ribosomal subunit

  • 5. 
    During translation, the anticodon on a(n) ___ molecule binds by complementary base-pairing to an mRNA codon
    • A. 

      Amino acid

    • B. 

      TRNA

    • C. 

      RRNA

    • D. 

      DNA

  • 6. 
    A physical or chemical agent that causes mutation is called a(n)
    • A. 

      Allergen

    • B. 

      Glycogen

    • C. 

      Pathogen

    • D. 

      Mutagen

  • 7. 
    Mutations that do NOT alter a protein's amino acid sequence are called ____ mutations
    • A. 

      Missense

    • B. 

      Nonsense

    • C. 

      Silent

    • D. 

      Pleasant

  • 8. 
    Sickle-cell disease is caused by a ___ in which adenine replaces thymine in the DNA coding strand
    • A. 

      Insertion

    • B. 

      Deletion

    • C. 

      Termination

    • D. 

      Substitution

  • 9. 
    The mutation described in the sickle-cell disease question results in the substitution of one amino acid in the hemoglobin molecule Why do mutations of this type usually have harmful effects?
    • A. 

      The harmful effects are due to the redundancy of the triplet code

    • B. 

      Changing a protein's amino acid sequence usually changes its structure and function

    • C. 

      Genes with such mutations cannot be transcribed and translated

    • D. 

      Remains a mystery

  • 10. 
    Some mutations are NOT heritable because
    • A. 

      They are induced by mutagens

    • B. 

      They are due to random events in cells

    • C. 

      They occur in somatic cells

    • D. 

      They occur in germ-line cells

  • 11. 
    In our modern version of the Linnaean system of classification, the most inclusive category is the
    • A. 

      Species

    • B. 

      Family

    • C. 

      Phylum

    • D. 

      Domain

  • 12. 
    Classifying organisms according to ___ unites them in natural groups
    • A. 

      Size

    • B. 

      Nutrition

    • C. 

      Homology

    • D. 

      Environment

  • 13. 
    A branching diagram that represents a hierarchy of natural groups is called a(n)
    • A. 

      Histogram

    • B. 

      Anagram

    • C. 

      Telegram

    • D. 

      Cladogram

  • 14. 
    Carl Woese divided the kingdom Monera into the domains Bacteria and Archaea because
    • A. 

      He noticed that many archaebacteria live in extreme environments

    • B. 

      He discovered the archaebacteria are not really prokaryotic

    • C. 

      He wanted to be famous

    • D. 

      He showed that archaebacteria are more closely related to eukaryotes than to other bacteria

  • 15. 
    Which statement about prokaryotes is INCORRECT?
    • A. 

      They constitute a larger fraction of the planet's biomass than eukaryotes does

    • B. 

      They come in 3 basic cell shapes

    • C. 

      They contribute nothing of importance to the planet's ecosystems

    • D. 

      They are among the main decomposers of dead organic material

  • 16. 
    Organism that use carbon dioxide as their source of carbon are called
    • A. 

      Pathogens

    • B. 

      Heterotrophs

    • C. 

      Decomposers

    • D. 

      Autotrophs

  • 17. 
    The main reason why prokaryotes can survive in nearly every environment on Earth is that
    • A. 

      Their cells come in only 3 basic forms

    • B. 

      They can use all four modes of nutrition

    • C. 

      They have no membrane-bound organelles

    • D. 

      They are VERY small

  • 18. 
    Pathogenic bacteria do most of their damage by
    • A. 

      Absorbing vitamins from their hosts

    • B. 

      Engulfing host cells by phagocytosis

    • C. 

      Producing toxins in their hosts

    • D. 

      Rupturing the cells of their hosts

  • 19. 
    Most archaea are called ___ because they thrive under conditions of extreme heat, pressure, salinity, or pH
    • A. 

      Extremophiles

    • B. 

      Zoophiles

    • C. 

      Coprophiles

    • D. 

      Necrophiles

  • 20. 
    Heterotrophic, or animal-like, protists are informally called
    • A. 

      Protozoa

    • B. 

      Algae

    • C. 

      Archaea

    • D. 

      Fungi

  • 21. 
    In the old five-kingdom classification system, the kingdom protista included
    • A. 

      Only unicellular eukaryotes

    • B. 

      All autotrophic eukaryotes

    • C. 

      All prokaryotes that are NOT bacteria or archaea

    • D. 

      All eukaryotes that are NOT plants, animals, or fungi

  • 22. 
    Why did taxonomists split the kingdom Protista into many kingdom-level groups?
    • A. 

      They agreed that the kingdom had grown too large

    • B. 

      They decided that prokaryotes and eukaryotes could not belong to the same kingdom

    • C. 

      They argued that the kingdom Protista was not monophyletic

    • D. 

      They wanted to make life harder

  • 23. 
    Many diplomonoads and parabasalids live in anaerobic environments, often as endosymbionts in animals. What unique feature makes these groups especially well-suited to such environments?
    • A. 

      They have flagella

    • B. 

      They are heterotrophic

    • C. 

      They are bioluminescent

    • D. 

      Their mitochondria lack electron transport chains

  • 24. 
    The protists that cause trypanosomiasis are parasitic members of the 
    • A. 

      Excavata

    • B. 

      Chromalveolata

    • C. 

      Rhizaria

    • D. 

      Archaeplastida

  • 25. 
    Diatomaceous earth is mined from deposits of fossilized
    • A. 

      Diplomonads

    • B. 

      Apiocomplexans

    • C. 

      Foraminiferans

    • D. 

      Diatoms

  • 26. 
    The organisms known informally as seaweeds are actually
    • A. 

      Plants

    • B. 

      Animals

    • C. 

      Protists

    • D. 

      Archaeans

  • 27. 
    All members of the ___ are autotrophic
    • A. 

      Excavata

    • B. 

      Chromalveolata

    • C. 

      Archaeplastida

    • D. 

      Unikonta

  • 28. 
    Which of these protists do not use psuedopodia for movement and feeding?
    • A. 

      Ameobas

    • B. 

      Rhizarians

    • C. 

      Ciliates

    • D. 

      Slime molds

  • 29. 
    • A. 

      Slime molds

    • B. 

      Brown algae

    • C. 

      Water molds

    • D. 

      Red algae

  • 30. 
    Carrageenan, nori, and agar are extracted from various species of
    • A. 

      Slime molds

    • B. 

      Brown algae

    • C. 

      Water molds

    • D. 

      Red algae

  • 31. 
    • A. 

      Phloem cells conduct sugars

    • B. 

      Phloem cells have porous end walls

    • C. 

      Phloem cells are dead at maturity

    • D. 

      Phloem cells are found in vascular bundles

  • 32. 
    We say that plants have alternation of generations because the ___ and ___ generations of the life cycle alternate in producing each other
    • A. 

      Sporophyte...gametophyte

    • B. 

      Aquatic...terrestrial

    • C. 

      Unicellular...multicellular

    • D. 

      Prokaryotic...eukaryotic

  • 33. 
    In plants, spores are produced by the ____ generation
    • A. 

      Gametophyte

    • B. 

      Sporophyte

    • C. 

      Bryophyte

    • D. 

      Charophyte

  • 34. 
    In plants, gametophytes grow from ____
    • A. 

      Gametes

    • B. 

      Spores

    • C. 

      Zygotes

    • D. 

      Seeds

  • 35. 
    Bryophyes (ie mosses) live only in moist habitats because
    • A. 

      They have no waxy cuticle

    • B. 

      Their cell walls are too thin to prevent water loss

    • C. 

      Their zygotes are released into water immediately after fertilization

    • D. 

      Their sperm must swim to the egg cells through a film of water

  • 36. 
    One difference between mosses and ferns is that ferns have ___ whereas mosses do not
    • A. 

      Flowers

    • B. 

      Spores

    • C. 

      Vascular tissue

    • D. 

      Pollen

  • 37. 
    Flowering plants are called angiosperms because
    • A. 

      Their seeds are enclosed by fruits

    • B. 

      Their colorful petals attract pollinators

    • C. 

      Their pollen develops in pollen sacs

    • D. 

      Their seeds contain stored nutrients

  • 38. 
    In flowering plants, meiosis occurs in
    • A. 

      Sepals and petals

    • B. 

      Ovules and anthers

    • C. 

      Pollen and seeds

    • D. 

      Roots and fruits

  • 39. 
    The evolution of ___ made gymnosperms fully adapted to life on dry land
    • A. 

      Pollen and seeds

    • B. 

      Gametophytes are sporophytes

    • C. 

      Stems and roots

    • D. 

      Flowers and fruits

  • 40. 
    In seed plants, the female gametophyte develops inside the
    • A. 

      Pollen grain

    • B. 

      Embryo

    • C. 

      Zygote

    • D. 

      Ovule

  • 41. 
    One difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms is that angiosperms produce ___ whereas gymnosperms do not
    • A. 

      Seeds

    • B. 

      Flowers

    • C. 

      Pollen

    • D. 

      Spores

  • 42. 
    The main function of root hairs is to
    • A. 

      Increase the surface area of the root to facilitate water absorption

    • B. 

      Increase the overall length of the root to anchor the plant more firmly

    • C. 

      Insulate the root against extremes of temperature

    • D. 

      Protect the root against damage from abrasive soil particles

  • 43. 
    A reproductive cell that can develop into a new organism without first using w/ another cell is a
    • A. 

      Gamete

    • B. 

      Hypha

    • C. 

      Spore

    • D. 

      Basidium

  • 44. 
    All fungi are
    • A. 

      Decomposers

    • B. 

      Heterotrophs

    • C. 

      Parasites

    • D. 

      Autotrophs

  • 45. 
    Only fungi have a ___ stage in their life cycle
    • A. 

      Haploid

    • B. 

      Diploid

    • C. 

      Heteokaryotic

    • D. 

      Zygote

  • 46. 
    When conditions are favorable for its growth, a fungus will reproduce
    • A. 

      Asexually

    • B. 

      Sexually

    • C. 

      Imperfectly

    • D. 

      Parasitically

  • 47. 
    The only fungi whose spores have flaella are
    • A. 

      Chytrid

    • B. 

      Zygomycetes

    • C. 

      Glomerocytes

    • D. 

      Basidiomyctes

  • 48. 
    Glomeromycetes live in mutualistic associations w/ plant roots called
    • A. 

      Basidia

    • B. 

      Zygosporangia

    • C. 

      Lichens

    • D. 

      Mycorrhizae

  • 49. 
    Fungi that produce spores sexually in basidia belong to which group
    • A. 

      Zygomycetes

    • B. 

      Glomeromycetes

    • C. 

      Ascomycetes

    • D. 

      Basidiomycetes

  • 50. 
    • A. 

      Athlete's foot

    • B. 

      Chytridiomycosis

    • C. 

      Corn smut

    • D. 

      Bubonic plague

  • 51. 
    • A. 

      Blastula stage

    • B. 

      Multicellular adults

    • C. 

      Heterotrophic nutrition

    • D. 

      Cells w/ no cell walls

  • 52. 
    • A. 

      Muscles

    • B. 

      Gut lining

    • C. 

      Internal organs

    • D. 

      Skin

  • 53. 
    A coelem is
    • A. 

      An early stage in the embryonic development of animals

    • B. 

      The opening of a gastrovascular cavity

    • C. 

      A body cavity that is entirely lined with mesodermal tissue

    • D. 

      The invagnation in a blastula that develops into the gut

  • 54. 
    In the embryonic development of protosomes, the blastopore becomes the
    • A. 

      Mouth

    • B. 

      Notochord

    • C. 

      Pharynx

    • D. 

      Anus

  • 55. 
    Choanflagellates are considered to be the closest relatives of animals because they resemble
    • A. 

      The radulas of molluscs

    • B. 

      The cnidocytes of jellyfish

    • C. 

      The gastrovascular cavities of flatworms

    • D. 

      The choancytes of sponges

  • 56. 
    Animals w/ radial symmetry are found in which of these phyla?
    • A. 

      Cnidarians

    • B. 

      Molluscs

    • C. 

      Flatworms

    • D. 

      Annelids

  • 57. 
    Animals w/ complete digestive tracts are found in which of these phyla
    • A. 

      Cnidarians

    • B. 

      Sponges

    • C. 

      Flatworms

    • D. 

      Annelids

  • 58. 
    Animals w/ exoskeletons made of chitin are found in which of these phyla
    • A. 

      Nematodes

    • B. 

      Arthropods

    • C. 

      Sponges

    • D. 

      Annelids

  • 59. 
    In cephalopods, the molluscan "foot" has been modified to form the
    • A. 

      Mantle and gilla

    • B. 

      Radula and beak

    • C. 

      Arms and tentacles

    • D. 

      Shell and mantle

  • 60. 
    Chelicerates, uniramians, and crustaceans are all
    • A. 

      Arthropods

    • B. 

      Molluscs

    • C. 

      Roundworns

  • 61. 
    Of the five major clades of eukaryotes, how many include former members of the kingdom Protista
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      5

  • 62. 
    • A. 

      Walled spores

    • B. 

      Waxy cuticle

    • C. 

      Stomata

    • D. 

      Chloroplasts

  • 63. 
    LSD was derived from
    • A. 

      Chytrid

    • B. 

      Smut

    • C. 

      Ergot

    • D. 

      Rust

  • 64. 
    • A. 

      Fungi

    • B. 

      Plants

    • C. 

      Ciliates

    • D. 

      Water molds