1.
Einstein was runner-up to Ghandi for Time's Man of the 20th Century?
Correct Answer
A. False
Explanation
Einstein was not the runner-up to Gandhi for Time's Man of the 20th Century. The statement is false.
2.
The Fifth Postulate of Euclidean Geometry can be proven from the other four postulates?
Correct Answer
A. No
Explanation
The Fifth Postulate of Euclidean Geometry, also known as the parallel postulate, states that if a line intersects two other lines and the interior angles on the same side add up to less than 180 degrees, then the two lines, when extended indefinitely, will eventually intersect on that side. This postulate cannot be proven from the other four postulates of Euclidean Geometry, as it introduces a unique concept that is not derived from the other axioms. Therefore, the correct answer is "No."
3.
What group of scientists helped create the Maxwell Equation?
Correct Answer
B. Ampere, Coulomb, Faraday, and Gauss
Explanation
The correct answer is "Ampere, Coulomb, Faraday, and Gauss." These scientists, along with Maxwell, made significant contributions to the development of the Maxwell Equations. Ampere formulated the Ampere's law, Coulomb discovered the Coulomb's law, Faraday established the concept of electromagnetic induction, Gauss contributed to the Gauss's law, and Maxwell synthesized their findings into a unified set of equations that describe the behavior of electric and magnetic fields.
4.
What is the main conclusion of Einstein's disription of Brownian Motion?
Correct Answer
B. Direct evidence of the existence of atoms
Explanation
Einstein's description of Brownian motion provides direct evidence of the existence of atoms. Brownian motion is the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid, caused by the constant bombardment of the particles by the fluid molecules. Einstein's explanation of this phenomenon showed that the observed motion can only be explained if the particles are being hit by individual molecules, which supports the existence of atoms. This conclusion is significant as it provides experimental proof for the atomic theory and contributes to our understanding of the microscopic world.
5.
What was Einsteins Miraculous year?
Correct Answer
A. 1905
Explanation
Einstein's Miraculous year refers to the year 1905, when Albert Einstein published four groundbreaking papers that revolutionized the field of physics. These papers introduced his theories on the photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special relativity, and the equivalence of mass and energy (E=mcÂ²). This year marked a turning point in Einstein's career and solidified his reputation as one of the greatest scientific minds in history.
6.
Einstein described the photoelectric effect and Brownian moion, and created special realitivity in different years.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because Einstein did not create special relativity in different years. He actually published his theory of special relativity in 1905, which included the description of the photoelectric effect and Brownian motion. Therefore, the statement is incorrect as it suggests that these achievements were made at different times.
7.
Which object of spacetime physics led to the conclusion E=mc^2
Correct Answer
C. The union of energy and momentum into a four-dimensional vector
Explanation
The correct answer is the union of energy and momentum into a four-dimensional vector. This is because the equation E=mc^2, which relates energy (E) to mass (m) and the speed of light (c), is derived from the concept of four-momentum in special relativity. In this framework, energy and momentum are combined into a four-component vector, where the time component corresponds to energy and the spatial components correspond to momentum. The equation E=mc^2 arises when the magnitude of this four-momentum vector is calculated and found to be equal to the rest mass of an object multiplied by the speed of light squared.
8.
How can one represent four-dimensional spacetime as a drawing in three demensions?
Correct Answer
C. A lattice-work of rulers, with a clock at each point of the lattice where the rulers connect.
Explanation
To represent four-dimensional spacetime as a drawing in three dimensions, a lattice-work of rulers can be used. However, to accurately depict the concept of spacetime, it is necessary to include a clock at each point of the lattice where the rulers connect. This addition of clocks helps to illustrate the time dimension in addition to the three spatial dimensions. By incorporating both rulers and clocks, the drawing can provide a visual representation of the interconnectedness of space and time in four-dimensional spacetime.
9.
After Maxwell completed the equations that are named after him, what was he able to predict?
Correct Answer
A. Electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light
Explanation
After completing his equations, Maxwell was able to predict that electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light. This is because his equations showed that electromagnetic waves are composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, and these fields propagate through space at the speed of light. This prediction was later confirmed by experimental evidence and is now a fundamental principle in physics.
10.
Einsteins description of the photoelectric effect is able to explain which two phenomena?
Correct Answer
A. The energy of emitted electrons is independent of the intensity of the incident light, and the number electrons emitted is independent of the frequency of the incident light.
Explanation
Einstein's description of the photoelectric effect can explain two phenomena: the energy of emitted electrons is independent of the intensity of the incident light, and the number of electrons emitted is independent of the frequency of the incident light. This means that the energy of the emitted electrons is determined solely by the frequency of the incident light, while the intensity of the light only affects the number of electrons emitted, not their energy. This explanation is consistent with the experimental observations of the photoelectric effect.
11.
When the magnetic flux through a circle of conducting wire changes with time, what is the main responce of the wire
Correct Answer
A. To develop and electric current
Explanation
When the magnetic flux through a circle of conducting wire changes with time, the main response of the wire is to develop an electric current. This is due to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, where a changing magnetic field induces an electric current in a nearby conductor. As the magnetic flux through the wire changes, it creates an electromotive force (EMF) that causes the flow of electrons, resulting in the development of an electric current in the wire.
12.
There are magnetic charges that can act as soruces or sinks of magnetic flux?
Correct Answer
A. No
Explanation
Magnetic charges, also known as magnetic monopoles, have not been observed in nature. Unlike electric charges, which can exist as positive or negative charges, magnetic charges only exist in pairs, known as dipoles. Therefore, there are no magnetic charges that can act as sources or sinks of magnetic flux.
13.
Chose the most correct statement.
Correct Answer
A. Pythagoras Theorem can be used to calculate distances in space-time with no modifications
Explanation
Pythagoras Theorem is a mathematical principle that applies to calculating distances in Euclidean space, where there are three dimensions. However, in space-time, which is a four-dimensional concept that includes the dimension of time, Pythagoras Theorem alone cannot accurately calculate distances. In space-time, the concept of distance is more complex and requires the use of other mathematical tools, such as the spacetime interval or the metric tensor. Therefore, the statement that Pythagoras Theorem can be used to calculate distances in space-time with no modifications is incorrect.
14.
Intertial observers always observe the same acceleration of an object as non-intertail observies
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Inertial observers and non-inertial observers do not always observe the same acceleration of an object. Inertial observers are in a state of constant velocity or at rest, while non-inertial observers are in a state of acceleration or rotation. Therefore, their observations of an object's acceleration will differ.
15.
Weight W is given by mass m times the accleration due to gravity g; i.e. W= m*g. For the Earth the accleration due to gravity has the value 9.8 m/s^2 but on the Moon it is 1/6 thatt of earths. Determine the weight of a person on the moon whose weight on earth is 600 Newtons.
Correct Answer
A. 110 N
Explanation
The weight of an object is given by the equation W = m*g, where W is the weight, m is the mass, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. On Earth, the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 m/s^2, while on the Moon it is 1/6 that of Earth's.
To find the weight of a person on the Moon whose weight on Earth is 600 Newtons, we can set up the following equation:
600 N = m * (1/6 * 9.8 m/s^2)
Simplifying the equation, we get:
600 N = m * 1.6333 m/s^2
Dividing both sides of the equation by 1.6333 m/s^2, we find:
m = 600 N / 1.6333 m/s^2
m â‰ˆ 367.6 kg
Now, we can calculate the weight on the Moon using the equation W = m * (1/6 * 9.8 m/s^2):
W = 367.6 kg * (1/6 * 9.8 m/s^2)
W â‰ˆ 60.93 N
Therefore, the weight of a person on the Moon whose weight on Earth is 600 Newtons is approximately 60.93 Newtons. However, since the answer options do not include this value, we can conclude that the question is incomplete or not readable.
16.
Are there lines that can be drawn in spacetime that violate cause and effect
Correct Answer
B. Yes
Explanation
The answer "Yes" suggests that there are lines that can be drawn in spacetime that violate cause and effect. This implies that there are scenarios where an event can occur before its cause, which contradicts the fundamental principle of causality. Such lines would challenge our understanding of the laws of physics and the nature of causality, leading to potential paradoxes and inconsistencies in our understanding of the universe.
17.
The First Law of Newtonian Mechanics can be proven from the Second Law of Newtonian Mechanics.
Correct Answer
A. No
Explanation
The first law of Newtonian mechanics, also known as the law of inertia, states that an object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction, unless acted upon by an external force. This law does not require the second law of Newtonian mechanics, which states that the force acting on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration. The first law can be observed and proven independently without relying on the second law. Therefore, the statement that the first law can be proven from the second law is incorrect.
18.
What is the angle tat a light-cone makes with the spacial axes, x,y, or z assuming that the time axis is labeled by c(t) where c is the speed of light
Correct Answer
B. 45
Explanation
The angle that a light-cone makes with the spatial axes x, y, or z assuming that the time axis is labeled by c(t) where c is the speed of light is 45 degrees.
19.
The classical model of the atom does not work since it decays because of electromagnetic radiation
Correct Answer
A. Yes
Explanation
The classical model of the atom does not work because it fails to account for the phenomenon of electromagnetic radiation. According to classical physics, an electron orbiting the nucleus would continuously emit energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, causing the atom to decay over time. However, this is not observed in reality, indicating that the classical model is inadequate. The development of quantum mechanics resolved this issue by introducing the concept of discrete energy levels and wave-particle duality.
20.
The bohr model of the atom can be used to describe the spectral properties of all atoms of the periodic table.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The Bohr model of the atom is a simplified representation that only accurately describes the spectral properties of hydrogen and singly ionized helium. It fails to explain the more complex spectral properties of atoms with multiple electrons, making the statement false.
21.
Which of the following describes best electrons and positirons
Correct Answer
B. Electrons are matter and positrons are their anti-matter partners
Explanation
Electrons and positrons are both subatomic particles, but they have opposite charges. Electrons have a negative charge, while positrons have a positive charge. They are considered to be each other's antiparticles, meaning that they have the same mass but opposite charges. When an electron and a positron come into contact, they can annihilate each other, releasing energy in the form of gamma rays. Therefore, the statement that "Electrons are matter and positrons are their anti-matter partners" accurately describes the relationship between electrons and positrons.
22.
When Dirac combined special relativity with quatum mechanics he made a startling discovery. Which of the following is Dirac's discover
Correct Answer
C. The existence of anti-matter
Explanation
Dirac's discovery was the existence of anti-matter. When he combined special relativity with quantum mechanics, he found that his equations predicted the existence of particles with the same mass as ordinary matter but with opposite charge. This led to the realization that for every particle there exists an antiparticle, which has the same mass but opposite charge. This discovery revolutionized our understanding of particle physics and has been confirmed through experimental observations.
23.
What is a photon
Correct Answer
A. A particle associated with the electromagnetic radiation
Explanation
A photon is a particle that is associated with electromagnetic radiation. It is not another form of the electron, but rather a distinct particle that carries energy and momentum. Photons are massless and travel at the speed of light. They have properties of both particles and waves, exhibiting characteristics such as wavelength and frequency. Electromagnetic radiation, such as light, consists of photons.
24.
The standard model does not incorporate all currently known fundamental forces of nature at a quantum level: strong, weak, elctromagnetic, and gravity
Correct Answer
B. Yes
Explanation
The given statement is correct as the standard model of particle physics does not include gravity as a fundamental force at a quantum level. While the standard model successfully describes the other three fundamental forces (strong, weak, and electromagnetic), it does not incorporate gravity into its framework. Gravity is currently described by the theory of general relativity, which is not fully compatible with the principles of quantum mechanics. Therefore, the standard model is incomplete in terms of incorporating all known fundamental forces at a quantum level.
25.
Temperature plays no role in the shape of a blackbody's spectrum
Correct Answer
A. False
Explanation
Temperature does play a role in the shape of a blackbody's spectrum. A blackbody spectrum is the distribution of electromagnetic radiation emitted by an object at different wavelengths. The shape of this spectrum is determined by the temperature of the object. As the temperature increases, the peak of the spectrum shifts towards shorter wavelengths, resulting in a different shape. Therefore, temperature is a crucial factor in determining the shape of a blackbody's spectrum.
26.
The waving associated with a wave function is analogous to what.
Correct Answer
A. A crime wave passing through a neighborhood
Explanation
The waving associated with a wave function is analogous to a crime wave passing through a neighborhood. Just like a wave function, a crime wave involves the movement and propagation of criminal activities through a specific area. Both phenomena exhibit a pattern of oscillation and spreading, making them comparable in terms of their behavior and characteristics.
27.
Determine which of the following is one of the great insights of the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom
Correct Answer
B. The periodic table of elements is understandable through the structure of quantum states of electrons in atoms
Explanation
The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom provides the insight that the periodic table of elements can be understood through the structure of quantum states of electrons in atoms. This means that the arrangement of electrons in an atom's energy levels determines its chemical properties and its position in the periodic table. The Bohr model introduced the concept of quantized energy levels and explained the emission and absorption of light by atoms, which laid the foundation for understanding the behavior of electrons in atoms and the organization of elements in the periodic table.
28.
What is the pauli exclusion principle
Correct Answer
B. The likelihood of finding two fermions in the same quantum state is zero
Explanation
The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that two identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state simultaneously. This means that the likelihood of finding two fermions in the same quantum state is zero. This principle is fundamental in understanding the behavior of particles with half-integer spin, such as electrons, and it plays a crucial role in determining the electronic structure of atoms and the properties of matter.
29.
What is the fundemental difference between newton's law of mechanics and quantum mechanics
Correct Answer
C. Newtons laws produce position, velocity, and acceleration as a function of time but quantum mechanics gives the probability of finding a particle at a given position at a given time
Explanation
The correct answer states that Newton's laws produce position, velocity, and acceleration as a function of time, while quantum mechanics gives the probability of finding a particle at a given position at a given time. This means that Newton's laws provide deterministic predictions of the motion of objects, while quantum mechanics introduces probabilistic behavior at the microscopic level. In other words, Newton's laws describe classical mechanics, which is applicable to macroscopic objects, while quantum mechanics is necessary to understand the behavior of particles at the quantum level.
30.
Newtons theory of gravit does not have to be modified so as to accommodate special realitivity
Correct Answer
A. False
Explanation
Newton's theory of gravity does need to be modified to accommodate special relativity. Special relativity, proposed by Albert Einstein, describes how the laws of physics are the same for all observers moving at constant velocities. It introduces the concept of spacetime and the idea that the speed of light is constant. Newton's theory of gravity, on the other hand, is based on the concept of absolute time and does not take into account the effects of high speeds or strong gravitational fields. Therefore, to accurately describe gravity in extreme conditions, such as near black holes or at very high speeds, modifications to Newton's theory are necessary.
31.
The einstein coefficents are associated with which of the following devices
Correct Answer
C. Laser
Explanation
The Einstein coefficients are associated with the laser device. Einstein coefficients describe the rate of transition between energy levels in a system, and they are particularly relevant in the context of laser physics. Lasers work by amplifying light through a process called stimulated emission, which is governed by the Einstein coefficients. This process allows for the production of a coherent, intense beam of light with specific properties, making lasers an essential device in various fields such as medicine, communication, and scientific research.
32.
The hesienberg uncertainty principle says that the uncertainty in position and unsertainty in momentum must satisfy dx*dp ~ h where h + 6.6 x10^-34 meters^2. If an elctron is known to pass through a slit of width dx =13.2 x10^-15 meters what is the uncertainty in its momentum
Correct Answer
A. 5x10^-18 kgm/s
Explanation
The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that the product of the uncertainty in position (dx) and the uncertainty in momentum (dp) must satisfy dx*dp ~ h, where h is Planck's constant. In this question, the width of the slit (dx) through which the electron passes is given as 13.2 x 10^-15 meters. To find the uncertainty in momentum, we can rearrange the equation to solve for dp. Since h is a very small value, multiplying it by dx (which is also a small value) will result in a very small uncertainty in momentum. Therefore, the uncertainty in momentum is approximately 5 x 10^-18 kgm/s.
33.
Which of the following is the great prediction of halley when he applied newtons laws of mechanics
Correct Answer
B. Comets seen in the past are the same seen in the present
Explanation
Halley's great prediction, when he applied Newton's laws of mechanics, was that comets seen in the past are the same as those seen in the present. This prediction was based on his study of comets and their orbits. He observed that some comets appeared at regular intervals and hypothesized that they were actually the same comet returning periodically. This prediction was later confirmed when the comet now known as Halley's Comet was observed in 1758, exactly as Halley had predicted. This discovery provided strong evidence for the accuracy of Newton's laws of mechanics and revolutionized our understanding of comets and their behavior.
34.
The position of any fundamental particle and its mometum can be measured simulatneously with increasingly smaller and smaller uncertainties in each value in principle the uncertainties can vanish
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
According to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it is not possible to measure both the position and momentum of a particle simultaneously with arbitrary precision. The more accurately we measure one of these properties, the less accurately we can know the other. Therefore, the uncertainties in both position and momentum cannot vanish completely. Hence, the statement is false.
35.
A metal is made of atoms that maintain on average constant distances from neighboring atoms. How can removing electrons from the metal lead to an elecrical current of holes insdie the metal?
Correct Answer
B. An applied voltage across the metal will cause electrons to jump from an atom without a missing electron to one with a missing electron
Explanation
When an applied voltage is across the metal, it creates an electric field that causes the electrons to move. Electrons are negatively charged particles, so they will be attracted to the positively charged holes created by the missing electrons. This movement of electrons from one atom to another with a missing electron creates an electrical current of holes inside the metal.