Environment Final Test Quiz

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Environment Final Test Quiz

2010 final for berk ayranci test


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Throughout history, the human population..
    • A. 

      Grew continuously as a result of the passion of love.

    • B. 

      Has been in steady-state.

    • C. 

      Was constant in its growth.

    • D. 

      Has always grown as rapidly as today.

    • E. 

      Mostly increased, but included some decreases most notably during the Black Death.

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      During the middle ages

    • B. 

      Human population has increased on a steady rate

    • C. 

      In the early history of the human population

    • D. 

      In the last part of the 20th century

    • E. 

      During the French Revolution

  • 3. 
    Use of groundwater at a rate faster than it is naturally re-supplied:
    • A. 

      Wetlands

    • B. 

      Overdraft

    • C. 

      Water budget

    • D. 

      Variable-source approach

    • E. 

      Influent streams

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      A zone of hot, pressurized groundwater

    • B. 

      A rock that holds and transmits water

    • C. 

      The area of a drainage basin which recharges water into the system

    • D. 

      A canal or system to transport water over long distance

    • E. 

      A rock in which permeability is low.

  • 5. 
    "Instream use" refers to:
    • A. 

      Use for agricultural purposes

    • B. 

      Evaporation during transport in pipes or canals

    • C. 

      Uses of the river or lake itself, without removing water

    • D. 

      Water removed from a river and eventually returned to the river

    • E. 

      Use by cities or agricultural in the close vicinity of the river

  • 6. 
    • A. 

      Water used to supply a nearby city.

    • B. 

      Agricultural irrigation on the banks of a river.

    • C. 

      Water used to cool a nuclear power plant.

    • D. 

      Water from a sewage treatment plant that is returned to the river.

    • E. 

      All of the above.

  • 7. 
    Channelized streams have reduced wildlife because of which of the following characteristics? 
    • A. 

      Excessive daily and seasonal variation in water temperature.

    • B. 

      Increased leaf material input.

    • C. 

      Low stream velocity.

    • D. 

      Excessive shading.

    • E. 

      Aesthetic degradation.

  • 8. 
    According to the Environmental Science textbook, the Colorado River is noteworthy because : 
    • A. 

      It is the last of the pristine and unharnessed rivers of the American West.

    • B. 

      It supplies water to a large portion of the arid southwestern US

    • C. 

      It is far from video games

    • D. 

      Its natural regularity and steadiness of flow make it a model for flood control projects on other rivers.

    • E. 

      The river is the last underutilized source of water west of the Rocky Mountains.

  • 9. 
    Adverse environmental effects of channelization include all of the following except:
    • A. 

      Aesthetic degradation

    • B. 

      Increased flood hazard along channelized segments of streams

    • C. 

      A less diverse range of habitats for aquatic species

    • D. 

      Loss of riparian vegetation

    • E. 

      Loss of wetlands

  • 10. 
    99% of the earth's water is unavailable or unsuitable for human use because:I: of its salinityII: it is pollutedIII: it lies in inaccessible areas
    • A. 

      I only

    • B. 

      II only

    • C. 

      I and II

    • D. 

      I and III

    • E. 

      I, II, III

  • 11. 
    In the US, the single sector which consumes the greatest portion of water supplies is:
    • A. 

      Waste disposal

    • B. 

      Agriculture

    • C. 

      Municipal water use

    • D. 

      Industry

    • E. 

      Electric power plants

  • 12. 
    Hydroelectric power generation on a river is and example of:
    • A. 

      Consumptive use

    • B. 

      Geothermal energy

    • C. 

      Instream use

    • D. 

      Industry

    • E. 

      Electric power plants

  • 13. 
    All of the following are improvements or additions to agriculture that would increase the efficiency of water use and the quality of runoff except:
    • A. 

      Increased use of fertilizer and pesticides

    • B. 

      Use of moisture sensors to prevent over-watering

    • C. 

      Metering(measurment) of water usuage

    • D. 

      Restoration of stream and river ecosystems

    • E. 

      More drip irrigation and less flood irrigation

  • 14. 
    A specific location where pollution is introduced in to surface water or groundwater:
    • A. 

      Secondary treatment

    • B. 

      Acid mine drainage

    • C. 

      Fecal coliform bacteria

    • D. 

      Point source

    • E. 

      Crptosporidium

  • 15. 
    Step in wastewater purification in which organic material is consumed by bacteria:
    • A. 

      Secondary treatment

    • B. 

      Acid mine drainage

    • C. 

      Fecal coliform bacteria

    • D. 

      Point source

    • E. 

      Cryptospordium

  • 16. 
    The principle advantage of using wetlands for wastewater treatment is:
    • A. 

      The method eliminates the production of methane, which contributes to global warming

    • B. 

      It replaces all need for a centralized wastewater treatment facility

    • C. 

      The resulting water exceeds all drinking water standards

    • D. 

      A natural ecosystem replaces industrial methods for secondary and advanced treatment

    • E. 

      It removes dioxin and other pollutants in the sediment of the wetland

  • 17. 
    Long Island, NY has a large population. Which of the following is not one of the threats to Long Island groundwater?
    • A. 

      Saltwater intrusion

    • B. 

      Discharge from household septic tanks

    • C. 

      High-level nuclear waste disposal

    • D. 

      Infiltration of salt used to de-ice winter roads

    • E. 

      Leachate from solid waste disposal sites

  • 18. 
    The best definition of the term "water pollution"
    • A. 

      Water unsuitable for human consumption

    • B. 

      Degradation of water quality

    • C. 

      Release of primary treated sewage into natural waters

    • D. 

      Over-drafting in coastal areas

    • E. 

      Uncontrolled dumping of toxic industrial waste

  • 19. 
    The common test for the potential for disease transmission in water is:
    • A. 

      Measurements of LDC

    • B. 

      Measurement of the biological oxygen demand

    • C. 

      Presence of coliform bacteria

    • D. 

      Total dissolved solids

    • E. 

      Presence of cholera bacteria

  • 20. 
    A septic tank:
    • A. 

      Stores human waste until it is emptied, for use where no sewage system is available

    • B. 

      Is a tank used to collect and treat drinking water

    • C. 

      Is a hermetically sealed contain for storage of food

    • D. 

      Is a tank in a sewage plant where chlorination of wastewater takes place

    • E. 

      Treats wastewater in rural households

  • 21. 
    ACcording to the Environmental Science text, what is the most critical water pollution problem in the world?
    • A. 

      Industrial effluent

    • B. 

      Sediment polluted waters

    • C. 

      Lack of clean, disease free drinking water

    • D. 

      Municipal sewage

    • E. 

      Thermal pollution

  • 22. 
    Massive and rapid algae growth is stimulated by the addition of ___to surface water bodies.
    • A. 

      Leachate

    • B. 

      Nitrogen and phosphorus

    • C. 

      Toxic chemicals

    • D. 

      Oxygen and carbon dioxide

    • E. 

      Aerobic bacteria

  • 23. 
    • A. 

      Drinking water

    • B. 

      Treated wastewater

    • C. 

      Surface water

    • D. 

      Groundwater

    • E. 

      Ocean water

  • 24. 
    By weight, the most abundant water pollutant is:
    • A. 

      Leachate from open dumps

    • B. 

      Heavy metals

    • C. 

      Sediment

    • D. 

      Organic waste

    • E. 

      Toxic chemicals

  • 25. 
    • A. 

      Addition of fecal coliform bacteria to a body of water

    • B. 

      Active decomposition of dissolved oxygen

    • C. 

      Decay of cultural or moral standards

    • D. 

      Anthropogenic addition of nutrients to a body of water

    • E. 

      Large scale oil spills in environmentally sensitive areas

  • 26. 
    The persistent trend of increasing temperatures over three decades is an indication that global warming is happening. What is the warmest decade since temperatures have been recorded?
    • A. 

      1960s

    • B. 

      1970s

    • C. 

      1990s

    • D. 

      1950s

    • E. 

      1980s

  • 27. 
    • A. 

      American revolution

    • B. 

      Invention of agriculture

    • C. 

      Election of George bush

    • D. 

      Industrial revolution

    • E. 

      Splitting of the atom

  • 28. 
    Global-scale wind currents are produced by: 
    • A. 

      Differential heating of the EArth by the Sun

    • B. 

      The tilt of the earth

    • C. 

      Ocean currents

    • D. 

      Gravity

    • E. 

      The Coriolis effect produces high and low pressure systems

  • 29. 
    Incoming solar raditation is partly reflected back into space by the earths:I: atmosphere II: land surfaceIII: ocean surface
    • A. 

      I only

    • B. 

      II only

    • C. 

      III only

    • D. 

      II and III

    • E. 

      I,II, III

  • 30. 
    The part of the atmosphere where weather occurs is the:
    • A. 

      Homeosphere

    • B. 

      Tropopause

    • C. 

      Stratopause

    • D. 

      Troposphere

    • E. 

      Stratosphere

  • 31. 
    • A. 

      The rest is refracted through the atmosphere

    • B. 

      The rest is absorbed by the atmosphere or reflected into space

    • C. 

      The rest is converted into heat energy

  • 32. 
    CFC's that travel to the stratosphere pose a threat because: 
    • A. 

      They contribute to photochemical smog

    • B. 

      They lead of acid rain

    • C. 

      They lead to a destruction of ozone

  • 33. 
    Name the international agreement that required the phase-out of ozone-depleting chemicals:
    • A. 

      Eiger Snaction

    • B. 

      Montreal Protocol

    • C. 

      Rio Conference

  • 34. 
    • A. 

      Extend of exposure to UVB and amount of protective melatonin in the skin

    • B. 

      Age and gene pool

    • C. 

      Extend of exposure to ozone and skin tone

  • 35. 
    The residence time of CFC's in the atmosphere is approximately:
    • A. 

      100 years

    • B. 

      9 months

    • C. 

      1 year

  • 36. 
    • A. 

      Climate modification

    • B. 

      DNA mutation

    • C. 

      Reduced crop yields

    • D. 

      Increased incidence of skin cancer

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 37. 
    • A. 

      Supply of clothing and shelter

    • B. 

      Modern medicine

    • C. 

      Modern technology

    • D. 

      Supply of food

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 38. 
    The rapid population increase since the industrial revolution occurred for all of the following reasons except: 
    • A. 

      Increased food production

    • B. 

      Declining birth rates

    • C. 

      Advances in agriculture

  • 39. 
    • A. 

      An international plan to control the ever growing number of people living on earth

    • B. 

      The number of individuals per unit area

    • C. 

      An uncontrolled increase in human population

  • 40. 
    The Gaia Hypothesis states that the dominant force that has shaped the global environment through time is:
    • A. 

      The oceans

    • B. 

      Life

    • C. 

      Humans

    • D. 

      Atmosphere

  • 41. 
    • A. 

      An urbanizing world

    • B. 

      Sustainability of the cat and dog population

    • C. 

      Human population growth

  • 42. 
    The total amount of food produced each year worldwide is sufficient to feed all the world's people today. Why do famines occur?
    • A. 

      Food production is insufficient in some local areas

    • B. 

      Severe local shortage of firewood affects the ability to cook

    • C. 

      Worldwide transportation of food is inadequate

    • D. 

      Logging destroys agricultural land

    • E. 

      A and c

  • 43. 
    • A. 

      A legal basis

    • B. 

      Value judgements

    • C. 

      Global perspective

  • 44. 
    Deductive proof is..
    • A. 

      Speculative

    • B. 

      Based on hypotheses

    • C. 

      An accepted theory

  • 45. 
    A hypothesis is defined as..
    • A. 

      A statement that can be disproved

    • B. 

      A fact

    • C. 

      An accepted theory

  • 46. 
    Using scientific method in conducting an experiment is useful becasue:
    • A. 

      Results will always be useful quantitative data

    • B. 

      When using SM it is not necessary to conduct controlled experiments

    • C. 

      Following a standardized procedure allows a scientist to compare his/her data with the results of other scientists

  • 47. 
    Premise: A straight line is the shortest distance between two points.Premise: The line from A to B is the shortest distance between points A and B.Conclusion: Therefore, the line from A to B is a straight line.Example of..
    • A. 

      Scientific fact

    • B. 

      A hypothesis

    • C. 

      Scientific proof

    • D. 

      Deductive reasoning

    • E. 

      Inductive reasoning

  • 48. 
    The conclusion of an inductive proof is more ______ than the conclusion of a deductive proof.
    • A. 

      Speculative

    • B. 

      Certain

    • C. 

      Accurate

  • 49. 
    • A. 

      Observations, hypothesis, controlled experiments, conclusions

    • B. 

      Hypothesis, controlled experiments, inferences, conclusions

  • 50. 
    Systems are either open or closed. The planet Earth can be considered in terms of the simultaneous functioning of many systems, including its energy and its mass. Ignoring minute exceptions such as meteorites..
    • A. 

      Energy is an open system; mass is closed

    • B. 

      Both open

    • C. 

      Both open and closed

    • D. 

      Both closed

  • 51. 
    Positive feedback:
    • A. 

      Is rarely beneficial

    • B. 

      Accelerates change

    • C. 

      Trends toward equilibrium

  • 52. 
    A ____type of feedback mechanism functions as a _____process for the system as a whole.
    • A. 

      Negative; destabilizing

    • B. 

      Positive; stabilizing or self-regulating

    • C. 

      Negative; stabilizing or self-regulating

  • 53. 
    The increased cloud cover reduces the amount of solar radiation that reaches surface on earth. This is an example of:
    • A. 

      Negative feedback

    • B. 

      Positive feedback

    • C. 

      Atmospheric moisture balance

    • D. 

      Greenhouse effect

  • 54. 
    Uniformitarianism is:
    • A. 

      Principle that the past can be understood by studying the processes operating at present

    • B. 

      Belief that the earth functions as a single living organism

    • C. 

      Principle that everything effects everything else

  • 55. 
    Change that tends to stabilize a system is called:
    • A. 

      Positive feedback

    • B. 

      Equilibrium

    • C. 

      Negative feedback

    • D. 

      Linear growth

  • 56. 
    In primitive countries, breast feeding slows population growth because: 
    • A. 

      It is healthy and decreases infant mortality

    • B. 

      It decreases the frequency of sexual activity

    • C. 

      It increases the average number of years between births

  • 57. 
    The crude growth rate is defined as:
    • A. 

      Maximum life time minus average life expectancy

    • B. 

      Crude birth rate minus crude death rate

    • C. 

      Birth rate minus death rate

  • 58. 
    • A. 

      Logistic line

    • B. 

      Carrying capacity

    • C. 

      Demographic transition

    • D. 

      Sustainability

  • 59. 
    The simplest and one of the least controversial means of slowing population growth is:
    • A. 

      Abortion

    • B. 

      Birth control

    • C. 

      Delaying first childbearing

    • D. 

      Sterilization

  • 60. 
    • A. 

      Logistic growth curve

    • B. 

      Carrying capacity

    • C. 

      Demographic transition

  • 61. 
    Human population growth during the pre-industrial agricultural period and during the Industrial Revolution period occured with little change in:
    • A. 

      Death rates

    • B. 

      Average life expectancy

    • C. 

      Birth rates

    • D. 

      Growth rates

    • E. 

      Maximum human life expectancy

  • 62. 
    Rapid human population growth put an especially heavy burden on:
    • A. 

      The ocean

    • B. 

      Sewage treatment plants

    • C. 

      The environment

    • D. 

      The wildlife

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 63. 
    In a developing country, chronic diseases account for a ____ proportion of total mortality. Acute diseases account for a _____proportion of total mortality.
    • A. 

      Small; large

    • B. 

      Small;small

    • C. 

      Large;small

  • 64. 
    Human demography suggests that an improving economy in a country correlates with:
    • A. 

      Decreased birth rate, decreased population growth rate

    • B. 

      Increased birth rate, increased population growth rate

    • C. 

      Increased birth, decreased population growth rate

  • 65. 
    Based on classification in the Environmental Science textbook, iron, potassium, magnesium, and calcium are examples of: 
    • A. 

      The "big six" macronutrients

    • B. 

      Other macronutrients

    • C. 

      Micronutrients

  • 66. 
    An element with a gaseous phase under conditions at the surface of the Earth tends to ____much more rapidly than an element without a gas phase.
    • A. 

      Be depleted

    • B. 

      Accumulate in excess

    • C. 

      Be polluted

    • D. 

      Recycle

  • 67. 
    • A. 

      Nitrogen cycle

    • B. 

      Hydrologic cycle

    • C. 

      Biochemical cycle

    • D. 

      Carbon cycle

    • E. 

      Geological cycle

  • 68. 
    Fluxes of nitrogen both into and out of the atmosphere are controlled predominantly by:
    • A. 

      Evaporation and precipitation

    • B. 

      Geological activity

    • C. 

      The activity of microscopic bacteria

    • D. 

      Transpiration by plants

  • 69. 
    Processes that are responsible for the destruction of the lithosphere refer to the:
    • A. 

      Nitrogen cycle

    • B. 

      Geological cycle

    • C. 

      Hydrologic cycle

    • D. 

      Carbon cycle

    • E. 

      Biochemical cycle

  • 70. 
    The two major pathways by which molecular nitrogen is converted into forms more useful to living organisms are:
    • A. 

      Snow and freezing activity

    • B. 

      Biological activity and ultraviolet radiation

    • C. 

      Evaporation and precipitation

  • 71. 
    The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important and most complex of the biogeochemical cycles. It is important because nitrogen..
    • A. 

      Is an important nutrient, necessary for life.

    • B. 

      Is a greenhouse gas

    • C. 

      Is toxic to most forms of life

    • D. 

      Dilutes carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere

  • 72. 
    The hydrologic cycle refers to recycling of:
    • A. 

      Ocean water

    • B. 

      All water

    • C. 

      Groundwater

    • D. 

      Surface

    • E. 

      Rain water

  • 73. 
    The original source of energy that drives the hydrologic cycle is:
    • A. 

      Solar energy

    • B. 

      Photosynthesis

    • C. 

      Gravity

    • D. 

      Rain

    • E. 

      Thermal energy

  • 74. 
    Within any one of the cycles, flux refers to:
    • A. 

      Movement of material from one reservoir to another

    • B. 

      A state of disequilibrium

    • C. 

      Rate of transfer from one reservoir to another

  • 75. 
    The rock cycle depends on the ____cycle to life mass above seas level and the ____cycle to supply the force of erosion.  
    • A. 

      Tectonic; carbon

    • B. 

      Tectonic; hydrologic

    • C. 

      Nuclear; phosphorus

  • 76. 
    Phosphorus, an important nutrient, enters living plants from:
    • A. 

      Air

    • B. 

      Soil

    • C. 

      Groundwater

  • 77. 
    The pathway by which carbon is transferred from living biota to the atmosphere is called:
    • A. 

      Transportation

    • B. 

      Photosynthesis

    • C. 

      Transpiration

    • D. 

      Evaporation

    • E. 

      Respiration

  • 78. 
    Energy, chemical elements, and other compounds are transferred from creature to creature along:
    • A. 

      Food chains

    • B. 

      Symbiotic links

    • C. 

      Hydrologic cycle

  • 79. 
    The simplest ecosystem needs____to function properly.
    • A. 

      Just air

    • B. 

      One species that produces its own food, also decomposes it, plus water and air.

    • C. 

      One species that produces its own food, and a second that decomposes the waste of the first one, plus water and air.

  • 80. 
    Sea Otters live along the Pacific coast is US and Canada. The otters feed upon urchins and the urchins feed upon kelp. Reduction in the number of sea otters leads to an explosion in sea urchin populations, declines in kelp, and declines in all other species that feed upon kelp. The otter is an example of...
    • A. 

      Omnivore

    • B. 

      Keystone species

    • C. 

      Dominant species

    • D. 

      Food chain

  • 81. 
    In the "holisic" view of ecological communities:
    • A. 

      All individuals are keystone species

    • B. 

      All individuals are replaceable

    • C. 

      Species association change in time

  • 82. 
    Community-level interactions refer to: 
    • A. 

      Social, non-competitive interactions within a community

    • B. 

      Elimination of an important keystone species

    • C. 

      Competitive interactions within an ecosystem

  • 83. 
    An ecological community is..
    • A. 

      The total physical and chemical environment of a continent

    • B. 

      A set of interacting species that occur in the same place

    • C. 

      The smallest group that has all characters necessary to sustain life

  • 84. 
    The simplest environmental unit that can support life is called ..
    • A. 

      Ecosystem

    • B. 

      Simple community

    • C. 

      Community level effect

    • D. 

      Keystone species

  • 85. 
    Processes that lead to changes in gene frequency include all the following except:
    • A. 

      Self reproduction

    • B. 

      Genetic drift

    • C. 

      Migration

    • D. 

      Mutation

  • 86. 
    All of the following are fundamental elements of an ecosystem and must be present for sustained life except..
    • A. 

      At least one species that feeds upon the others in the ecosystem

    • B. 

      At least one species that decomposes the wastes of the others in the ecosystem

    • C. 

      A flow of energy

    • D. 

      At least one species that produces food from inorganic compounds

  • 87. 
    • A. 

      The complexity of life forms on earth

    • B. 

      The variety of life forms on earth

    • C. 

      The abundance of all species on earth

  • 88. 
    The three basic kinds of interaction between species are:
    • A. 

      Competition, symbiosis, and predation-parasitism

    • B. 

      There are more than three basic kinds of interaction

    • C. 

      Competition, parasitism, and adaptive radiation

  • 89. 
    Genes:
    • A. 

      Can break DNA apart and can change inherited info

    • B. 

      Are made of chromosomes

    • C. 

      Always undergo change

  • 90. 
    The two processes that lead to biological evolution are:
    • A. 

      Reproduction and natural selection

    • B. 

      Natural selection and mutation

    • C. 

      Mutation and changing cell structures over time

  • 91. 
    Principle that species with identical requirements cannot coexist in a habitat
    • A. 

      Ecological gradient

    • B. 

      Mutation

    • C. 

      Genetic drift

    • D. 

      Competitive exclusion

    • E. 

      Genetic diversity

  • 92. 
    Ecological gradient refers to
    • A. 

      The variation in the number of species from the equator to the poles

    • B. 

      Change in the relative abundance of a species over an area

    • C. 

      Interaction of species to benefit one another

  • 93. 
    An introduced species is found to have a fundamental niche indentical to that of a native species. A possible outcome is..
    • A. 

      If the introduced species has a very low population density it may go extinct for non-competitive reasons

    • B. 

      Other or the other species will go extinct

    • C. 

      Evolutionary change will tend to cause their niches to diverge

    • D. 

      They will exhibit distinct realized niches and coexist

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 94. 
    Biological evolution matches most closely to which of the following descriptions:
    • A. 

      Self-reproduction of a population over time

    • B. 

      The change of inherited characteristics of a population

    • C. 

      The origins of life

    • D. 

      Genetic drift over time

  • 95. 
    In which of the following situations is adaptive radiation most likely to occur:
    • A. 

      In arid climates

    • B. 

      Where populations are isolated from the rest of the world

    • C. 

      Where species evenness is high

    • D. 

      Where species diversity is high

  • 96. 
    • A. 

      A population at max yield

    • B. 

      Population that is composed of fertile adults

    • C. 

      A population that is composed of primarily juveniles

    • D. 

      A population that specializes on one type of prey

    • E. 

      A population that feeds on many types of prety

  • 97. 
    The geographic distribution of living things is called:
    • A. 

      Biotic province

    • B. 

      Biogeographic province

    • C. 

      Biogeography

    • D. 

      Biome

  • 98. 
    A major ecological community characterized by a dominant vegetation type is called:
    • A. 

      Biome

    • B. 

      Biotic province

    • C. 

      Biosphere

    • D. 

      Biogeography

  • 99. 
    Similar environments in different locations lead to the evolution of species with:
    • A. 

      The same behavior, but different bodily adaptations

    • B. 

      Similar predators

    • C. 

      Different biotic provinces

    • D. 

      Similar adaptations

    • E. 

      Symbiotic relationships

  • 100. 
    Common vegetation in the _____biome include deciduous trees, and dominant animals tend to be small mammals, birds, and insects.
    • A. 

      Temperate forests

    • B. 

      Tropical savannas

    • C. 

      Wetlands

    • D. 

      Temperate shrub lands

    • E. 

      Tropical rain forests

  • 101. 
    A species introduced into a new geographical area is called:
    • A. 

      Ubiquitous species

    • B. 

      Endemic species

    • C. 

      Exotic species

    • D. 

      Abundant species

  • 102. 
    ____are treeless plains in areas of low annual temperatures and low rainfall.
    • A. 

      Benthos

    • B. 

      Tundra

    • C. 

      Taiga

    • D. 

      Deserts

    • E. 

      Temperate grasslands

  • 103. 
    • A. 

      A pond in the woods

    • B. 

      An oasis in the desert

    • C. 

      A city park

    • D. 

      A stand of trees within the prairie

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 104. 
    These organisms make sugar from sunlight, carbon dioxide and water:
    • A. 

      Biotrophs

    • B. 

      Autotrophs

    • C. 

      Heterotrophs

    • D. 

      Chemautotrophs

  • 105. 
    • A. 

      The atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide and there is little oxygen.

    • B. 

      The distance between mars and the sun is in the range to provide energy for life.

    • C. 

      The canyons on mars show evidence of water erosion.

  • 106. 
    Many people are malnourished. What is the reason for such a situation?
    • A. 

      Poor farming practices

    • B. 

      Social strife

    • C. 

      Droughts

    • D. 

      Wars

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 107. 
    Matter and energy are both always conserved, both in physical systems and biological systems. This principle is stated in the: 
    • A. 

      Second law of thermodynamics

    • B. 

      First law of thermodynamics

    • C. 

      First law of entropy

    • D. 

      First law of energy efficiency

  • 108. 
    Organisms that make their own food from the energy in sulfur are called:
    • A. 

      Chemozoans

    • B. 

      Heterotrophs

    • C. 

      Chemoautotrophs

    • D. 

      Detrivores

  • 109. 
    In the open ocean, the first trophic level is composed primarily of: 
    • A. 

      Zooplankton

    • B. 

      Mussels

    • C. 

      Phytoplankton

    • D. 

      Whales

    • E. 

      Small fish

  • 110. 
    Autotrophs, at the first trophic level, get their food from:
    • A. 

      Organic compounds, water, air, and sunlight

    • B. 

      Chemosynthesis

    • C. 

      Inorganic chemicals and sunlight

    • D. 

      Organic chemicals

    • E. 

      Sunlight, air, and water

  • 111. 
    The principle that early successional species may prevent the entrance of later successional species is called:
    • A. 

      Reforestation

    • B. 

      Tolerance

    • C. 

      Succession

    • D. 

      Facilitation

    • E. 

      Interference

  • 112. 
    Gradual, sequential changes in the composition of an ecosystem, particularly following an initial disturbance is called: 
    • A. 

      Succession

    • B. 

      Interference

    • C. 

      Reforestation

    • D. 

      Facilitation

    • E. 

      Tolerance

  • 113. 
    Of the following, which is the major distinction between primary succession and secondary succession?
    • A. 

      Amount of soil nutrients present

    • B. 

      Length of time necessary for recovery

    • C. 

      In secondary succession, there are remnants of a previous biological community

    • D. 

      Secondary succession involves human disturbance or intervention

  • 114. 
    • A. 

      I only

    • B. 

      II only

    • C. 

      III only

    • D. 

      I and II

    • E. 

      I and III

  • 115. 
    Immediately after a fire, vegetation grows back extremely rapidly mainly because: 
    • A. 

      Predators are removed from the environment

    • B. 

      There is an increase in the availability of chemical elements

    • C. 

      Of an increase of organic compounds in the soil

    • D. 

      There is sufficient water from all new plants available

  • 116. 
    Generally, from early-to mid succession, a community experiences:
    • A. 

      No change in either diversity or biomass

    • B. 

      Decrease in diversity and increase in biomass

    • C. 

      A decrease in diversity and a decrease in biomass

    • D. 

      Increase in diversity and a increase in biomass

  • 117. 
    The main difference between a pond and a bog in the succession process is:
    • A. 

      A bog fills up from the bottom, whereas a pond fills from the bottom to the top

    • B. 

      Acidic water in ponds

    • C. 

      At the end of succession, the bog itself is usually disappeared

    • D. 

      Eutrophication in bogs and oligotrophication in ponds

  • 118. 
    • A. 

      Bamboo growth prevents neighboring plant species from germinating

    • B. 

      Lichens breaking down bare rock

    • C. 

      Fire helps some seeds germinate

    • D. 

      Pine trees provide shade that promotes the growth of oak trees

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 119. 
    • A. 

      Agriculture

    • B. 

      Mariculutre

    • C. 

      Subsistence crops

    • D. 

      Forage crops

    • E. 

      Aquaculture

  • 120. 
    • A. 

      Nonnourishment

    • B. 

      Undernourishment

    • C. 

      Famine

    • D. 

      Malnourishment

  • 121. 
    Crops grown as food for domestic animals are called:
    • A. 

      Forage crops

    • B. 

      Range land crops

    • C. 

      Agricrops

    • D. 

      Domestic crops

  • 122. 
    Monoculture is associated with:
    • A. 

      Constant agro-ecosystem

    • B. 

      Decreases in organic matter in the soil

    • C. 

      Decreased likelihood of crop diseases

    • D. 

      Gain of chemical elements in the soil

  • 123. 
    The majority of the world's food supply is obtained by:
    • A. 

      Industrial production

    • B. 

      Cattle ranching

    • C. 

      Agriculture

    • D. 

      Hunting and gathering

  • 124. 
    Irrigation of plants refers to:
    • A. 

      Artificial addition of water

    • B. 

      The growing of plants in a nutrient solution

    • C. 

      The spraying of pesticides

    • D. 

      Artificial addition of fertilizers

  • 125. 
    • A. 

      Global warming

    • B. 

      Floods

    • C. 

      Droughts

    • D. 

      Genetically engineered crops replacing local crops

    • E. 

      Inadequate distribution of food resources

  • 126. 
    • A. 

      Variable climates cause severe sediment pollution

    • B. 

      Food supply may be adequate in normal years, but periodic subaverage years may cause famine

    • C. 

      Variable climates deplete soil of its fertility

    • D. 

      Countries with more variable climates have better distribution systems for food

  • 127. 
    Use of predators, parasites, and competitors for pest control defines which of the following?
    • A. 

      Biological pest control

    • B. 

      Integrated waste management

    • C. 

      Game ranching

    • D. 

      Secondary pest outbreaks

    • E. 

      Effective methods for controlling malaria

  • 128. 
    EAting low on the food chain is more efficient than eating high on it. According to the text, conversion of all present rangeland to crop land would increase environment damage because: 
    • A. 

      Not all land is suitable for agriculture; some is better suited to grazing

    • B. 

      The process of land conversion itself is more damaging than any single, sustained type of land-use

    • C. 

      Agriculture requires clearing of the land, whereas grazing cattle can be done without clearing sensitive tropical forests

  • 129. 
    About 33% of the earth's land has climates that should produce deserts, but about 43% actually is desert. What one dominant force is believed to be the cause of this excess desert land? 
    • A. 

      Human activities

    • B. 

      Irrigation

    • C. 

      Global warming

    • D. 

      Changing climates since ice age

  • 130. 
    • A. 

      Increased soil erosion

    • B. 

      Increased salt content of the soil

    • C. 

      Lowering of the water table

    • D. 

      Pollution by sediment, fertilizers, and pesticides

  • 131. 
    In the recent past, the single most effective method to reduce soil erosion has been:
    • A. 

      Contour plowing

    • B. 

      Crop rotation

    • C. 

      Increased use of herbicides

    • D. 

      Introduction of genetically modified crops

    • E. 

      Increased irrigation

  • 132. 
    • A. 

      Modern fertilizers

    • B. 

      Pest control

    • C. 

      Contour plowing

    • D. 

      Irrigation

  • 133. 
    • A. 

      Insect pests are the lead cause of lost crop production

    • B. 

      The cheapest and most effective method is biological

    • C. 

      Slash and burn agriculture eliminates pest problems

    • D. 

      DDT is no longer used anywhere

  • 134. 
    Tree diseases are primarily:
    • A. 

      Insect-related

    • B. 

      Viral

    • C. 

      Bacterial

    • D. 

      Fungal

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 135. 
    Forests differ from many other natural resources in that:
    • A. 

      In the US most are publicly owned

    • B. 

      There is little government regulation associated with their use

    • C. 

      Their management is inexpensive

    • D. 

      Overuse has adverse environmental consequences

    • E. 

      They are potentially renewable

  • 136. 
    According to the text, the nation with the largest forested land surface is:
    • A. 

      Canada

    • B. 

      Brazil

    • C. 

      USA

    • D. 

      Russia

    • E. 

      Argentina

  • 137. 
    • A. 

      Water

    • B. 

      Nitrogen

    • C. 

      Proteins

    • D. 

      Sugar

    • E. 

      Carbon dioxide

  • 138. 
    Another term for virgin forest is ____forest; a forest that cannot be classified as a) virgin forest would be called ____
    • A. 

      Natural; plantation

    • B. 

      Youthful; old age

    • C. 

      Old-growth; second-growth

    • D. 

      Maiden; clear-cut

  • 139. 
    Silviculture is defined as all the manipulation operations that go in to the development and maintenance of a forest stand. Which of the following would not be included among common silvicultural practices?
    • A. 

      Pruning

    • B. 

      Thinning

    • C. 

      Prescribed burning

    • D. 

      Grazing

    • E. 

      Clear cutting

  • 140. 
    For the timber industry, the quality of a forest site is classified by:
    • A. 

      Soil fertility and water supply

    • B. 

      The maximum timber crop the land can produce in a given time

    • C. 

      The maximum growth of trees in meters per unit time

  • 141. 
    In temperate and boreal forests, the age of a tree can be calculated by:
    • A. 

      Measuring the heights of the tree

    • B. 

      Counting the number of the growth rings

    • C. 

      Measuring the depths of the growth rings

  • 142. 
    As a forest management practice, clear cutting:
    • A. 

      Is usually best used on steep hill slops

    • B. 

      Typically leads to increased soil erosion

    • C. 

      Speeds the re-growth of the next generation of trees

    • D. 

      Is no longer frequently used

    • E. 

      May be important in including regeneration of desirable species

  • 143. 
    • A. 

      Particulates

    • B. 

      Synergism

    • C. 

      Biomagnification

    • D. 

      Threshold

    • E. 

      Dose response

  • 144. 
    • A. 

      All statements are correct

    • B. 

      Synthetic organic compounds today are used in a wide variety of products

    • C. 

      Some synthetic organic compounds are fat-soluble and subject to biomagnification

    • D. 

      Some synthetic organic compounds are very toxic even at very low concentrations

    • E. 

      Not all organic compounds are hazardous to human health

  • 145. 
    A carcinogen is a particular kind of:I therapy to treat cancer II. toxin that may cause cancerIII pollutant that affects the DNA
    • A. 

      I

    • B. 

      II

    • C. 

      III

    • D. 

      II and III

    • E. 

      I and III

  • 146. 
    • A. 

      Water from oil refinery

    • B. 

      Contamination of groundwater from a solid waste landfill

    • C. 

      Air pollution from automobile exhaust

    • D. 

      Air pollution from the smoke stack of chemical plant r

    • E. 

      Chemicals leaded into a stream from an accidental spill

  • 147. 
    • A. 

      Cogeneration

    • B. 

      Soft path energy

    • C. 

      First-law efficiency

    • D. 

      Potential energy

    • E. 

      Kinetic energy

  • 148. 
    The majority of the earth's energy input comes from:
    • A. 

      Combustion of fossil fuels

    • B. 

      Geothermal heat from the earth's interior

    • C. 

      The earth's albedo

    • D. 

      Photolysis of ozone in the stratosphere

    • E. 

      Sunlgiht

  • 149. 
    First law of thermodynamics states that:
    • A. 

      Energy is measures in joules, power in watts

    • B. 

      Efficiency of energy conversion is always less than 100%

    • C. 

      Energy is never created, never destroyed, but always preserved

    • D. 

      Energy can go from higher quality forms to lower, but not in the opposite direction

  • 150. 
    Second law of thermodynamics states:
    • A. 

      Energy can go from higher quality forms to lower, but not in the opposite direction

    • B. 

      Efficiency of energy conversion is always less than 100%

    • C. 

      Energy is never created, never destroyed but always preserved

  • 151. 
    Soft path energy is characterized as:
    • A. 

      Focused on conservation, centralized, and high technology

    • B. 

      Low technology, decentralized,with zero effect on the environment

    • C. 

      Centralized, based on applying high-tech solutions to improve efficiency and yield

    • D. 

      High quality, high technology, based on renewable sources

    • E. 

      Diverse, low quality energy, based on renewable sources

  • 152. 
    • A. 

      PE decreases KE increases

    • B. 

      PE and KE increase

    • C. 

      Both energies stay the same

    • D. 

      PE increases and KE decreases

  • 153. 
    • A. 

      A more efficient production of heat energy

    • B. 

      The capture and use of waste heat

    • C. 

      Using alternate and traditional power supplies together

    • D. 

      Generation of heat energy in a cycle

  • 154. 
    According to the text, what will happen when the peak production occurs and demand is not met?
    • A. 

      A gap between demand and production will occur

    • B. 

      Price of oil will increase

    • C. 

      Disruption to society is likely to happen

  • 155. 
    Oil production, refining, and transportation have been associated with all of the following environmental problems except:
    • A. 

      Land subsidence

    • B. 

      Disturbance of the land surface

    • C. 

      Pollution of groundwater

    • D. 

      Acid mine drainage

  • 156. 
    • A. 

      Organic, eroded, reduced

    • B. 

      Organic, buried, not oxidized

    • C. 

      Inorganic, subducted, not oxidized

    • D. 

      Acidic, subducted, oxidized

  • 157. 
    The purpose of enhanced or secondary production of petroleum is to: 
    • A. 

      Recover natural gas from oil wells

    • B. 

      Recover heavier and denser oil than flows to the surface under natural pressure or pumping

    • C. 

      Refine crude oil into gas, plastics, and petrochemicals

    • D. 

      Mitigate the environmental effects of primary production

  • 158. 
    In some ways, natural gas is considered a better fossil fuel than oil. This is primarily because:
    • A. 

      Burning natural gas is cleaner than burning oil

    • B. 

      Gas is found at shallower depths than oil

    • C. 

      Has is easier to transport over long distances than oil

    • D. 

      Gas is a renewable resource

  • 159. 
    Petroleum is usually found in which of the following situations?
    • A. 

      A dense organic-rich cap rock overlain by porous source rock

    • B. 

      A porous reservoir rock, overlain by and organic rich source rock

    • C. 

      An anticline or other trap overlain by porous reservoir rock

    • D. 

      A coarse and porous reservoir rock, overlain by an impermeable cap rock

  • 160. 
    Fuel cells produce______using_____.
    • A. 

      Electricity; light

    • B. 

      Carbon dioxide; biofuel

    • C. 

      Light; heat

    • D. 

      Electricity; hydrogen or methane

    • E. 

      Heat; electricity

  • 161. 
    One of the principal advantages of photovolatic cells is that they:
    • A. 

      Do emit carbon dioxide but they do not emit SO2 that leads to acid rain

    • B. 

      Are made from earth-friendly materials

    • C. 

      Can be used for power in remote locations

    • D. 

      Covert 80-90% of solar energy into electricity

  • 162. 
    • A. 

      Creation of toxic byproducts

    • B. 

      Air pollution

    • C. 

      Acid rain

    • D. 

      Destruction of ozone

  • 163. 
    Wind power is a clean energy source, but according to its detractors in some locations, it is associated with_____pollution. 
    • A. 

      Noise

    • B. 

      Air

    • C. 

      Water

    • D. 

      Thermal

  • 164. 
    The primary sources of biofuel in India, an example of a developing country, are:
    • A. 

      Wood and coal

    • B. 

      Oil and coal

    • C. 

      Methanol and cattle dung

    • D. 

      Wood and cattle dung

    • E. 

      Nuclear and wood

  • 165. 
    Direct conversion of electricity using sunlight, without using an intermediate fluid medium is accomplished by:
    • A. 

      Passive solar systems

    • B. 

      Photovoltaic cells

    • C. 

      Thermal conversion

    • D. 

      Power towers

    • E. 

      Solar collectors

  • 166. 
    • A. 

      Bequerel

    • B. 

      Radiation absorbed dose

    • C. 

      Breeder reactors

    • D. 

      Fission

    • E. 

      Curie

  • 167. 
    Exactly how does a commercial nuclear power plant convert the energy of atomic nuclei into electricity?
    • A. 

      Alpha decay emits electrons, which are collected by the control rods

    • B. 

      The heat produced by radioactive decay boils water, which drives a turbine generator

    • C. 

      Beta decay eliminates protons in the atomic nuclei, which creates a net negative charge

  • 168. 
    At the present time, the method for handling high-level nuclear waste in the US is:
    • A. 

      Temporary storage, pending completion of a permanent disposal sit.

    • B. 

      Ocean-bottom disposal

    • C. 

      Export to france or britan

    • D. 

      Dilute and dispearse