Endocrinology Questions, Part 4

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Endocrinology Questions, Part 4 - Quiz


Based on USMLE notes


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    This disease is characterized by eczematous patches on the nipple; characterized by large cells in the epidermis with clear halo; suggests underlying carcinoma; also seen in vulva

    Explanation
    Paget's disease is a rare form of breast cancer that affects the skin of the nipple and areola. It is characterized by the presence of eczematous patches on the nipple, which may be itchy, red, or scaly. Histologically, Paget's disease is characterized by the presence of large cells in the epidermis with a clear halo around them. This finding suggests an underlying carcinoma, as Paget's disease is often associated with an underlying breast cancer. Paget's disease can also occur in the vulva, although it is less common.

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  • 2. 

    Represents 50% of ovarian non-germ cell tumors; malignant, frequently bilateral.

    • A.

      Serous cystadenoma

    • B.

      Serous cystadenocarcinoma

    • C.

      Mucinous cystadenoma

    • D.

      Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

    Correct Answer
    B. Serous cystadenocarcinoma
    Explanation
    Serous cystadenocarcinoma is the correct answer because it represents 50% of ovarian non-germ cell tumors and is frequently malignant and bilateral. This type of tumor is characterized by the presence of cysts filled with serous fluid and is more likely to be cancerous compared to serous cystadenoma, which is typically benign. Mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma are different types of tumors that are characterized by the presence of cysts filled with mucinous fluid, rather than serous fluid.

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  • 3. 

    Represents 20% of ovarian non-germ cell tumors; frequently bilateral, lined by fallopian tube epithelium; benign.

    • A.

      Serous cystadenoma

    • B.

      Serous cystadenocarcinoma

    • C.

      Mucinous cystadenoma

    • D.

      Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

    Correct Answer
    A. Serous cystadenoma
    Explanation
    Serous cystadenoma is a type of ovarian non-germ cell tumor that represents 20% of all such tumors. It is characterized by the presence of cysts that are frequently found on both ovaries. These cysts are lined by the epithelium of the fallopian tube. Serous cystadenomas are considered benign, meaning they are not cancerous. Therefore, the correct answer is serous cystadenoma.

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  • 4. 

    Most common cause of "breast lumps"; usually not indicative of increased carcinoma risk

    Correct Answer
    fibrocystic change, fibrocystic changes
    Explanation
    Can be fibrotic (stromal hyperplasia), cystic (ductal dilation), sclerosing adenosis (calcifications), epithelial hyperplasia in TDLU.

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  • 5. 

    Malignant ovarian non-germ cell tumor characterized by intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous material from ovarian or appendiceal tumor.

    • A.

      Serous cystadenoma

    • B.

      Serous cystadenocarcinoma

    • C.

      Mucinous cystadenoma

    • D.

      Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

    Correct Answer
    D. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma
    Explanation
    Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma is the correct answer because it is a malignant ovarian non-germ cell tumor that is characterized by the accumulation of mucinous material in the peritoneal cavity. This mucinous material originates from either an ovarian or appendiceal tumor. Serous cystadenoma and serous cystadenocarcinoma are not the correct answers because they refer to tumors that are characterized by the accumulation of serous fluid, not mucinous material.

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  • 6. 

    Breast malignancy characterized by rock-hard fibrous masses with sharp margins and small glandular duct-like cells. Worst, most invasive, and most common breast cancer - 76%.

    • A.

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    • B.

      Invasive ductal carcinoma

    • C.

      Invasive lobular carcinoma

    • D.

      Medullary carcinoma

    • E.

      Comedocarcinoma

    • F.

      Inflammatory carcinoma

    Correct Answer
    B. Invasive ductal carcinoma
    Explanation
    Invasive ductal carcinoma is the correct answer because it is the most invasive and most common type of breast cancer, accounting for 76% of cases. It is characterized by rock-hard fibrous masses with sharp margins and small glandular duct-like cells. This type of breast cancer has the potential to spread to other parts of the body if not treated early.

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  • 7. 

    Breast malignancy characterized by orderly rows of cells; often multiple tumors and bilateral

    • A.

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    • B.

      Invasive ductal carcinoma

    • C.

      Invasive lobular carcinoma

    • D.

      Medullary carcinoma

    • E.

      Comedocarcinoma

    • F.

      Inflammatory carcinoma

    Correct Answer
    C. Invasive lobular carcinoma
    Explanation
    Invasive lobular carcinoma is characterized by orderly rows of cells, often multiple tumors, and can occur in both breasts. This type of breast malignancy is different from ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which is non-invasive and confined to the milk ducts. Invasive lobular carcinoma is also different from invasive ductal carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, comedocarcinoma, and inflammatory carcinoma.

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  • 8. 

    Breast malignancy characterized by fleshy, cellular appearance with lymphocytic infiltrate; good prognosis

    • A.

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    • B.

      Invasive ductal carcinoma

    • C.

      Invasive lobular carcinoma

    • D.

      Medullary carcinoma

    • E.

      Comedocarcinoma

    • F.

      Inflammatory carcinoma

    Correct Answer
    D. Medullary carcinoma
    Explanation
    Medullary carcinoma is a type of breast malignancy that is characterized by a fleshy, cellular appearance with a lymphocytic infiltrate. It is considered to have a good prognosis, meaning that the outlook for patients with this type of cancer is generally positive.

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  • 9. 

    Breast malignancy arising from the ducts and causes caseous necrosis; subtype of DCIS

    • A.

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    • B.

      Invasive ductal carcinoma

    • C.

      Invasive lobular carcinoma

    • D.

      Medullary carcinoma

    • E.

      Comedocarcinoma

    • F.

      Inflammatory carcinoma

    Correct Answer
    E. Comedocarcinoma
    Explanation
    Comedocarcinoma is the correct answer because it is a subtype of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) that is characterized by the presence of caseous necrosis. DCIS refers to breast malignancy arising from the ducts, and comedocarcinoma specifically exhibits caseous necrosis. This subtype is characterized by high-grade features and has the potential to progress to invasive ductal carcinoma if left untreated.

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  • 10. 

    Breast malignancy arising from ductal hyperplasisa that fills the ductal lumen without basement membrane penetration.

    • A.

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    • B.

      Invasive ductal carcinoma

    • C.

      Invasive lobular carcinoma

    • D.

      Medullary carcinoma

    • E.

      Comedocarcinoma

    • F.

      Inflammatory carcinoma

    Correct Answer
    A. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
    Explanation
    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the correct answer because it describes a breast malignancy that arises from ductal hyperplasia and fills the ductal lumen without basement membrane penetration. DCIS is a non-invasive form of breast cancer where the abnormal cells are confined to the milk ducts and have not spread into surrounding breast tissue. It is considered a precursor to invasive breast cancer and is typically detected through mammography. Treatment for DCIS usually involves surgical removal of the abnormal cells to prevent them from becoming invasive.

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  • 11. 

    Breast carcinoma infiltration and blockage of dermal lymphatics; peau d'orane appearance to the skin; 50% survival at 5yr

    • A.

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)

    • B.

      Invasive ductal carcinoma

    • C.

      Invasive lobular carcinoma

    • D.

      Medullary carcinoma

    • E.

      Comedocarcinoma

    • F.

      Inflammatory carcinoma

    Correct Answer
    F. Inflammatory carcinoma
    Explanation
    Inflammatory carcinoma is the correct answer because it is characterized by breast carcinoma infiltration and blockage of dermal lymphatics, which leads to the peau d'orange appearance of the skin. It is an aggressive form of breast cancer with a 50% survival rate at 5 years.

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  • 12. 

    Benign ovarian non-germ cell tumor characterized by presence of multilocular cyst lined by mucus-secreting epithelium

    • A.

      Serous cystadenoma

    • B.

      Serous cystadenocarcinoma

    • C.

      Mucinous cystadenoma

    • D.

      Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma

    Correct Answer
    C. Mucinous cystadenoma
    Explanation
    A mucinous cystadenoma is a benign ovarian tumor that is characterized by the presence of a multilocular cyst lined by mucus-secreting epithelium. This means that the tumor is made up of multiple cysts that contain mucus-producing cells. This is in contrast to a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, which is a malignant tumor, and a serous cystadenoma and serous cystadenocarcinoma, which are characterized by the presence of serous fluid instead of mucus. Therefore, the correct answer is mucinous cystadenoma.

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  • 13. 

    Benign breast tumor characterized by small size, occurence in women < 25yo, increased breast tendernes, elevated estrogen, not precursor to cancer.

    • A.

      Fibroadenoma

    • B.

      Intraductal papilloma

    • C.

      Phyllodes tumor

    Correct Answer
    A. Fibroadenoma
    Explanation
    Fibroadenoma is a benign breast tumor that is characterized by its small size and occurrence in women under 25 years old. It is also associated with increased breast tenderness and elevated estrogen levels. Unlike other breast tumors, fibroadenoma is not considered a precursor to cancer. Therefore, fibroadenoma is the correct answer.

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  • 14. 

    Benign breast tumor characterized by small size, growth within the lactiferous ducts, serous or bloody nipple discharge, slight increased risk of carcinoma.

    • A.

      Fibroadenoma

    • B.

      Intraductal papilloma

    • C.

      Phyllodes tumor

    Correct Answer
    B. Intraductal papilloma
    Explanation
    Intraductal papilloma is a benign breast tumor that is characterized by small size and growth within the lactiferous ducts. It can cause serous or bloody nipple discharge. Although it is a benign tumor, there is a slight increased risk of carcinoma associated with it.

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  • 15. 

    Benign breast tumor arising from the stroma and characterized by large size mass of connective tissue, leaf-like projections, most common in 60s, some may become malignant.

    • A.

      Fibroadenoma

    • B.

      Intraductal papilloma

    • C.

      Phyllodes tumor

    Correct Answer
    C. Phyllodes tumor
    Explanation
    Phyllodes tumors are benign breast tumors that arise from the stroma, which is the connective tissue of the breast. They are characterized by their large size and leaf-like projections. Phyllodes tumors are most commonly found in individuals in their 60s. While they are generally benign, some phyllodes tumors have the potential to become malignant. Therefore, it is important to monitor and potentially remove these tumors to prevent any potential malignancy.

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  • 16. 

    Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC =

    Correct Answer
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, Waterhouse-Friderichsen
    Explanation
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is a rare condition characterized by adrenal gland hemorrhage, hypotension, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). It is usually caused by bacterial infections, most commonly Neisseria meningitidis. The adrenal gland hemorrhage leads to adrenal insufficiency, which results in low blood pressure. DIC occurs due to the release of procoagulant factors during the infection. Therefore, the presence of adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, and DIC suggests Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome.

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  • 17. 

    Blue sclera =

    Correct Answer
    osteogenesis imperfecta
    Explanation
    Blue sclera is a common clinical manifestation of osteogenesis imperfecta, a genetic disorder characterized by brittle bones. The blue color of the sclera is due to the thinness and translucency of the collagen in the connective tissues of the eye, allowing the underlying choroidal veins to show through. This condition is caused by a defect in the production of Type I collagen, leading to weak and fragile bones that are prone to fractures. Other symptoms of osteogenesis imperfecta include short stature, hearing loss, and dental problems.

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  • 18. 

    Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis =

    Correct Answer
    Paget's disease
    Explanation
    Increased OB and OC activity

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  • 19. 

    Cafe-au-lait spots, lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic glioma =

    Correct Answer
    Neurofibromatosis type I, Neurofibromatosis
    Explanation
    The presence of cafe-au-lait spots, lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, and optic glioma is indicative of Neurofibromatosis type I, also known as Neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes tumors to form on nerve tissue. Cafe-au-lait spots are light brown patches on the skin, lisch nodules are small, benign tumors on the iris of the eye, pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland, and optic glioma is a tumor that affects the optic nerve. These symptoms are commonly associated with Neurofibromatosis type I.

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  • 20. 

    Cold intolerance =

    Correct Answer
    hypothyroidism
    Explanation
    Cold intolerance refers to a person's inability to tolerate cold temperatures. This can be a symptom of hypothyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone helps regulate the body's metabolism, including its ability to generate heat. When there is a deficiency of thyroid hormone, the body's ability to generate heat is decreased, making the person more sensitive to cold temperatures. Therefore, hypothyroidism is a possible explanation for cold intolerance.

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  • 21. 

    Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition

    Correct Answer
    myxedema
    Explanation
    Myxedema refers to the swelling of the skin and underlying tissues due to the accumulation of connective tissue. This condition is commonly associated with hypothyroidism, where there is a decrease in thyroid hormone production. The lack of thyroid hormones leads to a decrease in metabolism, resulting in the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the connective tissues, causing edema. Therefore, myxedema is the correct answer as it accurately describes the cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition.

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  • 22. 

    Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation =

    Correct Answer
    Kussmaul breathing, Kussmaul, DKA, diabetic ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis
    Explanation
    Deep, labored breathing or hyperventilation is commonly seen in a condition called Kussmaul breathing. This type of breathing pattern is characterized by rapid, deep breaths that can occur in response to metabolic acidosis, such as in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA is a serious complication of diabetes where the body produces high levels of ketones, leading to an acidic environment in the blood. Kussmaul breathing is the body's attempt to compensate for the acidosis by increasing the elimination of carbon dioxide through rapid breathing.

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  • 23. 

    Facial muscle spasm upon tapping - Chvostek's sign =

    Correct Answer
    hypocalcemia
    Explanation
    Facial muscle spasm upon tapping, also known as Chvostek's sign, is a clinical finding commonly associated with hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia refers to low levels of calcium in the blood, which can lead to increased neuromuscular excitability. Tapping on the facial nerve near the ear can trigger involuntary contractions of the facial muscles in individuals with hypocalcemia. This sign is often seen in conditions such as hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, and kidney disease, which can all result in decreased calcium levels. Identifying Chvostek's sign can help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor hypocalcemia in patients.

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  • 24. 

    Hypercoagulability evidenced by Trousseau's sign =

    Correct Answer
    adenocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, hypocalcemia
    Explanation
    Hypercoagulability evidenced by Trousseau's sign is a condition characterized by the formation of blood clots in the veins. Adenocarcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma are both types of cancer that can increase the risk of hypercoagulability. Trousseau's sign refers to the development of migratory blood clots in different parts of the body. Hypocalcemia, or low levels of calcium in the blood, can also contribute to hypercoagulability. Therefore, all three options - adenocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and hypocalcemia - can be associated with hypercoagulability evidenced by Trousseau's sign.

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  • 25. 

    HTN, hypokalemia, metaboilc acidosis =

    Correct Answer
    Conn's syndrome
    Explanation
    HTN refers to hypertension, which is high blood pressure. Hypokalemia means low levels of potassium in the blood, and metabolic acidosis refers to an imbalance in the body's acid-base balance. These three symptoms are commonly associated with Conn's syndrome, also known as primary hyperaldosteronism. This condition occurs when there is an overproduction of aldosterone hormone by the adrenal glands, leading to increased sodium retention and potassium excretion, resulting in high blood pressure, low potassium levels, and metabolic acidosis.

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  • 26. 

    No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance =

    Correct Answer
    Sheehan's syndrome
    Explanation
    Sheehan's syndrome is a condition that occurs when there is severe bleeding during or after childbirth, leading to damage to the pituitary gland. This damage can result in various hormonal deficiencies, including the lack of lactation postpartum and absent menstruation. Additionally, cold intolerance can also be a symptom of Sheehan's syndrome. Therefore, the combination of these symptoms suggests a diagnosis of Sheehan's syndrome.

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  • 27. 

    Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyrid tumors =

    Correct Answer
    Wermer's syndrome
    Explanation
    Wermer's syndrome, also known as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of tumors in multiple endocrine glands, including the pancreas, pituitary, and parathyroid glands. These tumors can be benign or malignant and can lead to the overproduction of hormones, causing various symptoms and complications. Therefore, the presence of pancreatic, pituitary, and parathyroid tumors suggests the diagnosis of Wermer's syndrome.

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  • 28. 

    Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola =

    Correct Answer
    Paget's disease
    Explanation
    Paget's disease is a rare form of breast cancer that affects the nipple and areola. It typically presents as a red, itchy, and swollen rash that may also include flaking or crusting of the skin. This condition is often mistaken for eczema or dermatitis, leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. It is important to seek medical attention if these symptoms persist to rule out Paget's disease or other breast conditions.

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  • 29. 

    Skin hyperpigmentation =

    Correct Answer
    Addison's disease
    Explanation
    Skin hyperpigmentation is a condition characterized by darkening of the skin. Addison's disease is a rare disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and sometimes aldosterone. One of the common symptoms of Addison's disease is hyperpigmentation, especially in areas exposed to the sun or pressure. This occurs due to the overproduction of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) as a result of the dysfunction in the adrenal glands. Therefore, the presence of skin hyperpigmentation can be indicative of Addison's disease.

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  • 30. 

    Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney, XO, short stature, webbed neck, lyphedema =

    Correct Answer
    Turner syndrome, Turner
    Explanation
    The given symptoms, including streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney, XO, short stature, webbed neck, and lymphedema, are characteristic features of Turner syndrome. Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females and is caused by a missing or incomplete X chromosome. It is commonly associated with infertility, as well as other physical and developmental abnormalities. The term "Turner" is used to refer to this syndrome.

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  • 31. 

    Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma =

    Correct Answer
    Sipple's syndrome
    Explanation
    Sipple's syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the presence of tumors in the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands. These tumors include medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid adenoma. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the RET gene. Patients with Sipple's syndrome may also exhibit other symptoms such as high blood pressure, flushing, and diarrhea.

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  • 32. 

    Enlarged cells with ground glass nuclei =

    Correct Answer
    Orphan Annie, papillary thyroid carcinoma, thyroid papillary carcinoma
    Explanation
    Enlarged cells with ground glass nuclei are characteristic features of Orphan Annie, papillary thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid papillary carcinoma. These types of thyroid cancers are known for their distinct nuclear morphology, where the nuclei appear enlarged and have a ground glass appearance. This finding is helpful in distinguishing these types of thyroid cancers from other thyroid malignancies.

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  • 33. 

    Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells =

    Correct Answer
    Schiller-Duval bodiea, yolk sac tumor
    Explanation
    The presence of a glomerulus-like structure surrounding a vessel in germ cells is indicative of Schiller-Duval bodies, which are characteristic of yolk sac tumors. Yolk sac tumors are malignant germ cell tumors that typically occur in young children and are associated with elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Schiller-Duval bodies are composed of a central blood vessel surrounded by germ cells arranged in a glomerulus-like pattern. The identification of these structures in a tumor specimen can help confirm the diagnosis of a yolk sac tumor.

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  • 34. 

    HCG elevated =

    Correct Answer
    choriocarcinoma, hyatidiform mole
    Explanation
    Elevated levels of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) can indicate the presence of choriocarcinoma or hydatidiform mole. Choriocarcinoma is a rare form of cancer that develops in the cells that would normally form the placenta during pregnancy. Hydatidiform mole, also known as a molar pregnancy, is a noncancerous condition in which a mass of abnormal cells forms inside the uterus instead of a normal pregnancy. Both conditions can cause elevated hCG levels due to the abnormal growth of placental cells.

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  • 35. 

    Mammary gland "blue domed" cyst

    Correct Answer
    fibrocystic change, fibrocystic change of the breast, fibrocystic breast change
    Explanation
    The correct answer is fibrocystic change, fibrocystic change of the breast, fibrocystic breast change. This term refers to a common benign condition in which the breast tissue undergoes changes such as the development of cysts, fibrosis, and glandular hyperplasia. These changes can cause breast pain, tenderness, and lumps, which may fluctuate with the menstrual cycle. The term "blue domed" cyst is not a recognized medical term and does not accurately describe fibrocystic change.

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  • 36. 

    "breast cancer" =

    Correct Answer
    infiltrating ductal carcinoma
    Explanation
    In this context, "breast cancer" is being equated to "infiltrating ductal carcinoma." Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer, accounting for about 80% of all cases. It starts in the milk ducts of the breast and then invades the surrounding breast tissue. This type of cancer can spread to other parts of the body if not detected and treated early. Therefore, the correct answer for the given term "breast cancer" is "infiltrating ductal carcinoma."

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  • 37. 

    "breast mass" =

    Correct Answer
    fibrocystic change, carcinoma
    Explanation
    The term "breast mass" refers to a lump or abnormal growth in the breast. Fibrocystic change is a common noncancerous condition characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts and fibrous tissue in the breast, which can cause lumps. Carcinoma, on the other hand, refers to cancerous growth in the breast. Therefore, the correct answer suggests that a breast mass can be caused by either fibrocystic change or carcinoma, indicating the possibility of both benign and malignant conditions.

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  • 38. 

    "benign breast tumor"  =

    Correct Answer
    fibroadenoma
    Explanation
    A benign breast tumor refers to a non-cancerous growth in the breast. Fibroadenoma is a common type of benign breast tumor that is composed of both glandular and fibrous tissue. It typically presents as a painless, smooth, and mobile lump in the breast. Fibroadenomas are most commonly found in women under the age of 30 and are hormonally influenced. They do not increase the risk of developing breast cancer and are usually left untreated unless they cause discomfort or grow in size. Therefore, fibroadenoma is the correct answer for the given term "benign breast tumor".

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  • 39. 

    "gynecologic malignancy" =

    Correct Answer
    edometrial carcinoma
  • 40. 

    "hypoparathyroidism" =

    Correct Answer
    thyroidectomy
    Explanation
    Hypoparathyroidism is a condition characterized by low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which is responsible for regulating calcium and phosphorus levels in the body. Thyroidectomy refers to the surgical removal of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland and parathyroid glands are located close to each other in the neck. During a thyroidectomy, there is a risk of accidentally damaging or removing the parathyroid glands, which can lead to hypoparathyroidism. Therefore, thyroidectomy is a potential cause of hypoparathyroidism.

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  • 41. 

    "hypopituitarism" =

    Correct Answer
    pituitary adenoma
    Explanation
    Hypopituitarism is a condition characterized by the underproduction or deficiency of hormones by the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenoma, on the other hand, refers to a noncancerous tumor that develops in the pituitary gland. This tumor can disrupt the normal functioning of the gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and potentially causing hypopituitarism. Therefore, pituitary adenoma is a possible cause of hypopituitarism.

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  • 42. 

    "benign ovrian tumor" =

    Correct Answer
    serous cystadenoma
    Explanation
    A benign ovarian tumor refers to a non-cancerous growth in the ovary. Serous cystadenoma is a specific type of benign ovarian tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the ovary. These tumors are typically filled with a watery fluid and have a smooth surface. Serous cystadenomas are the most common type of benign ovarian tumor and are usually asymptomatic. They are often discovered incidentally during routine pelvic examinations or imaging studies. Surgical removal is usually recommended to prevent complications or to rule out the possibility of a malignant tumor.

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  • 43. 

    "malignant ovrian tumor" =

    Correct Answer
    serous cystadenocarcinoma
    Explanation
    A malignant ovarian tumor refers to a cancerous growth in the ovaries. Serous cystadenocarcinoma is a specific type of malignant ovarian tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the ovaries. It is characterized by the formation of cysts filled with serous fluid and the presence of cancerous cells. This type of tumor is aggressive and has the potential to spread to other parts of the body.

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  • 44. 

    "pituitary tumor" =

    Correct Answer
    prolactinoma, somatotropic adenoma, mixed adenoma
    Explanation
    The term "pituitary tumor" refers to a growth or abnormality in the pituitary gland. The correct answer options, prolactinoma, somatotropic adenoma, and mixed adenoma, are all types of pituitary tumors. Prolactinoma is a tumor that causes excessive production of the hormone prolactin, leading to symptoms such as irregular menstrual periods and milk production in non-pregnant women. Somatotropic adenoma is a tumor that causes excessive production of growth hormone, leading to gigantism or acromegaly. Mixed adenoma refers to a tumor that secretes multiple hormones, causing a combination of symptoms depending on the hormones involved.

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  • 45. 

    "primary hyperparathyroidism" =

    Correct Answer
    adenoma, hyperplasia, carcinoma
    Explanation
    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a condition characterized by the overactivity of the parathyroid glands, resulting in excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). This can be caused by various factors, including adenoma (a benign tumor of the parathyroid gland), hyperplasia (enlargement of the parathyroid glands), or even carcinoma (a malignant tumor of the parathyroid gland). Therefore, all three options (adenoma, hyperplasia, carcinoma) can be associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.

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  • 46. 

    "thyroid cancer" =

    Correct Answer
    papillary carcinoma
    Explanation
    Thyroid cancer refers to the abnormal growth of cells in the thyroid gland. The most common type of thyroid cancer is papillary carcinoma. This type of cancer develops from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland and is characterized by the formation of small, finger-like projections. Papillary carcinoma is usually slow-growing and has a good prognosis compared to other types of thyroid cancer. Therefore, papillary carcinoma is the correct answer to the given question.

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  • 47. 

    "tumor in women" =

    Correct Answer
    leiomyoma, fibroid
    Explanation
    Leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is a type of tumor that commonly occurs in women. These tumors are made up of smooth muscle cells and can develop in various locations within the uterus. Leiomyomas are typically benign and can vary in size, causing symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, and pressure. Therefore, "leiomyoma, fibroid" is an accurate answer to the given question about tumors in women.

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  • 48. 

    "adult adrenal medullary tumor" =

    Correct Answer
    pheochromocytoma
    Explanation
    An adult adrenal medullary tumor refers to a tumor that originates from the adrenal medulla, which is the inner part of the adrenal gland. The most common type of tumor arising from the adrenal medulla is called a pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytomas are usually benign tumors that produce excessive amounts of adrenaline and noradrenaline, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, and excessive sweating. Therefore, pheochromocytoma is the correct answer for this question.

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  • 49. 

    "child adrenal medullary tumor" =

    Correct Answer
    neuroblastoma, malignant neuroblastoma
    Explanation
    The term "child adrenal medullary tumor" refers to a type of tumor that occurs in the adrenal medulla, which is a part of the adrenal gland. The most common tumor that arises in this location in children is neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor that develops from nerve tissue, usually in the adrenal glands but can also occur in other areas of the body. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is neuroblastoma or malignant neuroblastoma.

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