# Earthquake Noel Core 4

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Questions: 44 | Attempts: 51

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• 1.

### When stress causes rocks to break: vibrations called _____________________ are produced.

• A.

Earthquakes

• B.

Tsunami

• C.

Faults

• D.

Elastic Limit

A. Earthquakes
Explanation
When stress causes rocks to break, the release of energy creates vibrations called earthquakes. These vibrations travel through the Earth's crust and can be felt on the surface. Earthquakes occur when the accumulated stress in the rocks exceeds their strength, causing them to fracture and slip along a fault line. This sudden movement generates seismic waves that propagate through the Earth, resulting in the shaking and trembling associated with earthquakes.

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• 2.

### When tension forces pull rock apart a ________________ occurs.

• A.

Reverse Fault

• B.

Normal Fault

• C.

Strike-slip Fault

• D.

Transform Fault

B. Normal Fault
Explanation
When tension forces pull rock apart, a normal fault occurs. In a normal fault, the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall, resulting in the rock layers being displaced vertically. This type of fault is commonly associated with divergent plate boundaries, where two plates are moving away from each other. The tension forces cause the crust to stretch and thin, leading to the formation of a fault where the hanging wall drops down. This movement can result in the formation of valleys or rifts on the Earth's surface.

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• 3.

### _______________________ waves cause particles in rocks to move at right angles to the direction of the waves.

• A.

Surface Waves

• B.

Primary Waves

• C.

Secondary Waves

• D.

Tertiary Waves

C. Secondary Waves
Explanation
Secondary waves, also known as shear waves, cause particles in rocks to move at right angles to the direction of the waves. These waves are slower than primary waves but faster than surface waves. They are responsible for the side-to-side shaking motion during an earthquake and can only travel through solid materials. Unlike primary waves, secondary waves cannot travel through liquids or gases. Therefore, the correct answer is secondary waves.

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• 4.

### The ___________ of an earthquake is the point of Earth's surface above the focus.

• A.

Focus

• B.

Epicenter

• C.

Foci

• D.

Fault

B. Epicenter
Explanation
The epicenter of an earthquake refers to the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus, which is the actual location where the earthquake originates underground. This means that the epicenter is the point where the seismic waves generated by the earthquake first reach the surface. It is an important concept in earthquake studies as it helps in determining the location and magnitude of an earthquake, and is often used to describe the impact and damage caused by the earthquake at a particular location.

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• 5.

### The measure of energy released by an earthquake is the earthquake's ________________________

• A.

Magnitude

• B.

Destructive Force

• C.

Focus

• D.

Epicenter

A. Magnitude
Explanation
The measure of energy released by an earthquake is known as its magnitude. Magnitude is determined using various seismic instruments and scales, such as the Richter scale or the moment magnitude scale. It quantifies the size and strength of an earthquake, taking into account the amplitude of seismic waves recorded. The magnitude of an earthquake provides valuable information about its potential impact and can help in assessing the level of destruction and the necessary response measures.

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• 6.

### At a _____________________, the rocks above the fault surface are forced up and over the rocks below the fault surface.

• A.

Reverse Fault

• B.

Normal Fault

• C.

Strike-Slip Fault

• D.

Transform Fault

A. Reverse Fault
Explanation
A reverse fault occurs when the rocks above the fault surface are pushed up and over the rocks below the fault surface. This type of fault is caused by compressional forces, where the crust is being squeezed together. As a result, the hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall. Reverse faults are common in areas where tectonic plates are colliding, such as at convergent plate boundaries.

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• 7.

### The _____________________ of an earthquake is the point in the Earth's interior where energy is released.

• A.

Epicenter

• B.

Fault

• C.

Focus

• D.

Strike-slip

C. Focus
Explanation
The focus of an earthquake refers to the point within the Earth's interior where the energy is released. It is the exact location where the seismic waves originate and spread outwards, causing the shaking and destruction associated with earthquakes. The focus is usually located beneath the Earth's surface, and its depth can vary depending on the type and magnitude of the earthquake. The term "focus" is commonly used in seismology to describe this specific point of energy release during an earthquake.

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• 8.

### By studying seismic wave information, a sceintist discovered that boundary between Earth's crust and its upper mantle, which is call the ______________.

• A.

Moho

• B.

Lithosphere

• C.

Asthenosphere

• D.

Crust

A. Moho
Explanation
The correct answer is Moho. The Moho is the boundary between Earth's crust and its upper mantle. It was discovered by studying seismic wave information.

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• 9.

### A ___________________ is a siesmic seawave that can cause great devestation.

• A.

P-waves

• B.

S-waves

• C.

Surface Waves

• D.

Tsunami

D. Tsunami
Explanation
A tsunami is a seismic seawave that can cause great devastation. Tsunamis are typically caused by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. These waves can travel across vast distances in the ocean, reaching coastal areas with tremendous force. Tsunamis can cause widespread flooding, destruction of infrastructure, and loss of life. They are characterized by their long wavelengths and high speeds, which allow them to maintain their energy and impact even over long distances.

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• 10.

### Most destruction is caused by __________________ waves

• A.

S-waves

• B.

Surface Waves

• C.

P-waves

• D.

Sound Waves

B. Surface Waves
Explanation
Surface waves are the correct answer because they are responsible for causing the most destruction during earthquakes. Unlike P-waves and S-waves, which travel through the interior of the Earth, surface waves travel along the Earth's surface. These waves have a larger amplitude and longer wavelength, causing more intense shaking and damage to buildings and infrastructure. Surface waves include two types: Love waves, which move side to side, and Rayleigh waves, which have a rolling motion. Both types of surface waves can cause significant destruction during an earthquake.

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• 11.

### An instrument called a _____________________ is used to record seismic waves

• A.

Seismograph

• B.

Seismogram

• C.

Seismometer

A. Seismograph
Explanation
A seismograph is an instrument used to record seismic waves. It consists of a sensitive recording device that is able to detect and measure the vibrations caused by earthquakes or other seismic activities. These measurements are then recorded on a seismogram, which is a graphical representation of the seismic waves. A seismometer, on the other hand, is the actual sensor or detector that measures the ground motion, while a seismograph is the complete instrument that includes the seismometer and the recording device.

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• 12.

### A fault between two plates that are moving sideways past each other is called a _______________ fault

• A.

Normal

• B.

Reverse

• C.

Transform

• D.

Strike-slip

D. Strike-slip
Explanation
A fault between two plates that are moving sideways past each other is called a strike-slip fault. In this type of fault, the movement of the plates is mainly horizontal, with one plate sliding past the other in a lateral direction. This type of fault is characterized by shear stress and can result in earthquakes. Unlike normal and reverse faults, where the movement is primarily vertical, a strike-slip fault is primarily horizontal. Transform faults, which are a type of strike-slip fault, occur at the boundaries between tectonic plates.

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• 13.

### ________________ waves cause particles to move back and forth in the same direction as the wave travels

• A.

Secondary

• B.

Light

• C.

Surface

• D.

Primary

D. Primary
Explanation
Primary waves, also known as P-waves, are a type of seismic wave that causes particles to move back and forth in the same direction as the wave travels. These waves are the fastest and first to arrive at a seismograph during an earthquake. They are able to travel through both solids and liquids, and their motion is similar to that of sound waves. Primary waves are characterized by their ability to compress and expand the material they pass through, and they are responsible for the initial shaking felt during an earthquake.

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• 14.

### Earthquakes generate energy waves called ____________________.

• A.

Seismic Waves

• B.

Ocean Waves

• C.

Sound Waves

• D.

Light Waves

A. Seismic Waves
Explanation
Earthquakes generate energy waves called seismic waves. Seismic waves are the waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, causing the ground to shake during an earthquake. These waves carry the energy released by the earthquake and can be classified into two main types: body waves and surface waves. Body waves include P-waves (primary waves) and S-waves (secondary waves), which travel through the Earth's interior. Surface waves, on the other hand, travel along the Earth's surface and are responsible for most of the shaking and damage during an earthquake.

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• 15.

### Once the elastic limit of rocks is passed, they break and move along surfaces called _______________.

• A.

Faults

• B.

Earthquakes

• C.

Strains

• D.

Stresses

A. Faults
Explanation
When rocks are subjected to stress beyond their elastic limit, they undergo deformation and eventually break. The broken rocks then move along surfaces known as faults. Faults are fractures in the Earth's crust where rocks on either side have moved relative to each other. This movement along faults is responsible for the occurrence of earthquakes. Therefore, the correct answer is Faults.

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• 16.

### Most earchquakes happen ____________.

• A.

Without warning

• B.

In areas where earthquakes have occurred in the past

• C.

Along plate boundaries

• D.

All the answers provided are correct

D. All the answers provided are correct
Explanation
All the answers provided are correct because earthquakes can occur without warning, in areas where they have occurred in the past, and along plate boundaries. Earthquakes can happen suddenly and unexpectedly, causing significant damage and loss of life. They are more likely to occur in regions that have experienced earthquakes before, as these areas are located along fault lines. Additionally, plate boundaries, where tectonic plates meet and interact, are particularly prone to seismic activity. Therefore, all the given answers accurately describe the occurrence of earthquakes.

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• 17.

### A person twice as far from the epicenter of an earthquake as another person will notice that the time between the arrival of the primary and secondary waves will be ________________.

• A.

The same

• B.

Larger

• C.

Reduced

• D.

Unnoticeable

B. Larger
Explanation
The person who is twice as far from the epicenter of an earthquake will notice that the time between the arrival of the primary and secondary waves will be larger. This is because the primary waves (P-waves) travel faster than the secondary waves (S-waves). As the distance from the epicenter increases, the time gap between the arrival of these waves also increases. Therefore, the person who is farther away will experience a longer time interval between the arrival of the two waves compared to the person who is closer to the epicenter.

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• 18.

### Scientists discovered changes in Earth's interior by studying___________.

• A.

Tsunamis

• B.

Tides

• C.

Changes in seismic waves

C. Changes in seismic waves
Explanation
Scientists discovered changes in Earth's interior by studying changes in seismic waves. Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and they are generated by earthquakes or other sources of energy release. By analyzing the characteristics of seismic waves, such as their speed, direction, and reflection, scientists can infer information about the composition, temperature, and structure of the Earth's interior. This helps in understanding processes like plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains. Tsunamis and tides, on the other hand, are related to the Earth's surface and its interactions with external forces like the moon and ocean currents.

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• 19.

### ____________ is the force that squeezes rocks together.

• A.

Tension

• B.

Shear

• C.

Elastic Limit

• D.

Compression

D. Compression
Explanation
Compression is the force that squeezes rocks together. When external forces act on rocks, they can cause the rocks to be pushed together, resulting in compression. This force can cause the rocks to deform or change shape, leading to the formation of mountains, folds, and faults in the Earth's crust. Compression is a significant geological process that plays a crucial role in shaping the Earth's surface.

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• 20.

### ____________ is the force that pulls rocks apart.

• A.

Tension

• B.

Shear

• C.

Elastic Limit

• D.

Compression

A. Tension
Explanation
Tension is the force that pulls rocks apart. When an external force is applied to a rock, causing it to stretch or elongate, tension forces are created within the rock. These forces act in opposite directions, pulling the rock apart. Tension is commonly observed in situations where rocks are subjected to stretching or pulling forces, such as in fault zones or during the formation of joints and fractures.

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• 21.

### ____________ is the force that causes plates to move sideways past each other.

• A.

Tension

• B.

Shear

• C.

Elastic Limit

• D.

Compression

B. Shear
Explanation
Shear is the force that causes plates to move sideways past each other. This occurs when two plates are moving in opposite directions or at different speeds along a fault line. Shear forces result in the sliding or displacement of rocks along the fault, causing earthquakes.

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• 22.

### ______________ faults are caused by tensional forces.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Strike-Slip

• C.

Reverse

• D.

Elastic

A. Normal
Explanation
Normal faults are caused by tensional forces. In these faults, the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall due to the stretching and pulling apart of the Earth's crust. This type of faulting commonly occurs in areas where the crust is being extended, such as along divergent plate boundaries or in rift zones. The tensional forces cause the rocks to break and slide along the fault plane, resulting in a vertical displacement. This is in contrast to reverse faults, where the hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall, and strike-slip faults, where the movement is primarily horizontal. Elastic faults are not a recognized type of faulting.

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• 23.

### ______________ faults are caused by compressional forces.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Strike-Slip

• C.

Reverse

• D.

Elastic

C. Reverse
Explanation
Reverse faults are caused by compressional forces, where the rock layers are pushed together and forced to move vertically. In a reverse fault, the hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall. This type of fault is commonly associated with convergent plate boundaries, where two tectonic plates collide and the compressional forces cause the rocks to deform and create a reverse fault.

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• 24.

### ______________ faults are caused by shear forces.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Strike-Slip

• C.

Reverse

• D.

Elastic

B. Strike-Slip
Explanation
Strike-slip faults are caused by shear forces. In these faults, the rocks on either side of the fault plane slide horizontally past each other. This movement is a result of the shear stress that is applied to the rocks, causing them to break and move. Strike-slip faults are commonly associated with transform boundaries, where two tectonic plates slide past each other. The San Andreas Fault in California is a well-known example of a strike-slip fault.

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• 25.

### Along a(n) ________ fault, rock above the fault surface moves downward in relation to rock below the fault surface

• A.

Normal

• B.

Strike-Slip

• C.

Reverse

• D.

Elastic

A. Normal
Explanation
Along a normal fault, the rock above the fault surface moves downward in relation to the rock below the fault surface. This type of fault occurs when tensional forces cause the crust to be pulled apart, resulting in the hanging wall (rock above the fault) moving down relative to the footwall (rock below the fault). This downward movement can create a fault scarp or a steep slope on the Earth's surface. Normal faults are common in areas undergoing extension, such as divergent plate boundaries or regions experiencing stretching and thinning of the crust.

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• 26.

### Along a(n) ________ fault, rock above the fault surface is forced up and over the rock below the fault surface

• A.

Normal

• B.

Strike-Slip

• C.

Reverse

• D.

Elastic

C. Reverse
Explanation
In a reverse fault, the rock above the fault surface is pushed up and over the rock below the fault surface. This occurs when compressional forces cause the rocks to move towards each other, resulting in the overlying rock being forced upwards. This type of fault is commonly associated with convergent plate boundaries, where two tectonic plates collide.

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• 27.

### The most destructive seismic waves are ________________.

• A.

Primary

• B.

Surface

• C.

Secondary

• D.

Tsunami

B. Surface
Explanation
Surface waves are the most destructive seismic waves because they travel along the Earth's surface and cause the most damage to buildings and infrastructure. These waves have a larger amplitude and longer period compared to other seismic waves, which allows them to shake the ground with greater intensity. Surface waves can also cause the ground to move in a rolling or swaying motion, leading to landslides, ground ruptures, and other destructive effects.

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• 28.

### The __________ waves are the first to reach a seismograph after an earthquake

• A.

Surface

• B.

Primary

• C.

Secondary

• D.

Tsunami

B. Primary
Explanation
Primary waves, also known as P-waves, are the first to reach a seismograph after an earthquake. These waves are the fastest seismic waves and can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. They cause particles in the ground to move in a back-and-forth motion, similar to how sound waves move through the air. Due to their speed, they are the first to be detected by seismographs, which are instruments used to measure and record seismic waves.

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• 29.

### At least ____________ seismographs are needed to accurately locate an earthquake's epicenter.

• A.

Two

• B.

Five

• C.

Four

• D.

Three

D. Three
Explanation
To accurately locate an earthquake's epicenter, at least three seismographs are needed. This is because each seismograph records the arrival time of the earthquake's seismic waves at a specific location. By comparing the arrival times from three different seismographs, scientists can triangulate the epicenter. With only two seismographs, it would be impossible to determine the exact location of the epicenter, as there would be two possible points of intersection. Having four or five seismographs would provide additional data and improve the accuracy of the location, but three is the minimum required.

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• 30.

### The point in the Earth's interior where the energy release of an earthquake occurs is called the _____________

• A.

Focus

• B.

Epicenter

• C.

Fault

• D.

Inner Core

A. Focus
Explanation
The point in the Earth's interior where the energy release of an earthquake occurs is called the focus. This is the location where the seismic waves originate and the rocks break or slip, causing the earthquake. The focus is usually located beneath the Earth's surface, and it can be at varying depths depending on the type and magnitude of the earthquake. The epicenter, on the other hand, refers to the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus.

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• 31.

### The magnitude of an earthquake is measured by the _______________

• A.

Richter Scale

• B.

Moho

• C.

Modified Mercalli Scale

• D.

Elastic limit

A. Richter Scale
Explanation
The magnitude of an earthquake is measured by the Richter Scale. This scale was developed by Charles F. Richter in 1935 and is used to quantify the energy released during an earthquake. It measures the amplitude of seismic waves recorded by seismographs. The Richter Scale is logarithmic, meaning that each whole number increase on the scale represents a tenfold increase in the amplitude of the seismic waves and approximately 31.6 times more energy released. The scale is widely used by scientists and engineers to assess the severity of earthquakes and their potential impact.

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• 32.

### Primary waves ___________ when they hit the liquid outer core.

• A.

Slow down

• B.

Stay the same

• C.

Stop

• D.

Speed up

A. Slow down
Explanation
Primary waves, also known as P-waves, are seismic waves that travel through the Earth's interior. They are able to pass through both solid and liquid materials. However, when they encounter the liquid outer core, which is composed mainly of molten iron and nickel, the P-waves slow down. This is because the liquid outer core has a lower density and a different composition compared to the solid materials that the P-waves have previously traveled through. The change in density and composition causes a decrease in the speed of the P-waves as they propagate through the liquid outer core.

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• 33.

### Secondary waves ___________ when they hit the liquid outer core

• A.

Slow down

• B.

Stay the same

• C.

Speed up

• D.

Stop

D. Stop
Explanation
Secondary waves, also known as S-waves, are a type of seismic wave that can only travel through solid materials. When these waves reach the liquid outer core of the Earth, which is composed mainly of molten iron and nickel, they cannot propagate through the liquid and therefore "stop". This is because liquids do not have the necessary rigidity to transmit shear waves, which are the type of waves that S-waves represent.

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• 34.

### Liquefaction is when wet soil acts like a(n) ____________________.

• A.

Solid

• B.

Liquid

• C.

Gas

• D.

Semi-solid

B. Liquid
Explanation
Liquefaction is a phenomenon where wet soil loses its strength and behaves like a liquid. This occurs due to the increase in pore water pressure within the soil, causing the soil particles to lose contact with each other and flow like a liquid. Therefore, the correct answer is "Liquid".

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• 35.

### The difference between a magnitude 1 and a magnitude 2 on the Ritcher Scale is ________________ times more powerful.

• A.

23

• B.

32

• C.

33

• D.

22

B. 32
Explanation
The correct answer is 32 because the Richter Scale is logarithmic, meaning that each whole number increase on the scale represents a tenfold increase in the amplitude of the seismic waves. Therefore, a magnitude 2 earthquake is 10 times more powerful than a magnitude 1 earthquake, and a magnitude 3 earthquake is 10 times more powerful than a magnitude 2 earthquake. Hence, a magnitude 2 earthquake is 32 times more powerful than a magnitude 1 earthquake.

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• 36.

### This is a ______________________fault.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Reverse

• C.

Strike-slip

A. Normal
Explanation
A normal fault occurs when the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall, resulting in a vertical displacement. This fault is caused by tensional forces that stretch and thin the Earth's crust. In this fault, the fault plane is inclined at an angle less than 90 degrees. It is called a normal fault because the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall, which is considered the normal position. This fault type is commonly associated with areas of extension and is often found along divergent plate boundaries or in regions experiencing crustal stretching.

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• 37.

### This is a ______________________fault.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Reverse

• C.

Strike-slip

B. Reverse
Explanation
This fault is classified as a reverse fault because it involves the compression of rock layers, causing one side of the fault to move upward and the other side to move downward. In a reverse fault, the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall, resulting in a steeply inclined fault plane. This type of fault is commonly associated with convergent plate boundaries where tectonic forces push rock layers together, causing them to buckle and fold.

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• 38.

### This is a(n) ______________________fault.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Reverse

• C.

Strike-slip

C. Strike-slip
Explanation
A strike-slip fault is a type of fault where the rocks on either side of the fault move horizontally past each other. This movement occurs parallel to the fault plane, causing a shearing or sliding motion. Strike-slip faults are commonly found in areas where tectonic plates are sliding past each other, such as along transform plate boundaries. This type of fault can result in earthquakes and is characterized by the absence of vertical displacement. Therefore, the given answer of "Strike-slip" accurately describes the fault type.

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• 39.

### This fault is caused by ____________________ forces.

• A.

Tensional

• B.

Compressional

• C.

Shear

C. Shear
Explanation
This fault is caused by shear forces. Shear forces occur when two blocks of rock slide past each other horizontally. This type of fault is characterized by a horizontal displacement of rock layers.

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• 40.

### Using the graphic provided, answer the following question. Which wave travels faster?

• A.

S-waves

• B.

P-waves

• C.

Surface Waves

B. P-waves
Explanation
P-waves travel faster than S-waves and surface waves. P-waves, also known as primary waves, are longitudinal waves that travel through solids, liquids, and gases. They are the fastest seismic waves and can travel through the Earth's interior. S-waves, or secondary waves, are transverse waves that can only travel through solids. They are slower than P-waves and cannot pass through liquids or gases. Surface waves, as the name suggests, travel along the surface of the Earth and are slower than both P-waves and S-waves. Therefore, the correct answer is P-waves.

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• 41.

### Using the graphic provided, answer the following question. What is the time difference at 3,000km?

• A.

4 Minutes

• B.

8 Seconds

• C.

16 Minutes

• D.

8 Minutes

D. 8 Minutes
Explanation
The time difference at 3,000km is 8 minutes.

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• 42.

### Using the graphic provided, answer the following question. Which wave has a more constant speed?

• A.

S-waves

• B.

P-waves

• C.

Surface waves

A. S-waves
Explanation
S-waves have a more constant speed compared to P-waves and surface waves. S-waves, also known as shear waves, travel through solids and have a slower speed than P-waves. P-waves, also known as primary waves, can travel through solids, liquids, and gases and have a faster speed but can change direction and speed as they encounter different materials. Surface waves, on the other hand, travel along the surface of the Earth and have a slower speed than both S-waves and P-waves. Therefore, S-waves have a more constant speed compared to the other types of waves.

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• 43.

### Which is NOT a layer of the Earth?

• A.

Outer Mantle

• B.

Crust

• C.

Inner Core

• D.

Lower Mantle

A. Outer Mantle
Explanation
The correct answer is Outer Mantle because the Earth is composed of four main layers: the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core. The outer mantle is not recognized as a distinct layer in the Earth's structure. The mantle is divided into two parts: the upper mantle (also known as the asthenosphere) and the lower mantle. Therefore, the outer mantle does not exist as a separate layer of the Earth.

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• 44.

• A.

Core

• B.

Crust

• C.

Mantle

• D.

Moho