Developmental

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Developmental

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      Decision making

    • B. 

      Imagination

    • C. 

      Communication

    • D. 

      Social coordination

  • 2. 
    • A. 

      David Hume

    • B. 

      Isaac Netwon

    • C. 

      Wittgenstein

    • D. 

      Henry Cavendish

  • 3. 
    • A. 

      Articulating truths has nothing to do with your beleifs

    • B. 

      People can lie in true belief tasks to appear like they have ToM

    • C. 

      Children are unable to complete true-belief tasks

    • D. 

      All of these are true

  • 4. 
    The gold standard for methodologically assessing ToM in children is the?
    • A. 

      False-belief task

    • B. 

      True-belief task

    • C. 

      Mirror-self recognition task

    • D. 

      Gaze direction task

  • 5. 
    While Maxi is out playing, his mum takes the chocolate from the cupboard and grates some of it into a cake and leaves it on the side. Maxi returns from play and is hungry, where will Maxi look for the chocolate? - this is an example of what type of task?
    • A. 

      Unexpected transfer test

    • B. 

      Deceptive box test

    • C. 

      "false-photograph" task

    • D. 

      True-belief task

  • 6. 
    While Maxi is out playing, his mum takes the chocolate from the cupboard and grates some of it into a cake and leaves it on the side. Maxi returns from play and is hungry, where will Maxi look for the chocolate? - a child who is without a ToM will provide what answer?
    • A. 

      In the cupboard

    • B. 

      On the side

    • C. 

      In the garden

    • D. 

      The response will be random

  • 7. 
    Critics of False-belief tasks suggested that children may have difficulty comprehending a story, what task was used to get around this difficulty?
    • A. 

      Deceptive box test

    • B. 

      Sally-Ann task

    • C. 

      Unexpected transfer task

    • D. 

      All of these have a story element

  • 8. 
    A child fails a false-belief task, he is shown a tube of smarties and a pencil is put inside it (deceptive box test), he is then asked what he thought was in the tube before he saw the pencil being put in, what is his response?
    • A. 

      A pencil

    • B. 

      Smarties

    • C. 

      Nothing

    • D. 

      He doesn't know

  • 9. 
    If gorilla's have a ToM, which other monkeys will also have the same ability considering evolutionary phylogentics?
    • A. 

      Chimps + bonobos

    • B. 

      Orangutans

    • C. 

      Gibbons

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 10. 
    A natural inclination to look at the eyes rather than other body parts is likely to achieve?
    • A. 

      A state of joint attention

    • B. 

      A state of mentalising

    • C. 

      A state of shared emotion

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 11. 
    Infants at 18months are highly proficient at tracking their mother's gaze as demonstrated by Butterworth, what is the clear benefit of this?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Social referencing

    • C. 

      Language development

    • D. 

      Understanding the mind behind the utterance

  • 12. 
    According to a social referencing benefit of infants being able to track gaze, what would a mother have to do for an infant to be more likely to cross a glass covered platform that appeared like a drop?
    • A. 

      Have a happy/encouraging expression

    • B. 

      Have a anxious/worried expression

    • C. 

      Maintain eye contact the entire time

    • D. 

      Avoid eye contact the entire time

  • 13. 
    If a mother was to name a random object as a wug, what would be proficient for an infant to also adopt the name wug for the object?
    • A. 

      Gaze alone

    • B. 

      Gaze and pointing

    • C. 

      Gaze and gesturing

    • D. 

      Gaze and smiling

  • 14. 
    Povinelli and Eddy (1996) conducted gaze experiments on chimpanzees in which the experimenter looked at an opaque area on a screen while facing the monkey. When a child undergoes this task with a mother, they know that the mother is looking at something on her side of the screen, what response did the chimp have?
    • A. 

      The chimp also tried to look on the experimenter's side of the glass, aware of where he was looking

    • B. 

      The chimp merely copied the direction of gaze of the experimenter without realising the opaque area was there

    • C. 

      The chimp looked behind itself as if the opaque area wasn't there and the experimenter was looking at something beyond the chimp

    • D. 

      The chimp became disinterested when the experimenter stopped looking at it

  • 15. 
    The mirror recognition task is a demonstration of?
    • A. 

      Self-knowledge

    • B. 

      Theory of mind

    • C. 

      False-belief

    • D. 

      Independence

  • 16. 
    Becoming aware that you are an agent of your own action happens after 8 years in chimps, when does it happen in human children?
    • A. 

      18 months

    • B. 

      12 months

    • C. 

      3 years

    • D. 

      8 years

  • 17. 
    In the development of self knowledge, which of the following is not recognised as a key stage?
    • A. 

      Developing a ToM

    • B. 

      Gender identity

    • C. 

      Shifting from physically describing oneself to psychologically describing oneself

    • D. 

      Awareness you are an agent of your own action

  • 18. 
    To recognise myself in a mirror and no longer be frightened of my shadow means what?
    • A. 

      I have become aware that I am an agent of my own action

    • B. 

      I have developed a ToM

    • C. 

      I am definitely human

    • D. 

      All of these are true

  • 19. 
    • A. 

      Conforming to gender stereotypes

    • B. 

      Gender concept

    • C. 

      Learning gender-appropriate behaviours

    • D. 

      Developing a gender preferece

  • 20. 
    At 3 years a child has acquired gender identification, what does this mean?
    • A. 

      They can judge whether they are a boy or girl

    • B. 

      They are aware of gender

    • C. 

      They know that gender is stable and enduring

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 21. 
    At 6 years a child has got gender permanence, what does this mean?
    • A. 

      They can judge whether they are a boy or girl

    • B. 

      They are aware of gender

    • C. 

      They know that gender is stable and enduring

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 22. 
    Burton and Mitchell (2003) asked children to judge who knows best concerning interior questions (such as your secrets) and exterior questions (such as how fast you can run). What did they find?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      A sharp age increase in children citing themselves for interior questions

    • C. 

      Children as young as 7 were heavily citing themselves as who knows best

    • D. 

      Exterior questions were still heavily attributed to teachers and parents across the age increase

  • 23. 
    Rosenberg (1967) asked children 'If I asked you and your mother how good you were, and you said one thing and she said another, who would be right?. What did 70% of 10 year olds respond with?
    • A. 

      Mother would be right

    • B. 

      They would be right

    • C. 

      Somewhere in the middle was true

    • D. 

      To ask a third person to see who was right

  • 24. 
    Burton and Mitchell (2003) found out that what age was particularly sensitive to the interior/exterior locus of self knowledge?
    • A. 

      6

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      5

    • D. 

      7

  • 25. 
    Nisbett (2003) found that what variable can have an influence in self cognition and the descriptions one would pick to describe themselves?
    • A. 

      Culture

    • B. 

      Language

    • C. 

      Parental upbringing

    • D. 

      Personality

  • 26. 
    • A. 

      Adult retain a minor egocentric bias

    • B. 

      As difficult as the task gets, adults are very capable

    • C. 

      Adults can be made to perform as well as children

    • D. 

      Adults can only be tripped up by extremely complex false belief tasks

  • 27. 
    Mitchell et al. (1996) presented adults with a FB task. Kevin sees juice in the jug, later Rebecca tells Kevin there is milk in the jug, what does Kevin believe is in the jug. 90% of adults respond juice. When adults are told that Rebecca had also poured away the juice and replaced it with milk before telling Kevin the information, what happens to adult's responses?
    • A. 

      There is a now 50:50 split between those that believe juice and milk

    • B. 

      The original 90% divide is maintained, Kevin didn't learn anything new from the information

    • C. 

      90% now believe milk, the additional information changed most people's minds

    • D. 

      None of these are correct

  • 28. 
    Keysar et al.'s task concerning a set of shelves full of objects, to which a number of objects are visible to the participant but obscured to the director (who is conducting the game and asking questions) demonstrates what effect in adults?
    • A. 

      An egocentric bias

    • B. 

      A false-belief adoption

    • C. 

      Theory of mind

    • D. 

      Hindsight

  • 29. 
    Apperly et al. (2006) concluded that?
    • A. 

      Reasoning about beliefs is NOT automatic

    • B. 

      Reasoning about beliefs is faster if participants were pre-warned

    • C. 

      We by default assume that all minds follow ours

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 30. 
    In Appleby et al.'s (2006) incidental false belief task, they measured response times for adults to answer either a question concerning the reality of the situation or people's belief about the situation. What were their results in adults?
    • A. 

      RT was faster for the reality probe

    • B. 

      RT was faster for the belief probe

    • C. 

      RT was non-significantly different between reality and belief

    • D. 

      RT was faster for the belief probe, unless participants knew they were going to be asked

  • 31. 
    Ekman found how many universal expressions?
    • A. 

      6

    • B. 

      8

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      2

  • 32. 
    • A. 

      Pain

    • B. 

      Surprise

    • C. 

      Fear

    • D. 

      Anger

    • E. 

      Disgust

    • F. 

      Happiness

    • G. 

      Sadness

  • 33. 
    Ekman's faces have an issue with being used to infer mental states from them, what is this issue?
    • A. 

      All of these are relevant issues

    • B. 

      The stimuli are very exaggerated compared to usual expressions

    • C. 

      The actor holding the expression does not have a true inner state behind it

    • D. 

      Facial expressions are often a reaction to an event - these are static and posed

  • 34. 
    Baron-Cohen et al. (1997) suggested that individuals with autism have an under-developed ToM because ... 
    • A. 

      They failed to extract an emotion from just the eyes

    • B. 

      They failed to extract an emotion from a whole face

    • C. 

      They failed to extract an emotion from just a mouth

    • D. 

      They failed to extract an emotion from body posture

  • 35. 
    Pillai et al. (2012) improved upon Ekman's faces by using
    • A. 

      Videos of natural reactions to stimuli

    • B. 

      Photos with less scripted images

    • C. 

      Live role-plays

    • D. 

      A variety of these stimuli

  • 36. 
    Pillai et al. (2012) found what result in ASD and neurotypical individuals conducting his experiment on video recordings of people's reactions and having to guess the origin of the reaction?
    • A. 

      ASD were significantly worse at all behaviours equally compaired to neurotypical

    • B. 

      ASD were significantly worse at all behaviours compared to neurotypical, particularly compliments

    • C. 

      ASD were significantly worse at three of the behaviours compared to neurotypical but were better at identifying the 'waiting' behaviour

    • D. 

      ASD were equally good at this task compared to neurotypical since the task used natural videos rather than static photos

  • 37. 
    Edey et al (2016) used the Heider and Simmel task in which participants had to move shapes around to portray specific behaviors such as coaxing and mocking. What results did they find when both ASD and neurotypical participants did the moving and the guessing of the behaviour?
    • A. 

      When NT participants did the moving, NT guessers were more successful than ASD. When ASD did the moving, both sets of guesser struggled

    • B. 

      When NT participants did the moving, both sets of guessers were succesful. When ASD did the moving, both sets of guessers struggled

    • C. 

      When NT participants did the moving, both sets of guessers were successful, when ASD did the moving, ASD guessers were more successful than NT

    • D. 

      When NT participants did the moving, NT guessers were more successful than ASD. When ASD did the moving, ASD guessers were more successful than NT

  • 38. 
    The Heider and Simmel task (1944) uses what stimulus to look for an ability to infer mental states?
    • A. 

      Geometric shapes

    • B. 

      Pictures of human faces

    • C. 

      Pictures of animals

    • D. 

      Video recordings of human reactions

  • 39. 
    Faso et al. (2015) found out that?
    • A. 

      ASD individuals are just as expressive as neurotypical

    • B. 

      ASD individuals are significantly less expressive than neurotypical

    • C. 

      ASD individuals were slightly more expressive than neurotypical but they were less clear

    • D. 

      ASD individuals were borderline non-expressive

  • 40. 
    Sheppard et al. 2016 found that the only situation that ASD individuals were less expressive in was?
    • A. 

      Reacting to compliments

    • B. 

      Listening to a story

    • C. 

      Waiting

    • D. 

      Reacting to a joke

  • 41. 
    • A. 

      Neurotypical were better at recognising ASD reactions but those reactions were no less expressive than the controls

    • B. 

      Neurotypical were better at recognising ASD reactions and those reactions were significantly less expressive than controls

    • C. 

      ASD individuals were better at recognising ASD reactions and those reactions were no less expressive than controls

    • D. 

      ASD individuals were better at recognising ASD reactions and those reactions were significantly less expressive than controls

  • 42. 
    The conclusion about ASD individual's expressions and mind readability is?
    • A. 

      ASD individuals are no less expressive than neurotypical, however the quality of the signal is less readable

    • B. 

      ASD individuals are as easy for neurotypical people to read as other neurotypical people

    • C. 

      ASD individuals are clearly less expressive, which is likely connected to their own inability to read minds

    • D. 

      ASD individuals have minds that are easier read by other ASD individuals which implies they operate on a different spectrum of expressiveness than neurotypical

  • 43. 
    Practical theory of mind is largely involved with 
    • A. 

      Interpreting people's reactions to events

    • B. 

      Interpreting people's intentions

    • C. 

      Interpreting people's desires

    • D. 

      Avoiding deception within people

  • 44. 
    A perceiver who wants to mind read has to go through what steps of analysing the target to get the result?
    • A. 

      Behaviour - mind - view of the world

    • B. 

      Mind - view of the world - behaviour

    • C. 

      Behaviour - view of the world - mind

    • D. 

      Mind - behaviour - view of the world

  • 45. 
    Teoh et al. (2017) found what was true concerning inferring target's social context from their embodied mental state?
    • A. 

      Accompanied targets were more expressive when showed a positive image

    • B. 

      Alone targets were more expressive when showed a positive image

    • C. 

      Accompanied targets were more expressive when showed a negative image

    • D. 

      Alone targets were more expressive when showed a negative image

  • 46. 
    Repacholi & Gopnik (1997) showed that 18 month year old children could recognise a desire-based ToM (but not 14 months), how did they show this?
    • A. 

      By passing the experimenter the broccoli that the child themselves did not like but they knew the experimenter did

    • B. 

      By passing the experimenter the crisps, despite the experimenter wanting broccoli

    • C. 

      By passing the experimenter the food they explicitly asked for

    • D. 

      By passing the experimenter the food that they liked themselves

  • 47. 
    At what age do children usually PASS the traditional false belief tasks?
    • A. 

      4 years

    • B. 

      3 years

    • C. 

      18 months

    • D. 

      6 years

  • 48. 
    If a child has a theory of mind and the conceptual understanding to solve a FB task but fails to demonstrate it, they are said to have ... without having performance
    • A. 

      Competence

    • B. 

      Ability

    • C. 

      Theory of Mind

    • D. 

      A false belief

  • 49. 
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Lack of passing FB tasks doesnt = lack of competence

    • C. 

      A 3 year old may have problems with language e.g. with story comprehension

    • D. 

      Simplifying FB tasks improves performance

  • 50. 
    To be a booster (rather than a scoffer) means that you believe what about acquiring ToM in children?
    • A. 

      Early competence is masked by performance issues

    • B. 

      Developmental changes on FB taks reflects genuine conceptual change

    • C. 

      Task demands do not completely account for performance issues

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 51. 
    Wellman et al. (2001) conducted a meta analysis of 178 studies and concluded that at 3.5 yrs children were robustly performing at chance level in FB, which of the following task variables did NOT make a difference to this outcome/improved performance?
    • A. 

      Type of task/question

    • B. 

      Deceptive motives

    • C. 

      Active participation

    • D. 

      Saliency of mental state

  • 52. 
    Callaghan et al. (2005) conducted a cross-cultural study of what age children were failing FB tasks and found?
    • A. 

      A similar pattern across industrialised and rural societies

    • B. 

      An early age of passing in industrialised societies

    • C. 

      An early age of passing in rural socieities

    • D. 

      That many cultures lacked a development shift as described in Wellman's meta-analysis between 3-5yrs

  • 53. 
    • A. 

      Both of these

    • B. 

      Social experience

    • C. 

      Biological maturation

    • D. 

      Neither of these

  • 54. 
    Harris (1999) expressed that ... is crucial for exposing children to other people's perspectives
    • A. 

      Conversation

    • B. 

      Imaginary games

    • C. 

      Infant directed speech

    • D. 

      False belief tasks

  • 55. 
    • A. 

      Children with older siblings show earlier ToM

    • B. 

      Children whose parents talk about mental states show earlier FB performance

    • C. 

      Deaf children of signing parents are comparable with hearing children at ToM

    • D. 

      Deaf children of hearing parents show superior performance on FB tasks

  • 56. 
    Wellman and Liu (2004) made the theory of mind scale, what is the lowest form of theory of mind
    • A. 

      Understanding diverse desires

    • B. 

      Understanding diverse beliefs

    • C. 

      Understanding false belief

    • D. 

      Understanding hidden emotion

    • E. 

      Understanding not everyone has the same access to knowledge

  • 57. 
    Wellman and Liu (2004) made the theory of mind scale, what is the highest form of theory of mind?
    • A. 

      Understanding diverse desires

    • B. 

      Understanding diverse beliefs

    • C. 

      Understanding false belief

    • D. 

      Understanding hidden emotion

    • E. 

      Understanding not everyone has the same access to knowledge

  • 58. 
    Wellman and Liu (2004) made the theory of mind scale, what is the theory of mind level that comes earlier to Chinese children than Western children?
    • A. 

      Understanding diverse desires

    • B. 

      Understanding diverse beliefs

    • C. 

      Understanding false belief

    • D. 

      Understanding hidden emotion

    • E. 

      Understanding not everyone has the same access to knowledge

  • 59. 
    Wellman and Liu's (2004) ToM scale contains Knowledge Access (KA), Hidden emotion (HE), False belief (FB), Diverse beliefs (DB) and Diverse desires (DD). What is the correct order for their acquisition in WESTERN children?
    • A. 

      DD>DB>KA>FB>HE

    • B. 

      DD>KA>DB>FB>HE

    • C. 

      DD>DB>KA>HE>FB

    • D. 

      DD>KA>DB>HE>FB

  • 60. 
    Wellman and Liu's (2004) ToM scale contains Knowledge Access (KA), Hidden emotion (HE), False belief (FB), Diverse beliefs (DB) and Diverse desires (DD). What is the correct order for their acquisition in CHINESE children?
    • A. 

      DD>DB>KA>FB>HE

    • B. 

      DD>KA>DB>FB>HE

    • C. 

      DD>DB>KA>HE>FB

    • D. 

      DD>KA>DB>HE>FB

  • 61. 
    Executive functions involves?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Working memory

    • C. 

      Inhibition

    • D. 

      Cognitive flexibility

  • 62. 
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Cognitive inhibition to address an abstract representation

    • C. 

      Response inhibition of habitual ways of responding

    • D. 

      Working memory to store two conflicting representations

  • 63. 
    Executive function is based in the frontal lobes, which key part of EF develops between the ages of 3 - 6 and is crucial to passing a FB task?
    • A. 

      Inhibitory control

    • B. 

      Working memory

    • C. 

      Cognitive flexibility

    • D. 

      Sustained attention

  • 64. 
    • A. 

      Record where the child looks in anticipation of the actor's search

    • B. 

      Ask the child to point at the location where the actor is going to look for the object

    • C. 

      Ask the child where the actor is going to look for the object

    • D. 

      Record where the child looks after the actors searches for the object

  • 65. 
    • A. 

      Inhibitory control may be responsible for explicit FB failure

    • B. 

      Some children cannot verbalise responses

    • C. 

      Its an easier test to conduct

    • D. 

      All of these are true

  • 66. 
    • A. 

      The children expressed greater instances of tension during FB vs. true condition

    • B. 

      Children as young as three have a form of FB

    • C. 

      Children failed the classic FB task

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 67. 
    Clements and Perner (1994) used what measure to confirm that children at 3 years could acknowledge False belief while still giving an incorrect verbal response?
    • A. 

      Anticipatory gaze

    • B. 

      Pointing

    • C. 

      Facial expression

    • D. 

      Extended looking

  • 68. 
    Southgate et al. (2007) found that they could get 2 year olds to show anticipatory gaze during FB tasks, where as a previous study with the same set up (Clements and Perner, 1994) failed to do so. What did southgate et al. do differently to establish this phenomenon?
    • A. 

      All of these were methodological differences

    • B. 

      Used a Non-verbal prompt

    • C. 

      They avoided the reality bias

    • D. 

      They removed the item concerned with the FB from the scene completely

  • 69. 
    The earliest implicit FB understanding was found by Onishi and Baillargeon (2005) and was found in children of what age?
    • A. 

      15 months

    • B. 

      18 months

    • C. 

      2 years

    • D. 

      12 months

  • 70. 
    Onishi and Baillargeon (2005) used what measure of FB to record comprehension in 15 month year olds?
    • A. 

      Violation of expectancy

    • B. 

      Anticipatory gaze

    • C. 

      Facial expressions

    • D. 

      Pointing

  • 71. 
    The violation of expectancy method for FB requires what response for an infant to be displaying FB conception?
    • A. 

      Looking longer at an inconsistent event

    • B. 

      Looking longer at a consistent event

    • C. 

      Sporadic looking pattern during inconsistent event

    • D. 

      Sporadic looking pattern during consistent event

  • 72. 
    Heyes (2014) argues that implicit understanding of FB in infants is realistically just a?
    • A. 

      A combination of colours, shapes and movements to an infant

    • B. 

      Over-analysis of something very simple

    • C. 

      No evidence they actually have ToM

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 73. 
    Some have compared a child's understanding of ToM to a scientific theory, why is this comparison made?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Initial understanding of ToM comes in the form of an access rule

    • C. 

      Understanding of ToM is initially over-applied until it is reigned in again

    • D. 

      Children incorrectly make the assumption that people in their position wont make the same conclusions as them

  • 74. 
    • A. 

      Seeing/being told = knowing

    • B. 

      Not seeing/not being told = ignorance

    • C. 

      People have other opinions

    • D. 

      People can like different things

  • 75. 
    If a child learns an access rule - 'seeing = knowing' to form a theory of mind, what will be the subsequent overextended no access rule?
    • A. 

      Not seeing = ignorance

    • B. 

      Not seeing = knowing

    • C. 

      Seeing = ignorance

    • D. 

      None of these are correct

  • 76. 
    Sodian and Wimmer (1987) showed children under 6 years old a bag of M&M's and said I've taken one of the things in this bag out and put it in this box. When they asked the child what was in the box, they said an M&M. When asked what someone else in their position would say they said?
    • A. 

      M&M

    • B. 

      They wouldn't know

    • C. 

      Nothing

    • D. 

      Something else

  • 77. 
    • A. 

      Tomasello

    • B. 

      Povinelli

    • C. 

      Premack

    • D. 

      Kaminski

  • 78. 
    • A. 

      Tomasello

    • B. 

      Povinelli

    • C. 

      Premack

    • D. 

      Kaminski

  • 79. 
    Premack and Woodruff launched the seminal paper into whether chimps have a ToM, what did they find?
    • A. 

      A chimp could cooperate + compete against a human towards a goal after much training

    • B. 

      A chimp could cooperate with a human for a shared goal

    • C. 

      A chimp could compete and deceive a human concerning a goal

    • D. 

      Chimps understand a false belief

  • 80. 
    Both Povinelli and Tomasell at least agreed that there was no evidence that chimps understood
    • A. 

      False beliefs of others

    • B. 

      Goals of others

    • C. 

      Intentions of others

    • D. 

      Perceptions of others

  • 81. 
    Povinelli considers a chimps ability to make a decision to not be related to mental states but to instead be due to?
    • A. 

      Behavioural abstraction hypothesis

    • B. 

      Pavlovian/Instrumental conditioning

    • C. 

      Chance behaviours

    • D. 

      Simple analysis of desires

  • 82. 
    Call and Tomasello reviewed 10 studies (2008) to find robustly that chimps could
    • A. 

      Show an understanding of goals/intentions

    • B. 

      Show an understanding of false belief

    • C. 

      Show evidence of behavioural abstraction hypothesos

    • D. 

      Show all three of these things

  • 83. 
    Buttleman et al. (2007) showed that chimps can imitate human behaviour rationally, how was this done?
    • A. 

      Since the chimps only imitated odd behaviour when the human was not physically constrained when doing it

    • B. 

      Since the chimps refused to copy behaviours the human did which were obviously pointless

    • C. 

      Since chimps refused to open the hatch with their foot regardless of what tricks the experimenters used

    • D. 

      Since the chimps only copied actions with obvious intentions tied to them

  • 84. 
    Warneken and Tomasello (2006) tested chimps and infants in an altruistic helping task. Both chimps and infants seemed willing to help without reward or praise and only when the demonstrator was using non-verbal signs of distress. Which particular tasks did chimp help more than others?
    • A. 

      Out of reach

    • B. 

      Achieved wrong result

    • C. 

      Used wrong means to do something

    • D. 

      Blocked by a physical object

  • 85. 
    • A. 

      Chimps can follow gaze

    • B. 

      Chimps beg for food from blindfolded humans

    • C. 

      Chimps can assist humans in non-verbal distress

    • D. 

      Chimps can rationally imitate behaviour

  • 86. 
    • A. 

      Chimps can follow gaze

    • B. 

      Chimps beg for food from blindfolded humans

    • C. 

      Chimps can assist humans in non-verbal distress

    • D. 

      Chimps can rationally imitate behaviour

  • 87. 
    Chimps are experts at following visual perception BUT do not necessarily incorporate that the notion of seeing something means anything about the person's mindset. What possibility is NOT a good explanation of this phenomenon?
    • A. 

      Chimps have nothing to gain from linking perception to a person's mindset

    • B. 

      There is a general delay in psychological development in chimps

    • C. 

      Chimps possess a different (but still mentalistic) theory of attention

    • D. 

      Humans may be unique in the subjective understanding of visual perception

  • 88. 
    Povinelli and colleagues reliably found that chimps would beg for food from a blindfolded individual, not understanding that they couldn't see their attempts, which appeared damning evidence for a ToM. However, Kaminski et al. (2004) simplified the experiment and found what?
    • A. 

      Chimps were sensitive to body and face orientation but not eyes

    • B. 

      Chimps were sensitive to body, face and eye orientation

    • C. 

      Chimps were sensitive to body orientation only

    • D. 

      Chimps were sensitive to face orientation only

  • 89. 
    Lab studies of chimps very often adopt a Cooperative nature to test a ToM, a criticism is that they should be using competitive paradigms, why would this be better?
    • A. 

      Competition with conspecifics is more natural

    • B. 

      Competition is easier to measure a ToM

    • C. 

      Monkey's prefer to compete for rewards than cooperate with humans

    • D. 

      All of these are true

  • 90. 
    Hare, Call & Tomasello (2001) used a competitive paradigm in which a submissive chimp would exclusively go and find the food hidden in the arena IF he knew that he was the only one who had seen where it had been hidden (ie the dominant chimp had his window into the arena blacked out). Two accounts can explain this, a behavioural and mental state account. Which of the following statement is appropriate for a behavioural abstraction explanation?
    • A. 

      He was not present when the food was placed where it is now, therefore he is less likely to go after it

    • B. 

      He was present and facing the food when it was placed so he saw the food and knows it is there, therefore he is likely to go after it

    • C. 

      He was facing the wrong way when the food was placed therefore he does not know the location of the food and he will go after it

    • D. 

      None of these are behavioural accounts, they all involve mentalising

  • 91. 
    Hare et al. (2006) showed visual perception taking in chimps by placing the chimps opposite a demonstrator with food either on the left or the right and a screen that could block the experimenter's view, what did they observe?
    • A. 

      Chimps were more likely to take food only when the view of the experimenter was occluded by the screen

    • B. 

      Chimps were more likely to take food when the view of the experimenter was occluded by the screen and when the experimenter was deliberately looking the wrong way from the food

    • C. 

      Chimps were more likely to take food only when the experimenter was deliberately looking the wrong way from the food, regardless of whether the screen occluded or not.

    • D. 

      Chimps took food regardless of what attempts the experiments made to occlude the experimenter's view

  • 92. 
    Melis, Call, Tomasello (2006) showed that chimps could appreciate the auditory perspective of humans by having a silent and noisy door by which they could enter the arena with. The arena sometimes had a human with their head face-down and sometimes had no -one. What did they observe?
    • A. 

      Chimps used the quiet door preferentially only when the human was present

    • B. 

      Chimps used the quiet door preferentially at all times

    • C. 

      Chimps used the loud door preferentially at times when the human wasn't there

    • D. 

      Chimps choice of door was random but appeared to understand the consequences of opening the loud door with the human there

  • 93. 
    Call and Tomasello's (1999) first test of chimp's ability to hold FB resulted in?
    • A. 

      No chimps demonstrating FB

    • B. 

      One chimp demonstrating FB

    • C. 

      Most chimps demonstrating FB, but the actual extent to which the chimps were't operating on a behavioural principle is yet to be determined

    • D. 

      Most chimps demonstrating FB, a robust finding over the years

  • 94. 
    • A. 

      It involved a demonstrator pointing at a cup, a natural response is for the chimp to follow pointing

    • B. 

      Chimps had been trained previously to always choose the cup that was being pointed to

    • C. 

      Chimps likely lack inhibitory control, a crucial element in this task

    • D. 

      All of these are criticisms

  • 95. 
    Marticorena et al. (2011) used an opportunistic sampling of rhesus monkeys on an island to take part in a true-belief and then a false-belief task for which they measured their gaze duration as a measure of surprise and violation of expectancy. What did they find?
    • A. 

      Monkey's looked for longer when experimenters in the true belief task looked in the wrong place, but did not look any differently in the FB task

    • B. 

      Monkey's looked for longer when the experimenters looked in the wrong place in the true belief task and when their expectancy was violated in the FB task, just like 15 month infants

    • C. 

      Monkey's did not vary in their gaze in the true or false belief task

    • D. 

      Monkey's looked for longer in the FB task only, but since they failed true belief task it cannot be known how genuine the result is

  • 96. 
    In the sequence of studies on whether apes have ToM, which of the following, if any, are true?
    • A. 

      Apes have shown they can understand perceptions and intentions

    • B. 

      Apes have shown they can, in some cases, take on false beliefs

    • C. 

      Neither of these were shown reliably, apes truly lack a ToM

    • D. 

      Both of these were shown to be true, apes have some form of ToM

  • 97. 
    Krupenye et al. (2016) used an anticipatory gaze paradigm on apes (using eye-tracking) to show that great apes have some ability to understand FB tasks since they held their gaze on the location of the object that the participant would look in, not where it actually was. How can this be more easily explained?
    • A. 

      Apes use a rule, people tend to look for objects in the place they last saw for them

    • B. 

      An understanding of FB is the best explanation

    • C. 

      Classical conditioning explains apes propensity to gaze at the last place the human was

    • D. 

      The box the object was under was always a more attractive colour for great apes

  • 98. 
    Hermann et al. (2007) wanted to know what tasks a young child would successfully beat a chimp at. Of the following tasks, which one would a child reliably beat a chimp in?
    • A. 

      Gaze following

    • B. 

      Discriminating quantity

    • C. 

      Tool use

    • D. 

      Spatial memory tasks

  • 99. 
    Hermann et al. (2007) wanted to know what tasks a young child would successfully beat a chimp at. Of the following tasks, which one would a chimp reliably perform as well as a child in?
    • A. 

      Gaze following

    • B. 

      Discriminating quantity

    • C. 

      Understand cues indicating a hidden reward

    • D. 

      Producing gestures to retrieve a hidden reward

  • 100. 
    Wing and Gould (1979) detailed a triad of impairments to diagnose an individual with autism, which of the following is NOT one of the impairments?
    • A. 

      Executive function

    • B. 

      Imagination

    • C. 

      Communication

    • D. 

      Socialisation

  • 101. 
    In Wing and Gould's triad of impairment for ASD, a difficulty interpreting other person's need for affection would fall under what form of impairment?
    • A. 

      Socialisation

    • B. 

      Communication

    • C. 

      Imagination

    • D. 

      Other

  • 102. 
    In Wing and Gould's triad of impairment for ASD, a narrowing of interests and behaviour would fall under what form of impairment?
    • A. 

      Socialisation

    • B. 

      Communication

    • C. 

      Imagination

    • D. 

      Other

  • 103. 
    ASD has a high co-occurence with other difficulties, which of these is unlikely to highly comorbid with ASD?
    • A. 

      Schizophrenia

    • B. 

      Tourettes

    • C. 

      ADHD

    • D. 

      DAMP

  • 104. 
    ASD is best described as a ... disorder?
    • A. 

      Spectrum

    • B. 

      Triad

    • C. 

      Dyad

    • D. 

      Homogenous

  • 105. 
    • A. 

      Autism Analytical Profile

    • B. 

      DSM - V

    • C. 

      Autism Diagnostic Interview

    • D. 

      Autism Diagnostic Observation schedule

  • 106. 
    • A. 

      Attentional deficit

    • B. 

      Theory of Mind

    • C. 

      Executive Dysfunction

    • D. 

      Weak Central Coherence

  • 107. 
    A good theory to explain ASD needs to have what quality?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Specifcity

    • C. 

      Uniqueness

    • D. 

      Universality

  • 108. 
    The theory of mind hypothesis for ASD fulfills which criteria concerning a good ASD theory?
    • A. 

      Specificity - accounting for all symptoms

    • B. 

      Uniqueness - other conditions don't follow same pattern

    • C. 

      Universality - among ASD individuals

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 109. 
    Baron-Cohen's (1985) classic test that ASD individuals routinely failed was the?
    • A. 

      Sally-Anne task

    • B. 

      Unexpected transfer task

    • C. 

      Deceptive box task

    • D. 

      Tower of Hanoi

  • 110. 
    De Gelder (1987) observed a key critique of the Sally-Anne task and other FB tasks, that could potentially explain why ASD individuals failed the task, what was this critique?
    • A. 

      Children may not be able to attribute mental states to dolls

    • B. 

      Children may be unable to comprehend the language

    • C. 

      Children may be unable to respond verbally like the task asks for

    • D. 

      All of these things

  • 111. 
    Mitchell et al.'s (1997) message desire task involves a mum wanting Jane to fetch a bag of wool from a location, despite Jane having previously switched the locations of the bags without mum knowing. ASD individuals often fail to take into account that Jane has moved the item and fetch the wrong bag, this is an example of?
    • A. 

      Communication impairment

    • B. 

      Socialisation difficulties

    • C. 

      Imagination impairment

    • D. 

      Executive dysfunction

  • 112. 
    Mitchell et al.'s (1997) message desire task demonstrates that ASD individuals ...
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Incorrectly interpret utterances literally

    • C. 

      Have difficulty making non-literal interpretations

    • D. 

      Make errors in interpreting desires

  • 113. 
    • A. 

      ASD individuals with higher verbal mental age are more likely to succeed

    • B. 

      ToM fails to account for all the features of the tryad

    • C. 

      Other disorders have similar FB deficits without the ASD deficits

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 114. 
    To account for the fact that some high functioning ASD individuals can pass FB tests, Baron-Cohen (1989) created the?
    • A. 

      Second-order FB test

    • B. 

      Sally-Anne test

    • C. 

      Unexpected transfer test

    • D. 

      Deceptive box test

  • 115. 
    • A. 

      Second-order FB

    • B. 

      First-order FB

    • C. 

      Unexpected transfer test

    • D. 

      Violation of expectancy

  • 116. 
    Does everyone with ASD fail the second-order FB task?
    • A. 

      Yes, even those with a high verbal mental age

    • B. 

      No - those that could pass the first order can pass the second order

    • C. 

      No - Asperges can pass second order

    • D. 

      No - performance was better on this than the first-order

  • 117. 
    • A. 

      VIsual/hearing impairment

    • B. 

      Downs syndrome

    • C. 

      ADHD

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 118. 
    Theory of Mind successfully accounts for?
    • A. 

      The triad

    • B. 

      Narrow interests

    • C. 

      Repetitive behaviour

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 119. 
    Executive dysfunction cannot be a primary cause of ASD because it doesnt have?
    • A. 

      Any of these

    • B. 

      Specificity

    • C. 

      Universality

    • D. 

      Uniqueness

  • 120. 
    Executive dysfunction is said to lack uniqueness for ASD, what does this mean?
    • A. 

      Other conditions also have executive dysfunction

    • B. 

      Executive dysfunction fails to explain all the deficits

    • C. 

      Not all individuals with ASD have EF problems

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 121. 
    Executive control is responsible for?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Impulse control

    • C. 

      Planning

    • D. 

      Set maintenance

  • 122. 
    • A. 

      Deceptive box task - impulse control

    • B. 

      Tower of Hanoi - planning

    • C. 

      Wisconsin card sort - set shifting

    • D. 

      WAIS-R picture arrangement - organised search

  • 123. 
    Failure in the Tower of Hanoi task indicates a deficit in?
    • A. 

      Planning

    • B. 

      Inhibitory control

    • C. 

      Set switching

    • D. 

      Flexibility of action

  • 124. 
    Failure in the Wisconsin card sort implies a deficit in?
    • A. 

      Set switching

    • B. 

      Planning

    • C. 

      Impulse control

    • D. 

      Set maintance

  • 125. 
    • A. 

      Inability to inhibit pre-potent response

    • B. 

      The inability to be flexible

    • C. 

      Attentional focus problems

    • D. 

      The inability to plan

  • 126. 
    Frith's Weak Central Coherence theory suggests ASD originates from ...
    • A. 

      A bias for local processing

    • B. 

      A bias for global processing

    • C. 

      Automatically processing contextual meaning

    • D. 

      An inability to coordinate thoughts and ideas

  • 127. 
    Weak central coherence has the unique opportunity to explain
    • A. 

      Difficulties with sarcasm

    • B. 

      Inability to pass Tower of Hanoi test

    • C. 

      Failure in FB tasks

    • D. 

      Task rigidity

  • 128. 
    The embedded figures test primarily test evidence of what theory by having ASD individuals find a shape within an entire picture
    • A. 

      Weak central coherence

    • B. 

      Executive dysfunction

    • C. 

      Theory of mind

    • D. 

      Social motivation theory

  • 129. 
    Weak Central Coherence as an explanation for the primary cause of ASD has what features?
    • A. 

      Specificity

    • B. 

      Universality

    • C. 

      Specificity and uniqueness

    • D. 

      Uniqueness and Universality

  • 130. 
    WCC lacks uniqueness to be a primary cause of ASD, what other individual also have problem processing context?
    • A. 

      Pragmatic language impairment

    • B. 

      Visually/auditorily impaired

    • C. 

      ADHD

    • D. 

      Tourettes

  • 131. 
    The reality of the cognitive theories of ASD leads to what conclusion?
    • A. 

      Fractionation of the triad

    • B. 

      ToM is best

    • C. 

      WCC is best

    • D. 

      EDF is best

  • 132. 
    Having adjusted to DSM - V, which of the following changes occurred for ASD?
    • A. 

      The Triad reduced to a dyad

    • B. 

      Asperger's is now a condition in its own right

    • C. 

      Removed sensory abnormalities as part of the criteria

    • D. 

      All of these were changed

  • 133. 
    The dyad for ASD is made up of what two categories?
    • A. 

      Social communication and Restricted repetitive behaviour

    • B. 

      Socialisation and Imagination

    • C. 

      Socialisation and Restricted repetitive behaviour

    • D. 

      Social communication and Imagination

  • 134. 
    • A. 

      Central Discordance theory

    • B. 

      Mirror neuron theory

    • C. 

      Extreme male brain

    • D. 

      Social motivation theory

  • 135. 
    • A. 

      Engaged prefrontal cortex theory

    • B. 

      Enhanced Perceptual functioning

    • C. 

      Enlarged temporal binding window

    • D. 

      Social motivation theory

  • 136. 
    • A. 

      Greece

    • B. 

      Japan

    • C. 

      Namibia

    • D. 

      Russia

  • 137. 
    To state that colour categories are defined culturally and influence perceptual colour categorisation is?
    • A. 

      Linguistic determinism

    • B. 

      Universal colour categories

    • C. 

      Linguistic relativism

    • D. 

      Linguistic categorisation

  • 138. 
    To believe that the distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language alone and that the colour spectrum is a continuum without sharp boundaries which we imposte on them with language.
    • A. 

      Linguistic determinism

    • B. 

      Universal colour categories

    • C. 

      Linguistic relativism

    • D. 

      Linguistic categorisation

  • 139. 
    The Dani people are peculiar in that they have ... colours
    • A. 

      2

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      1

    • D. 

      Infinite

  • 140. 
    Berlin and Kay said that BASIC colour terms did NOT have to have one of the following characteristics?
    • A. 

      Represented by all languages

    • B. 

      Monomorphemic

    • C. 

      Not contained within another colour

    • D. 

      Not having restricted uses

  • 141. 
    In Berlin and Kay's (1969) study they found a 7 stage evolutionary model, which of the following colours appears earliest according to their model?
    • A. 

      Red

    • B. 

      Yellow

    • C. 

      Green

    • D. 

      Blue

  • 142. 
    Berlin & Kay's (1969) evotionary model of acquisition of the colour categories occurred in ... stages?
    • A. 

      7

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      11

    • D. 

      9

  • 143. 
    Berlin & Kay's (1969) study looked at 98 different languages and found ... universal perceptual colour categories on which colour concepts are based
    • A. 

      7

    • B. 

      5

    • C. 

      11

    • D. 

      9

  • 144. 
    Berlin & Kay's (1969) colour categories are defined by a ... region which defines the categories.
    • A. 

      Focal

    • B. 

      Central

    • C. 

      Typical

    • D. 

      Principal

  • 145. 
    Berlin & Kay (1969) had people to distinguish a variety of colours across 98 languages using what property/ies?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Hue

    • C. 

      Value/Brightness

    • D. 

      Chroma

  • 146. 
    According to Kay et al. (1991) how many perceptually unique primary colours that cannot be reduced are there out of the 11 universal colour categories?
    • A. 

      6

    • B. 

      3

    • C. 

      4

    • D. 

      5

  • 147. 
    • A. 

      Green

    • B. 

      Pink

    • C. 

      Orange

    • D. 

      Purple

    • E. 

      Brown

    • F. 

      Grey

  • 148. 
    Evidence for Universal colour categories comes from?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      The world colour Survey - matched definitions for red, yellow, green, blue

    • C. 

      Dani people were fastest when learning colours that were focal

    • D. 

      Dani performance on colour memory test

  • 149. 
    • A. 

      Focal colours central

    • B. 

      Focal colours peripheral

    • C. 

      Internomial colours central

    • D. 

      Random colour spaces

  • 150. 
    The most linguistically diverse area in the world is?
    • A. 

      New Guinea

    • B. 

      Thailand

    • C. 

      China

    • D. 

      Argentina

  • 151. 
    The Berinmo people were compared to English in a study by Davidoff et al. (1999) - how many colour terms do they have?
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      8

    • D. 

      11

  • 152. 
    The blue green boundary in English is very similar to the .... in Berinmo?
    • A. 

      Nol/wor

    • B. 

      Nol/wap

    • C. 

      Kel/wor

    • D. 

      Kel/wap

  • 153. 
    • A. 

      English better at green/blue, Berinmo better at nol/wor

    • B. 

      English better at green/blue and nol/wor

    • C. 

      Berinmo better at green/blue and nol/wor

    • D. 

      Berinmo better at green/blue, English better at nol/wor

  • 154. 
    The fact that individuals perform better on tasks using the colour terms from their culture is tempting to claim that colour categories can change colour space which makes different colour categories stand out perceptually to individuals. What is another way of explaining this finding?
    • A. 

      Individuals could be using colour categories to conduct task

    • B. 

      The colour boundaries that are tested are not similar enough for a fair comparison

    • C. 

      Individuals are more experienced with their colour boundaries which provides them an advantage that does not have to alter their perception

    • D. 

      All of these are legit

  • 155. 
    Greek speaker have two separate colour terms for light and dark blue, when completing an oddball task (in which only a minority of the test stimuli are of a different shade of blue than the majority) Thierry et al. (2009) measured the visual mismatch negativity pre-attentive change detection (vMMN) for English and Greek participants and found?
    • A. 

      Greater vMMN for Greek participants in blue colours than green

    • B. 

      Greater vMMN for English participants in blue colours than green

    • C. 

      Weaker vMMN for Greek participants in blue colours than green

    • D. 

      Weaker vMMN for English participants in blue colours than green

  • 156. 
    Modern conceptions of colour decisions are said to rely on two perceptual processes. One is colour category and the other is?
    • A. 

      Colour similarity

    • B. 

      Colour difference

    • C. 

      Colour identity

    • D. 

      Colour uniqueness

  • 157. 
    Infant colour perception is a ... ... process
    • A. 

      Difficult and slow

    • B. 

      Easy but slow

    • C. 

      Easy and fast

    • D. 

      Difficult but fast

  • 158. 
    Linguistic determinism suggests that children need to possess ... before they can do perceptual colour categorisation
    • A. 

      Colour terms

    • B. 

      Language

    • C. 

      Self-awareness

    • D. 

      Hues

  • 159. 
    Colour habituation experiments have been conducted on children as young as?
    • A. 

      4 months

    • B. 

      7 months

    • C. 

      13 months

    • D. 

      18 months

  • 160. 
    In Berstein et al.'s (1976) habituation experiment with infants, they were habituated to a blue light of a particular hue. At test phase they proceeded to look longer at the ... light, suggesting categorical colour perception
    • A. 

      A green light

    • B. 

      A different shade of blue light

    • C. 

      The same blue light

    • D. 

      Both the same shade and different shade of blue lights

  • 161. 
    Clifford et al. (2009) used what methodology to show that 7 month old infants had a preference for novel coloured faces (green rather than the previously habituated blue colour).  
    • A. 

      ERP in an oddball paradigm

    • B. 

      ERP in a habituation paradigm

    • C. 

      Gaze duration in an oddball paradigm

    • D. 

      Gaze duration in a habituation paradigm

  • 162. 
    Franklin et al. (2005) examined how English (11 colours) and Himba (5 colours) 2-4yr olds without colour knowledge categorised across a blue-purple divide that did not exist in Himba. What did they find?
    • A. 

      Himba and English did not differ in their ability in categorical perception

    • B. 

      Himba children were more accurate in between category pairings than within category distinctions

    • C. 

      A negative relationship between colour term knowledge and the categorical effect

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 163. 
    A Universalist view of colour would predict that children would learn?
    • A. 

      Primary colour terms first

    • B. 

      Black and White first

    • C. 

      Secondary colour terms first

    • D. 

      Brown and Grey first

  • 164. 
    Studies stating what colour terms a child learned first were heavily mixed in their results. To test whether primary colours were learned first, Pitchford and Mullen (2002) tested 43 children aged 2 - 5yrs and found ... 
    • A. 

      All colours except brown and grey were learnt first

    • B. 

      Primary colours were learnt first

    • C. 

      Red was first, followed by the rest in a random order

    • D. 

      The acquisition order of colours was heavily varied but black and white were always first

  • 165. 
    • A. 

      An issue with linguistic frequency

    • B. 

      An issue with perceptual saliency

    • C. 

      An issue with linguistic saliency

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 166. 
    • A. 

      Yellow

    • B. 

      Blue

    • C. 

      Black

    • D. 

      Green

  • 167. 
    • A. 

      Most studies used inconsistent age groups

    • B. 

      Most studies failed to test all 11 basic colour terms

    • C. 

      Most studies used one task to assess all knowledge, the nature of the tasks tended to vary between studies

    • D. 

      Most studies reported the mean number correct colour identifications but this does not account for bias to respond when the correct answer is not known

  • 168. 
    • A. 

      Infant-directed speech

    • B. 

      Western culture

    • C. 

      Maternal input

    • D. 

      Preschool attendance

  • 169. 
    Franklin et al. (2015) provided neurological evidence that toddlers are processing colour categories before they have learnt and then modified colours through language - proving that colour predates language acquisition through what finding?
    • A. 

      Toddlers have a Left Visual Field Advantage and when they develop language they gain a Right Visual Field Advantage

    • B. 

      Toddlers have a Right Visual Field Advantage and when they develop language they gain a Left Visual Field Advantage

    • C. 

      Toddlers have a Left Visual Field Advantage and when they develop language they keep a Left Visual Field Advantage

    • D. 

      Toddlers have a Right Visual Field Advantage and when they develop language they gain a Right Visual Field Advantage

  • 170. 
    A summary of the data for colour categorisation supports?
    • A. 

      Linguistic determinism in adults, universal categories in infants

    • B. 

      Linguistic determinism

    • C. 

      Universal colour categories

    • D. 

      Universal categories in adults, linguistic determinism in infants

  • 171. 
    • A. 

      Common

    • B. 

      Unidirectional

    • C. 

      Automatic

    • D. 

      Consistent

    • E. 

      Idiosyncratic

    • F. 

      Conscious

  • 172. 
    Grossenbacher and Lovelace (2001) described synaesthesia as an .... relationship
    • A. 

      Inducer-concurrent

    • B. 

      Perceptual

    • C. 

      Modality-Modality

    • D. 

      Concurrent-inducer

  • 173. 
    The most common synaesthesia is?
    • A. 

      Sequence/space

    • B. 

      Grapheme/colour

    • C. 

      Lexical/gustatory

    • D. 

      Numeron/colour

  • 174. 
    Synaesthesia is unique from Cross-modal correspondences in what particular aspect?
    • A. 

      Being a conscious experience

    • B. 

      Being idiosyncratic

    • C. 

      Being automatic

    • D. 

      Being unidirectional

  • 175. 
    For Grapheme-Colour synaesthetes, is there any difference in the number of graphemes they have consistent colours for as they develop
    • A. 

      Decreases in adulthood

    • B. 

      No, they stay consistent

    • C. 

      They increase in childhood then remain stable

    • D. 

      Increase throughout life

  • 176. 
    • A. 

      80

    • B. 

      60

    • C. 

      100

    • D. 

      50

  • 177. 
    • A. 

      40%

    • B. 

      80%

    • C. 

      20%

    • D. 

      5%

  • 178. 
    Baron-Cohen originally believed that synaesthesia?
    • A. 

      Was linked to the X chromosome

    • B. 

      Was universal to all humans

    • C. 

      Was not genetically linked

    • D. 

      Was heavily linked to savant autism

  • 179. 
    Novich et al. (2011) tested 12000 synaesthetes and found how many distinct clusters of synaesthesia types?
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      4

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      2

  • 180. 
    A variety of chromosome loci have been linked with synaesthesia, 5q, 6p, 12p but particularly chromosome 2q has been linked with what other condition?
    • A. 

      Autism

    • B. 

      ADHD

    • C. 

      Tourettes

    • D. 

      Dyslexia

  • 181. 
    Neonatal synaesthesia theory hypotheses that a deficit in ... could be responsible for synaesthesia?
    • A. 

      Neural pruning

    • B. 

      Axon guidance

    • C. 

      Inhibitory feedback

    • D. 

      Cross activation

  • 182. 
    CMC's have been observed as young as what age?
    • A. 

      1 month

    • B. 

      3 months

    • C. 

      6 months

    • D. 

      12 months

  • 183. 
    Evidence for neonatal hyperconnectivity through failures in neural pruning is supported through ...
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Increased connectivity measures in synaesthetes

    • C. 

      Synaesthetes have 'had it all their lives'

    • D. 

      Brain areas for synaesthesia are often adjascent

  • 184. 
    Whitthoft and Winawer discovered that some grapheme/colour synaesthetes had shaped their synaesthesia around?
    • A. 

      A fridge magnet set

    • B. 

      A famous children's book

    • C. 

      Their favourite colours as kids

    • D. 

      A popular children's toy

  • 185. 
    Witthoft et al. (2015) observed the number of grapheme/colour synaesthetes that had 10 or more letters that colours matched the magnet set. They found that these individuals emerged 4-5 years before the magnet set was released to the public (1971) but persisted in the population heavily until the magnet set was removed (1990). Why did the synaesthetes begin 4-5 years before the magnet set was produced
    • A. 

      Since they would have been 4-5 at the time of its release for it to shape their synaesthesia

    • B. 

      It is likely a different environmental factor explained their pattern

    • C. 

      An earlier version of the magnet set had already taken effect

    • D. 

      Coincidence

  • 186. 
    Of the synaesthetic individuals who's grapheme colours matched 10 or more of a Fisher Price magnet set, what was true of the other colours they had?
    • A. 

      Matched typical synaesthetes

    • B. 

      Completely random

    • C. 

      Matched eachother's but not the general synaesthetic population

    • D. 

      Matched the magnet set but were mildly distorted

  • 187. 
    In 2001, 3 huge papers emerged for synaesthesia suggesting three competing mechanisms, which of the following is not one of the big three
    • A. 

      Cascaded cross-tuning model

    • B. 

      Cross activation

    • C. 

      Re-entrant model

    • D. 

      Disinhibited feedback

  • 188. 
    Hubbard and Ramachandran were responsible for the ... theory of synaesthesia?
    • A. 

      Cross activation

    • B. 

      Neonatal theory

    • C. 

      Disinhibited feedback

    • D. 

      Re-entrant model

  • 189. 
    Hubbard et al. (2011) accumulated 10 years of understanding of synaesthesia mechanisms into his ...? 
    • A. 

      Cascaded cross-tuning model

    • B. 

      Re-entrant model

    • C. 

      Disinhibited feedback model

    • D. 

      Cross activation model

  • 190. 
    Grossenbacher and Lovelace were responsible for the ... theory of synaesthesia?
    • A. 

      Cross activation

    • B. 

      Neonatal theory

    • C. 

      Disinhibited feedback

    • D. 

      Re-entrant model

  • 191. 
    Simner and colleages measured the percentage of synaesthetic graphemes that had fixed colours between the ages of 6 - 11 and found?
    • A. 

      An increased in the number of fixed colours with age

    • B. 

      A decrease in the number of fixed colours with age

    • C. 

      A stable number of fixed colours that did not change with age

    • D. 

      A stable number of fixed colours that changed only in the colour/grapheme pair rather than number of pairs

  • 192. 
    A classic task to show a synaesthetic style effect is?
    • A. 

      Stroop task

    • B. 

      Unexpected transfer task

    • C. 

      Congruent/incongruent task

    • D. 

      Ishihara colour plates

  • 193. 
    Acquired synaesthesia is not known to occur from ..
    • A. 

      Prolonged exposure

    • B. 

      Sensory deprivation

    • C. 

      Brain damage

    • D. 

      Drugs

    • E. 

      Hypnosis

  • 194. 
    JF had sensory deprivation and developed an adult-onset ... synaesthesia?
    • A. 

      Braille-colour

    • B. 

      Grapheme-colour

    • C. 

      Sequence-space

    • D. 

      Lexical-gustatory

  • 195. 
    • A. 

      Salvia

    • B. 

      LSD

    • C. 

      Psilocybin

    • D. 

      Mescaline

  • 196. 
    Hallucinogenic drug sensory blendings have been likened to?
    • A. 

      Infantile synaesthesia

    • B. 

      Adult synaesthesia

    • C. 

      Cross modal correspondences

    • D. 

      Extreme synaesthesia

  • 197. 
    If hypnosis and/or training can develop a genuine synaesthesia, this will prove that synaesthesia is not restricted to the ... model?
    • A. 

      Cross-activation

    • B. 

      Disinhibited feedback

    • C. 

      Re-entrant model

    • D. 

      Statistical regularities model

  • 198. 
    So far, hypnotic induction of synaesthesia has produced ... of synaesthesia?
    • A. 

      The phenomenology not the behavioural aspect

    • B. 

      The phenomenology and the behavioural aspect

    • C. 

      The behavioural aspect but not the phenomenology

    • D. 

      Neither the behavioural aspect nor the phenomenology

  • 199. 
    Research into synaesthesia has had an undue focus on ... synaesthesia?
    • A. 

      Grapheme/colour

    • B. 

      Sound/colour

    • C. 

      Sequence/space

    • D. 

      Lexical/gustatory

  • 200. 
    If looking and hearing the word 'chair' creates the taste of 'warm custard' for me, I have what form of synaesthesia?
    • A. 

      Lexical/gustatory

    • B. 

      Sound/taste

    • C. 

      Grapheme/gustatory

    • D. 

      Vision/taste

  • 201. 
    Training studies for synaesthesia involve what test apparatus?
    • A. 

      A book with coloured letters

    • B. 

      A headset

    • C. 

      A monitor with coloured fonts

    • D. 

      A sensory substitution device

  • 202. 
    Training studies to induce synaesthesia found what effect/s?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Synaesthetic Stroop interferences

    • C. 

      Subjective reports of a colour experience

    • D. 

      Evidence of an automatic experience

  • 203. 
    • A. 

      All of these are

    • B. 

      Using a cane while walking if blind

    • C. 

      Using braille to read if blind

    • D. 

      Using the vOICe

  • 204. 
    The first sensory substitution device was made by Bach y RIta and was in replacing what sense?
    • A. 

      Sight -> touch

    • B. 

      Sight -> sound

    • C. 

      Touch -> sight

    • D. 

      Sound -> sight

  • 205. 
    Novich and Eagleman (2015) updated Bach y Rita's original sensory substitution device by placing it in a?
    • A. 

      Vest

    • B. 

      Headset

    • C. 

      Chair

    • D. 

      Backpack

  • 206. 
    The sensory substitution device that converts sight information to sound information is called the?
    • A. 

      VOICe

    • B. 

      SIGHt

    • C. 

      EYE

    • D. 

      AudVis

  • 207. 
    The vOICe encodes visual information as sound qualities, which of the following is a correct transformation the system uses?
    • A. 

      Scanning from bottom to top of the image increases the frequency

    • B. 

      Scanning from left to right of the image increases the frequency

    • C. 

      Brighter pixel = quieter

    • D. 

      Scanning from bottom to top of the image transfers sound from left ear to right ear

  • 208. 
    Back-y-Rita et al. (2005) developed a sensory substitution device to help with bilateral vestibular loss by transferring vestibular function to ...
    • A. 

      Tactile

    • B. 

      Visual

    • C. 

      Auditory

    • D. 

      Taste

  • 209. 
    Spence (2011) suggested three type of CMCs, which of the following is NOT one of them?
    • A. 

      Secondary

    • B. 

      Statistical

    • C. 

      Structural

    • D. 

      Semantic

  • 210. 
    • A. 

      Both of these

    • B. 

      Loundess - pitch

    • C. 

      Frequency - elevation

    • D. 

      Neither of these

  • 211. 
    The feelSPACE belt vibrates on the user whenever?
    • A. 

      They are orientated towards magnetic North

    • B. 

      They are facing an object

    • C. 

      They are facing a drop

    • D. 

      Someone is watching them

  • 212. 
    EYEBORG gives its users what additional capacity beyond human vision - a sensory augmentation?
    • A. 

      Seeing IR and UV light

    • B. 

      A better resolution of detail

    • C. 

      A better ability to focus

    • D. 

      Clearer than 20/20 vision

  • 213. 
    • A. 

      The SSD's are varied in the sensory systems they substitute for

    • B. 

      Many studies are small scale

    • C. 

      There is no specific training program for SSD's

    • D. 

      There is much variability in the causes of sensory deprivation that lead P's to take up SSD's

  • 214. 
    The adult brain still retains neuroplasticity, to use this to enable the brain to learn ways to process new types of information is referred to as?
    • A. 

      Sensory augmentation

    • B. 

      Sensory substitution

    • C. 

      Sensory improvement

    • D. 

      Sensory enhancement

  • 215. 
    The four stages of language acquisition occur in what order?
    • A. 

      Listening - Speaking - Reading - Spelling

    • B. 

      Listening - Speaking - Spelling - Reading

    • C. 

      Speaking - Listening - Reading - Spelling

    • D. 

      Speaking - Listening - Spelling - Reading

  • 216. 
    Skinner's account of language acquisition was?
    • A. 

      Empiricist

    • B. 

      Nativist

    • C. 

      Interactivist

    • D. 

      Cognitive

  • 217. 
    Chomsky's account of language acquisition was?
    • A. 

      Nativist

    • B. 

      Empiricist

    • C. 

      Cognitive

    • D. 

      Interactivist

  • 218. 
    Piaget's account of language acquisition is?
    • A. 

      Constructivist

    • B. 

      Empiricst

    • C. 

      Rationalist

    • D. 

      Nativist

  • 219. 
    Constructivist models of language involve?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Cognitive models

    • C. 

      Information processing models

    • D. 

      Social interaction models

  • 220. 
    Universal Grammar is a belief of which philosopher of science?
    • A. 

      Chomsky

    • B. 

      Skinner

    • C. 

      Piaget

    • D. 

      Baron-Cohen

  • 221. 
    Listening is a difficult task for children, this is predominantly because ...
    • A. 

      Speech sounds are complex

    • B. 

      They don't have the attention span

    • C. 

      They have to grasp multiple words at once

    • D. 

      All of these are true

  • 222. 
    Sound travels 4x faster in the amneotic fluid hence fetus is exposed to lower bass notes and the melody of conversation. what measure did Kisilevsky et al. (2003) use to show that Neonate have a preference for their mother's voice?
    • A. 

      Foetal HR

    • B. 

      Movement in the womb

    • C. 

      Foetal respiration rate

    • D. 

      Number of kicks against the womb lining

  • 223. 
    Mampe et al. (2009) showed that after 8 days of birth, what had happened to an infants cry when born in either France or Germany?
    • A. 

      The pitch of their cry had matched the corresponding language

    • B. 

      The frequency of their cry had matched the corresponding language

    • C. 

      The loudness of their cry had matched the corresponding language

    • D. 

      All of these things were found

  • 224. 
    Nazzi et al. (1998) wanted to know if infants could distinguish different languages with different timings and they used a ... paradigm to accomplish this?
    • A. 

      High Amplitude Sucking

    • B. 

      Gaze Duration

    • C. 

      Habituation

    • D. 

      Infant Directed Speech

  • 225. 
    Nazzi et al.'s (1998) paradigm showed that infants were able to distinguish English language from all but one of the following, which one could not be distinguished?
    • A. 

      Dutch

    • B. 

      Japanese

    • C. 

      Italian

    • D. 

      Spanish

  • 226. 
    • A. 

      1 year

    • B. 

      4 years

    • C. 

      2 years

    • D. 

      6 months

  • 227. 
    Talking to babies in a higher pitched, slow, short phrased language with simple syntax and semantic is referred to as?
    • A. 

      Infant-Directed Speech

    • B. 

      Infant Directed Talk

    • C. 

      Infant Focus Language

    • D. 

      Infant Central Communication

  • 228. 
    Infant Directed Speech does NOT follow one of the following properties?
    • A. 

      High tempo

    • B. 

      High pitch

    • C. 

      Hyper-articulated

    • D. 

      Simple syntax

  • 229. 
    Singh et al. (2002) showed that?
    • A. 

      Babies preferred happy and baby talk

    • B. 

      Babies preferred happy talk but were indifferent to baby vs. adult talk

    • C. 

      Babies preferred baby talk and were indifferent to whether it was happy vs. neutral

    • D. 

      Babies actually preferred neutral adult talk

  • 230. 
    A depressed mother may influence her child's language learning since
    • A. 

      She will show less exaggerated prosody

    • B. 

      She will not let the child have as many experience

    • C. 

      She will not talk to her child

    • D. 

      Her child will likely be unaffected in their language learnin

  • 231. 
    Uther et al. (2007) found that similarity between infant directed speech and foreigner directed speech is?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      They are the same pitch

    • C. 

      They have the same amount of positive affect

    • D. 

      They both have exaggerated vowels

  • 232. 
    Thiessen, Hill & Saffran (2005) showed that infant directed speech helps infants do what?
    • A. 

      Word segmentation

    • B. 

      Learn language rhythm

    • C. 

      Build vocabulary

    • D. 

      Making speech sounds

  • 233. 
    • A. 

      7-9 months

    • B. 

      1 years

    • C. 

      18-24 months

    • D. 

      6 months

  • 234. 
    Samoan, Trackton and Kuwaiti mothers are all adamant that they don't use what, but have seen no effects upon their child's language?
    • A. 

      Infant Directed Speech

    • B. 

      Imaginary games

    • C. 

      Adult Directed Speech

    • D. 

      Children's toys

  • 235. 
    • A. 

      Caregiver speech

    • B. 

      Adult directed speech

    • C. 

      Toddler speech

    • D. 

      Child directed learning

  • 236. 
    Caregiver-Infant learning does NOT involve which of the following?
    • A. 

      Shared gaze (12m)

    • B. 

      Joint Attention (9-12m)

    • C. 

      Communicative pointing (12m)

    • D. 

      Intentions (18m)

  • 237. 
    • A. 

      45

    • B. 

      36

    • C. 

      54

    • D. 

      63

  • 238. 
    Studies by Saffran and Maye showed that ... can be used to correct spoken word orders and prosody
    • A. 

      Statistical learning

    • B. 

      Infant Directed Speech

    • C. 

      Repetition

    • D. 

      Syllable pairing

  • 239. 
    Saffran (1996) found that ... olds were able to pair high probability syllables from low probability to SEGMENT a very long word into applicable speech
    • A. 

      8 months

    • B. 

      12 months

    • C. 

      4 months

    • D. 

      24 months

  • 240. 
    In Maye et al. (2002) experiment in which infants were subjected to a unimodal or bimodal frequency distribution of 'da' and 'ta' found what result? In this experiment longer looking times indicated familiarity.
    • A. 

      Only infants in the bimodal distribution had longer looking times

    • B. 

      Only infants in the unimodal had longer looking times

    • C. 

      Only older infants in the unimodal had longer looking times

    • D. 

      Only older infants in the biomdal distribution had longer looking times

  • 241. 
    At what age does an infant begin Canonical babbling?
    • A. 

      6+ months

    • B. 

      0-2 months

    • C. 

      2-4 months

    • D. 

      4-6 months

  • 242. 
    • A. 

      6+ months

    • B. 

      10+ months

    • C. 

      12+ months

    • D. 

      18+ months

  • 243. 
    An infant's verbal ability begins at 0-2 months with
    • A. 

      Reflexive vocalisations

    • B. 

      Cooing + laughing

    • C. 

      Vocal play

    • D. 

      Canonical babbling

  • 244. 
    • A. 

      Cooing + laughing

    • B. 

      Vocal Play

    • C. 

      Canonical babbling

    • D. 

      Protowords

  • 245. 
    In the process of Babbling transitioning to words, what feedback is crucial?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Social

    • C. 

      Sound/tactile

    • D. 

      Hearing/seeing speech

  • 246. 
    • A. 

      2 years

    • B. 

      3 years

    • C. 

      18 months

    • D. 

      12 months

  • 247. 
    At what age will an infant have a vocabulary of 40,000 + words and have understood some subtleties of grammar
    • A. 

      9 years

    • B. 

      11 years

    • C. 

      4 years

    • D. 

      6 years

  • 248. 
    Listening and speaking involves a speech input and a speech output. Which of the following structures is not involved in the process of converting speech input to output?
    • A. 

      Semantic buffer

    • B. 

      Phonological buffer

    • C. 

      Phonological lexicon

    • D. 

      Semantic lexicon

    • E. 

      Acoustic analysis

  • 249. 
    • A. 

      Listening

    • B. 

      Reading

    • C. 

      Writing

    • D. 

      Spelling

  • 250. 
    Reading does NOT rely on one of these things
    • A. 

      Syntactic skill

    • B. 

      Vocabularly

    • C. 

      Reading skill + comprehension

    • D. 

      Phonological skill

  • 251. 
    • A. 

      Reading comprehension directly influences reading skill

    • B. 

      Reading skill feedbacks to phonological skill

    • C. 

      Vocabulary directly influences reading skill

    • D. 

      Phonological skill directly affects vocabulary

  • 252. 
    If one can read automatically, it allows the devotion of cognitive resources to?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Morphology

    • C. 

      Syntax

    • D. 

      Vocabulary breadth

  • 253. 
    Reading = 
    • A. 

      Decoding x Comprehension

    • B. 

      Decoding x Recognition

    • C. 

      Vocabulary x Phonology

    • D. 

      Comprehension x Vocabulary

  • 254. 
    • A. 

      Decode the sounds and analogise to known words

    • B. 

      Predict word from grapheme-phoneme context

    • C. 

      Recognise letters from memory

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 255. 
    By asking a child whether a word has a particular sound or what the first sound of a word is, we are testing?
    • A. 

      Phonological awareness

    • B. 

      Semantic awareness

    • C. 

      Phonemic memory

    • D. 

      Reading ability

  • 256. 
    Conrad's (2008) saw that the effect of practice on spelling and reading was what?
    • A. 

      Practicing spelling significantly enhanced reading but the effect was not reciprocal

    • B. 

      Practicing reading significantly enhanced spelling but the effect was not reciprocal

    • C. 

      Practicing reading or spelling both significantly enhanced the other one

    • D. 

      Practicing reading or spelling did not transfer to the other ability

  • 257. 
    • A. 

      Dual Route Cascaded

    • B. 

      Frith Stages

    • C. 

      Ehri Phases

    • D. 

      Gentry Spelling

    • E. 

      Ziegler semantics

  • 258. 
    Within the Dual Route Cascaded Model, a new word or a non word such as 'tegwop' will go through which component/s?
    • A. 

      Grapheme - phoneme rule system

    • B. 

      Orthorgraphic input lexicon

    • C. 

      Phonological output lexicon

    • D. 

      Both the Orthographic input and Phonological output lexicons

  • 259. 
    Within the Dual Route Cascaded Model, a converntional word will go through which component/s?
    • A. 

      Grapheme - phoneme rule system

    • B. 

      Orthorgraphic input lexicon

    • C. 

      Phonological output lexicon

    • D. 

      Both the Orthographic input and Phonological output lexicons

  • 260. 
    Within the Dual Route Cascaded Model, a word that is difficult to sound out such as 'rich' will go through what component/s?
    • A. 

      Grapheme - phoneme rule system

    • B. 

      Orthorgraphic input lexicon

    • C. 

      Phonological output lexicon

    • D. 

      Both the Orthographic input and Phonological output lexicons

  • 261. 
    Frith (1985) stage model believes the stages proceed in which order?
    • A. 

      Logographic - alphabetic - orthographic

    • B. 

      Logographic - orthographic - alphabetic

    • C. 

      Alphabetic - orthographic - logographic

    • D. 

      Alphabetic - logographic - orthographic

  • 262. 
    Frith's (1985) stage model suggest that reading and spelling overlap in propelling eachother through development. At what stage does spelling overtake reading and then assist reading?
    • A. 

      Alphabetic

    • B. 

      Logographic

    • C. 

      Orthographic

    • D. 

      Symbolic

  • 263. 
    In Frith's six step model, which is correct about the origin and subsequent transfer of the stages of spelling/reading acquistion?
    • A. 

      Logographic + Orthographic = reading, Alphabetic = spelling

    • B. 

      Logographic, Orthographic + Alphabetic = reading

    • C. 

      Orthographic = reading, Logographic + Alphabetic = spelling

    • D. 

      Alphabetic + Orthographic = reading, Logographic = spelling

  • 264. 
    Ehri's (1995) Phase model expanded upon which dimension of Frith's stage model?
    • A. 

      Alphabetic

    • B. 

      Orthographic

    • C. 

      Logographic

    • D. 

      Symbolic

  • 265. 
    In Ehri (1995) phase model, dyslexia is believed to occur when an individual remain at ... without progressing?
    • A. 

      Primary alphabetic

    • B. 

      Primary orthographic

    • C. 

      Early Primary alphabetic

    • D. 

      Early Primary orthographic

  • 266. 
    In Gentry's (1982) Spelling model, a child in the phonetic stage will likely spell the word 'eagle' as?
    • A. 

      EGL

    • B. 

      EEGEL

    • C. 

      EAG

    • D. 

      EGLE

  • 267. 
    In Gentry's (1982) Spelling model, a child in the tranitional stage will likely spell the word 'eagle' as?
    • A. 

      EGL

    • B. 

      EEGEL

    • C. 

      EAG

    • D. 

      EGLE

  • 268. 
    The correct order of stages in Gentry's Spelling model begins with the precommunitive stage and ends in the correct stage, but in what order do the remaining stages occur?
    • A. 

      Semiphonetic - phonetic - transitional

    • B. 

      Semiphonetic - transitional - phonetic

    • C. 

      Transitional - semiphonetic - phonetic

    • D. 

      Phonetic - transitional - semiphonetic

  • 269. 
    Listening, speaking, reading and spelling do NOT involve one of the following lexicons?
    • A. 

      Syntactic

    • B. 

      Semantic

    • C. 

      Orthographic

    • D. 

      Phonological

  • 270. 
    Vellutino and Scanlon (1987) found that what component was the best predictor of future language performance?
    • A. 

      Phonemic segmentation

    • B. 

      Vocabulary

    • C. 

      Semantic ability

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 271. 
    Training in phonemic segmentation improved ...
    • A. 

      Word identification and code acquisition in good and poor readers

    • B. 

      Word identification is poor readers only

    • C. 

      Code acquisition in good readers only

    • D. 

      Word identification and code acquisition in good readers only

  • 272. 
    • A. 

      English

    • B. 

      Italian

    • C. 

      German

    • D. 

      Finnish

  • 273. 
    • A. 

      English

    • B. 

      Italian

    • C. 

      German

    • D. 

      Finnish

  • 274. 
    Chinese is a logographic language in which each unit symbolises a
    • A. 

      Word

    • B. 

      Syllable

    • C. 

      Phoneme

    • D. 

      Component of a segment

  • 275. 
    English and Finnish are alphabetic language so that each unit symbolises a
    • A. 

      Phoneme

    • B. 

      Syllable

    • C. 

      Word

    • D. 

      Segment

  • 276. 
    Phonological recording (word - sound) is quickest to learn in
    • A. 

      Finnish

    • B. 

      English

    • C. 

      Danish

    • D. 

      French

  • 277. 
    Dyslexia occurs at the same rate across languages, what is that rate?
    • A. 

      7%

    • B. 

      1%

    • C. 

      2-3%

    • D. 

      5%

  • 278. 
    Ziegler et al. (2010) showed that phonological awareness could predict ... across 5 languages.
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      Reading speed

    • C. 

      Reading accuract

    • D. 

      Decoding speed

    • E. 

      Decoding accuracy

  • 279. 
    Vocabulary is more important for ... in terms of language acquisition
    • A. 

      Transparent languages

    • B. 

      Opaque languages

    • C. 

      Both

    • D. 

      Neither

  • 280. 
    The biggest critique of Dual Route Cascaded model is
    • A. 

      It fails to explain how the two routes emerge and are mastered

    • B. 

      It has no cognitive underlying

    • C. 

      It fails to account for how all words would be interpreted

    • D. 

      All of these

  • 281. 
    The criticism of Ehri Phases model is?
    • A. 

      All of these

    • B. 

      No underlying cognitive structure

    • C. 

      No mature readings stages

    • D. 

      Fails to specify what pre-alphabetic means

  • 282. 
    • A. 

      Dual route Cascaded

    • B. 

      Frith's

    • C. 

      Ehri's

    • D. 

      Gentry's

  • 283. 
    Teoh et al. (2017) demonstrated that people who watched videos of 'targets' could ...
    • A. 

      Infer whether a third party was present or absent

    • B. 

      Appreciate that social presence leads to intensification of expressions

    • C. 

      Determine whether the stimulus was positive or negative

    • D. 

      Achieve a larger proportion of hits

  • 284. 
    According to Ehri, children start to learn the relationships between letters and sounds in the  :
    • A. 

      Partial-Alphabetic stage

    • B. 

      Pre-Alphabetic stage

    • C. 

      Alphabetic stage

    • D. 

      Consolidate Alphabetic stage

  • 285. 
    • A. 

      Operant conditioning

    • B. 

      Classical conditioning

    • C. 

      Negative reinforcement

    • D. 

      Observational learning

  • 286. 
    A developmental synaesthete describes someone who became a synaesthete ...
    • A. 

      In childhood

    • B. 

      In adulthood

    • C. 

      After completing a training study

    • D. 

      After receiving hypnosis

  • 287. 
    The name of the hypothesis that divides linguistic influence over colour into strong and weak/ is called?
    • A. 

      Sapir-Whorf

    • B. 

      Linguistic relativism

    • C. 

      Linguistic determinism

    • D. 

      Universal semantic colour