Defensive Driving 2017

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Driving Quizzes & Trivia

Introduction The information provided in the following training contains essential elements on Defensive Driving. Should you have questions or need additional clarification on any material presented in this training, please consult with your supervisor. Learning Objectives Upon completion of this course the Learner will be able to: Explain the principles of Dungarvin's Defensive Driving Training. Demonstrate ability to operate a motor vehicle in accordance with the training Identify and report concerns in compliance with Dungarvin Police Max Duration: 30 Minutes Passing Score: 80%


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
     
    • Vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death of persons under the age of 34. 
    • A person born in 2001 has a 1 in 23 lifetime chance of dying of unintentional injuries, and a large portion of this risk comes from the probability of dying in a car crash.
    • Note that persons born in other years have somewhat different odds since the stats are based on each year’s actual fatality statistics.  Stats taken from National Safety Council.
    Often, we take the word “accident” to mean that we have no control over what happens, but that is not entirely true.  Accidents are unintended events, but unintended does not equal unpreventable.      Among other things, defensive driving:  
    • means that you don’t rely on the other guy to watch out for you. 
    • means that you ensure that your vehicle and other equipment is in satisfactory operating condition. 
    • means that you don’t assume the other driver is competent and alert, no matter the age group or the gender, or what kind of car s/he’s driving, or whether there’s a “Baby on Board” or “Student Driver” sign on the vehicle. 
    • and it means that you sometimes have to make the decision not to drive at all!
    There are several things we can't control while driving.  In fact, there are only two that you can: You and Your Car! The others are listed below:
    • Light/visibility
    • Weather conditions
    • Road conditions (type/condition)
    • Traffic (passengers, other drivers, cyclists)
    Most accidents are caused by driver error—about 85% in the state of Wisconsin according to the Wisconsin Department of Transportation.    
  • 2. 
    What are the two things you can control in regards to driving?
    • A. 

      You and Your Braking Procedure

    • B. 

      Low Visability and Construction Sites on the road

    • C. 

      You and Your Car

    • D. 

      Your Car and Your passenger

  • 3. 
    People often think that driver fatigue means falling asleep at the wheel. Falling asleep, however, is an extreme form of fatigue. Fatigue is tiredness, weariness or exhaustion. You can be fatigued enough for it to impair your driving long before you 'nod off' at the wheel. For example, when you are fatigued: ·        your reactions are much slower ·        your ability to concentrate is reduced ·        it takes longer to interpret and understand the traffic situation. Why fatigue is a problem The most common effects of fatigue on driving are: ·        difficulty keeping your car within a lane ·        drifting off the road ·        more frequent and unnecessary changes in speed ·        not reacting in time to avoid a dangerous situation. These effects lead to a high number of single-vehicle crashes involving a car striking a tree or other rigid object, and severe head-on collisions. Any amount of alcohol can combine with fatigue to affect your driving.  Note: (In Wisconsin 85% of driver accidents are alcohol-related) Speed Speed and fatigue are also a bad combination. The faster you drive, the less time you have to react to the unexpected. When you're tired, fatigue slows your reactions.  As with alcohol, it's possible that speed makes up a larger proportion of fatigue-related crashes than we can identify. Speed often goes unreported in crashes because drivers don't often admit they were speeding, especially if they've admitted they were tired. Causes of fatigue Sleep loss Loss of sleep is one of the main, and most commonly known, causes of fatigue. Everyone has a basic sleep need. This can vary from person to person, but the average is seven to eight hours a day. If you don't get a full night's sleep, you're likely to be fatigued the following day. As little as two hours of  sleep loss on one occasion can affect reaction time, mental functioning, memory, mood and alertness. Several nights of restricted sleep leads to a sleep debt. If you allow a sleep debt to get too large, the brain will eventually go to sleep involuntarily (micro-sleep), even if this puts you at risk. Micro-sleeps generally only last a brief period, but can be very dangerous if they happen while you're driving. For example, if a driver has a micro-sleep for just one second while traveling at a sensible speed, the car will have far without a driver in control. Circadian rhythms We have an in-built body clock in the brain, coordinating daily cycles known as circadian rhythms. The clock programmes us to feel very sleepy between 3 am and 5 am, and to experience a secondary peak in sleepiness between 3 pm and 5 pm. At these times, you'll experience your worst physical and mental performance of the day. There's an increase in fatigue-related crashes at these times. Time spent on a driving 'task' Studies that have looked at driving 'tasks' show that the length of time spent on a task affects the quality of performance. As more time is spent on a task the level of fatigue increases, the time to react is slowed, attention and judgment are reduced, and the chances of falling asleep during the task are increased. Everyone can be affected by fatigue One needs to get plenty of sleep before a long journey. Plan to drive during times of the day when you're normally awake, and stay overnight rather than travelling straight through. Avoid driving during times when we're programmed to be sleepy. Take a mid-afternoon break and find a place to sleep between midnight and 6 am. Take breaks and have a nap Schedule a break at least once every two hours, and whenever you begin to feel sleepy. During a break get out of your vehicle and have a walk, or some form of exercise, to increase alertness. If you're feeling sleepy, have a nap. If you realise you need a nap, don't wait. Find the first safe place and pull over. Try to avoid napping in the driver's seat, and try not to nap for longer than 40 minutes. Naps up to 40 minutes can be very refreshing, but naps longer than 40 minutes can leave you feeling groggy and disoriented for up to 10 to 15 minutes after you wake up. (This is called sleep inertia.) Food and drink Eat sensibly throughout the journey, but avoid large meals. They can make you drowsy, particularly at lunchtime. Stay hydrated. Caffeine drinks (tea, coffee and cola drinks) help you stay alert, but they take time to be effective. Research has shown that drinking a caffeinated drink, followed by a 20 minute nap, improves alertness in the short term. Get fresh air into the vehicle You'll find it easier to stay alert if you have fresh air blowing into your vehicle. On long journeys it's best if you don't use the recirculating air function. Share the driving If possible, share the driving. Environmental stimulation Conversation and music can help you stay alert, but they're only short-term solutions. The best solution is finding somewhere to stop and sleep. Avoid medications that make you drowsy Avoid taking medications, both prescribed and over-the-counter, that lead to drowsiness. Examples of medications to avoid are some antihistamines, travel sickness tablets, sleeping pills, some cold preparations and some pain killers. Always read the packaging of your medications before you drive, to make sure they won't affect your alertness. If you're unsure, ask your pharmacist.  
  • 4. 
    How many driving accidents are affected by alcohol in the state of Wisconsin?
    • A. 

      3%

    • B. 

      85%

    • C. 

      92%

    • D. 

      50%

  • 5. 
    Getting enough sleep is the number one way to avoid having alertness errors while driving.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 6. 
    • is polite
    • doesn’t drive tired
    • doesn’t drive after taking alcohol/medications/other drugs
    • assumes other drivers’ mistakes are not personal
    • uses the horn sparingly, as a “watch out”—not a “move it”—message
    • doesn’t use obscene language or gestures
    • avoids using high-beam headlights when it will affect another driver
    • takes care not to hit neighboring parked cars with his/her car door
    • doesn’t inflict loud music on neighboring cars
    • pulls over to talk on the phone or deal with other distractions
    • avoids blocking right-hand turn lanes
    • doesn’t tailgate
    • signals before switching lanes & turning
    • takes up only one parking space
    • pulls over and allows traffic to pass, when traveling slowly
    • doesn’t stop in the roadway to talk to pedestrians or other drivers
    • avoids challenges and conflicts on the road
  • 7. 
    • Keeps both hands on the wheel
    • Secures passengers & equipment
    • Scans
    • Signals
    • Avoids unnecessary moves
    • Reduces speed
    • Covers the brake
    • Maintains a cushion of space
  • 8. 
    A curtious driver does not tailgate.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 9. 
    A proactive driver covers the brake.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 10. 
    You are driver A and you are sure driver C sees you, is it okay for you to pass B?
    • A. 

      Yes

    • B. 

      No

  • 11. 
    If we translate “Universal Precautions” (OSHA Term) to driving, then, we assume that every other driver on the road has a serious sleep disorder and/or a couple of drinks under his/her belt.  We do that simply because we actually do not know who is going to make a mistake, or when.  
  • 12. 
    Whenever you are on the road, create a “cushion of space.”  This cushion is the area around the vehicle that we want to keep free of vehicles and pedestrians. 
    • keep an appropriate following distance from the vehicle in front of you; in other words, no tailgating
     
    • get rid of drivers who tailgate you, in the safest way possible
     
    • avoid having anyone hang out on either side of your car
     Following too closely is one of the most common of driver errors.  So there you have it: the “Big 3” driver errors are:  too fast, too close, and not paying attention. Maintain your front “cushion” when you follow someone and when you stop behind someone.  When you stop behind someone, make sure you can see not only the rear tires of their vehicle but also plenty of pavement under them.  This will help protect you in two ways:
    • If hit from behind, you are less likely to have a second collision, with the person in front of you
     
    • If the car in front of you stalls, you will have enough room to pull around it without having to back up.  The bigger your vehicle—meaning the bigger the blind spots—the more important it is not to back up in traffic
     As for following other cars, we can calculate an appropriate following distance to the vehicle in front of us starting with the “4-second rule.”  The “4-second rule” is, that when the rear of the car in front of you passes a fixed object, such as a tree or street sign, you count, “one thousand one, one thousand two...” and so on, just as with the sight distance rule.  If you pass the fixed object before getting to “four,” you are too close and should back off.  The rule works for any speed.If adverse conditions exist, you must increase following distance accordingly.  Is visibility bad?  Add a second.  Is the road wet?  Add another second.  Have a tailgater?  Add 2 seconds of following distance in that case.  Why do you think that is?So that’s the first thing you do when someone is tailgating you: increase your distance from the car in front.  Then what?. Gradually—and not applying brakes if you can help it—you slow down until the speed is safe for how close the tailgater is, or until s/he passes you, or until you can safely pull over to let him/her pass. The last cushion area is to the sides of our vehicle.  As much as possible, we want to avoid having other vehicles there because there would be no leeway if that other driver starts drifting into us.  We want to stay out of other drivers’ blind spots and keep them out of our blind spots.  Where are the blind spots in the vehicle you drive? 
  • 13. 
    How many seconds should be inbetween you and the car in front of you generally?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

  • 14. 
    Loading & Transporting Cargo 
    • Load heaviest items on the bottom
    • Distribute cargo evenly: side-to-side
    & front-to-back
    • Try not to block any windows
    • Cargo must go behind the last seat that is carrying any passengers
    • Recheck load & distribution from time to time
    • Avoid backing up, fast turns, & double parking
    • Consider how a change in cargo load will change acceleration & braking characteristics
    •  Increase following distance
      
  • 15. 
    In this part of the training, we’ll explore further the differences between driving a van and driving a passenger car. If you are going to be driving a van in your work at Dungarvin, please expect that you will get practice on-site with the actual van you will use.  The same goes for any special equipment involved, such as a wheelchair lift.A van’s extra size, weight and center of gravity make it different from driving your average passenger car.  These differences can make driving more hazardous if you are not prepared for them.  Here we will figure out in advance how to compensate for these differences:
    • Blind Spots
     We talked about size and blind spots earlier.  What are the differences in blind spots between, say, a Honda Civic and a Ford Econoline van?What can you do about these bigger blind spots when you are driving the van?:
    • Make sure mirrors are adjusted optimally for your
        size & seat adjustments
    • Don’t be afraid to lean a little to get the best sight
        angle when you are looking around
    • Weight
    A van’s added weight makes both accelerating and stopping take longer.  Look at the dramatic differences in braking distance as you add speed.  What kinds of compensating should you do when you are driving a larger, heavier vehicle?
    • Allow more distance between you & the next
        vehicle(s) when pulling into traffic
    • Create more following distance
    Also take a look at car vs. car, and truck vs. truck.  Notice that when we have almost doubled the speed of each vehicle, we do not double the stopping distance; we more than double it, and in the case of the truck, we triple it! Keep in mind, too, that there can be significant differences in weight when the van is empty vs. one full of passengers, has or doesn’t have cargo, and so forth. A fuller van requires more stopping distance. It is also more prone to rollover collisions. How can you help compensate for these things?
    • Speed reduction in general, to reduce the
        chance of having to suddenly swerve
    • Further speed reduction specific to taking
       turns and curves  
    • Size
     Wider plus longer plus higher gives you more concern about clearance—in all directions. It also makes you more vulnerable in high winds.  What can you do if you get caught in a high-wind situation? Be meticulous about maintaining your side    cushion of space, in case you drift a little
    • Keep both hands on the wheel
    • Anticipate having the wind move the van
        when you come out of a tunnel, pass a    densely-wooded area, etc.Did you notice? Some of this is also good advice if you are in a car sharing the road with a van or other larger vehicle.
    • Center of Gravity
     We talked about a van’s vulnerability to tipping and rollovers because of its weight. A van’s higher center of gravity is another factor.  Rollovers have a very high fatality rate. How can you help make sure that never happens?
    • Reduce speed below the posted limit in
        entry/exit situations
    • Reduce speed on curves & other tight turns
    • Both hands on the wheel for best control
    • Backing up
     That goes double in a van—even if you accidentally stop in a crosswalk, you should avoid backing up in traffic. Not only do you have to worry about the blind spots, you have to worry about allowing for the overhang, too. If you are in a driveway or loading area or other low-speed, no-moving-traffic situation, you can use a spotter who is outside the van and directing you.  Just remember to agree ahead of time on what the hand signal for “stop” is going to be! 
    • Safety
     Tell me what you do to ensure your safety and the safety of your passengers.
    • Defensive/proactive driving
    • Properly maintaining the vehicle
    • Driver knows & can deliver the behavioral &
    •  Seats adjusted upright, not reclining
    • Everyone buckled up before starting
    • Seatbelts adjusted properly
    • Driver loads/unloads on the side opposite traffic
    • Driver turns off engine & takes out key if getting
        out to help passengers
    • Van is parked so that people can easily either
        reach the curb from the van, or step into the   street between van & curb with ease
    • Driver never waves exiting passengers (or other
        pedestrians, for that matter) across the road in    front of the van (driver may not see other drivers,    & has no control over them, anyway)Check to see that the seatbelt and shoulder harness are laying flat, not twisted. The lap belt should be fitted across the hips, under the abdomen.  The shoulder belt should lay across the shoulder and not cut into the neck.
    • Comfort
     Sometimes, an individual will resist riding in cars or vans, yet not be able to tell you why.  Or, maybe someone becomes irritable during a drive.  When these things happen, consider the comfort level. Better yet, consider comfort before they happen. Start with the person’s medical considerations: 
    • Do the person’s medications make him/her light sensitive? Maybe you can help him/her remember to wear sunglasses, or shade the window. 
     
    • Sometimes medications, or conditions such as diabetes or poor circulation, can make a person sensitive to temperature extremes, in which case you could adjust the interior climate before everyone boards.
    • A person who has trouble getting in and out of a van may feel more secure using a stepstool, and/or you could offer a hand up.
     
    • You can suggest to an individual who tires easily to take a pillow along to support his/her head.
     
    • Some people need reassurance that you will be taking plenty of breaks and rest stops, especially on extended trips.
     
    • If boredom seems to be a problem, discuss things people can take with them that would provide entertainment.
     
    • Lastly, think about the personalities that will be traveling in close quarters.  Although adults should not have seats assigned to them, you should certainly help plan seating options so that people who really don’t like each other don’t have to sit next to each other.
     Have you dealt with comfort issues like these? Or ones that are different from these examples? 
    • Sensitivity
     When we talk sensitivity, we are dealing with our consumers’ status as adults. Definitely, the “no assigned seats” rule fits this category, too. This also means you don’t do for your passengers, but instead support them in doing as much for themselves as possible. Will that take more time?  Yes.  Plan for it, and remember that your patience is a sign of respect. Ask for permission to assist, and when you get it, tell the person what you are doing and why. BreakdownsTell me, what are some of the warning signs that your vehicle is breaking down?:
    • Steam/smoke coming from under the hood
    • Thumping or knocking noises
    • Engine sputters or cuts out
    • Car suddenly pulls to one side/is hard to control
    When something like this happens, the short answer is: pull over, phone your supervisor and/or the nearest Dungarvin home, and call the nearest service station for a tow truck.To go into a little more detail, here’s a breakdown of the general procedures:
    • Note your location
     As soon as you encounter a problem while driving, make sure you know where you are.  Pay attention to what the nearest  cross street is.  What are the landmarks?  A restaurant, a service station, a mall?On an interstate highway, note the mile marker, the last exit number, or rest stop.
    • Pull off the road
     You know this already, so what I want to talk about is how you should be pulling off the road.  Tell me how you should do it. 
    • Signal for the pull-off
    • Slow down gradually (no brakes until
        absolutely necessary, for better control    in case of flat tire; & for ability to use     momentum in case of engine failure)
    • If you have a choice, go where other
        drivers can see you (not  just over a hill    or just beyond a curve, if you can help it)
    • Pull off to the far right shoulder (except
        on some interstates) as far as you can    while still remaining on level ground
    • Determine whether or not to turn off the
        vehicle, depending on factors such as    the type of problem, weather, etc.    Certainly turn off the engine in case of    fuel leaks or smelling gas fumes. NO    SMOKING, no flames or sparks.
    • Usually, you want to stay inside the
        vehicleAlert other motorists The point is to make yourself as visible as possible to other motorists. Always turn on the emergency flashers.  You can also open the hood, and/or tie a brightly-colored scarf or other piece of fabric to the antenna, door handle, or stuck halfway out the top of a closed window.  Use reflective warning triangles if you have them, but if you have flares only light them if you are sure you don’t have any fluid leaks.  Let’s look at how you should place them.  There are two ways, depending on whether you are on a two-way road or a one-way road.If you’re not good at estimating distances, pace out the distance the best you can.  Carry the triangle between you and oncoming traffic.If you only have two reflective triangles or flares, you should still use them on the assumption that something is better than nothing, especially when driving visibility is compromised.  Usually, you would eliminate Number 3 in that case.  An alternative in a low-speed traffic area would be to put triangles front and back lined up with the corners closest to traffic, and about 30 feet from the car.
    • Communicate your situation
     The odds are pretty good nowadays that you travel with a cell phone and can phone for help immediately from the comfort of your vehicle. Most experts agree: if you are able to pull away from traffic, staying in your vehicle until help arrives, is safest.  Thousands of stranded motorists get hit by vehicles each year because they are spotted too late. If it’s not engine trouble and you need to run the engine—say, to keep warm—that’s OK but don’t run it continuously for long periods because that puts you at greater risk for carbon monoxide poisoning.  In snow, always make sure the exhaust pipe is clear. But let’s play the “what if” game again.  What if you have no cell phone or its batteries are dead?  Should you go looking for a public phone, or wait for help?Discuss. Answer: It depends. Risks of waiting vs.risks of traveling on foot must be assessed in eachindividual situation. Some variables are:
    • Whether you are alone, or have passengers
    • Whether or not there’s a second staff member
        on board
    • The medical status of any passengers (someone
        is not fully ambulatory; someone has critical need     of his/her medication, etc.)
    • Whether you can ensure everyone’s safety
        while traveling on foot
    • Whether you can actually see a phone nearby,
        know of one within walking distance, or will have    to search for one
    • Have info at hand for road service
     You will want to have at least five pieces of information on hand when you phone for help.  Write them down before you call, if you need to. We already talked about one of them: your exact location.  What are the other four?
    • Phone number where you can be reached,
        including area code
    • Color, make, model, & year of your vehicle
    • License plate number
    • Description of the problem
    Find out if the vehicle you drive has equipment that requires special preparation for towing.  For example, automatic air ride or drive train devices require disengagement before towing, or the vehicle could be damaged.  If you’re not sure, consult your supervisor or the owner’s manual for towing instructions before you call for a tow.
    • Stay in your vehicle if possible
     We already talked about risk assessment and your options when you have no working cell phone on hand. Let’s continue our “what if” game here.  What if you could not quite get off the roadway when your car totally dies on you, and you think you may be struck from behind?  
    • Start flashers
    • Get yourself & any passengers out of the car,
        exiting the door(s) on the side of the car    farthest from the traffic
    • Walk a safe distance from the road
     Exception: if you have a passenger whom youhave good reason to believe would be in moredanger outside than inside. What if a stranger offers to help, or to take you to a phone?  Should you do it?What if a road-rageous driver threatens or harasses you?    Accident Procedure
    • Stop
     If you are involved in any type of accident, you must stop.   If the accident involved a parked car with nobody inside, you must try to locate the owner. If you cannot locate the owner, leave a note on the windshield of their vehicle that contains your name, work address and phone number, license plate number of the vehicle you were driving at the time, and a brief description of what happened. Also you should jot down and take with you: the license plate number, vehicle make and model, and a description of the location and type of damage to the other vehicle. If anyone is injured in the accident, the police must be called and you must not leave until law enforcement has released you.  There can be heavy penalties for leaving the scene of an accident.
    • Make the scene safe
     There are real dangers at an accident scene. You might end up in a spot that could be hit by other vehicles.  There might be a fuel spill.  Maybe the accident downed power lines.  What are some things you might do to make the scene safer? 
    • Get the vehicle off the road if you can
    • Put vehicle(s) in parking gear
    • Turn off ignition
    • Don’t smoke or ignite anything
    • Avoid downed power lines
    • Don’t let anyone stand in/near traffic lanes
    • Put out cones or triangles, etc. to alert others
    • Phone for help
     After you’ve made the scene as safe as you can, check for injuries.  That way, when you phone 9-1-1—or send someone else to do it—you know whether to request an ambulance as well as police. Whoever phones 9-1-1 should report any complications at the scene—such as downed power lines, spilled fuel, person trapped in a vehicle, and so on; s/he should also have information on the number and conditions of the victims. A little first aid review, here.  What kinds of medical signs and symptoms require emergency medical treatment?
    • Unconsciousness
    • Not breathing or trouble breathing
    • No pulse
    • Signs of shock
    • Large wounds, uncontrolled bleeding
    • Signs of internal bleeding
    • Signs of head/neck/back injury
    • Signs of serious musculoskeletal injury
    When would you move an injured person?  Would you ever?
    • Provide first aid
     If you have more than one person with apparent injuries, you must prioritize care.  How do you do this?Anyone that you suspect may have a serious injury, you automatically treat for shock.  Let’s review treatment for shock. What do you do?
    • Make sure 9-1-1 has been called
    • Monitor consciousness, breathing, pulse
    • Control any external bleeding
    • Keep the victim from being chilled or overheated
    • Elevate the legs about 12 inches as long as you
        don’t suspect head, neck, back, hip, or leg     injuries (if you’re not sure, don’t elevate)
    • Comfort & reassure the person until EMS takes
        over
    • Do not give food or drink to the victim, even if
        s/he asks for it The reasons  for not giving food or drink are: 1) if the person vomits, s/he will be in worse shape     than before, from fluid loss; 2) you don’t want anything in the stomach if the     person has to go into surgery; 3) if the person suddenly goes unconscious, s/he    may choke.
    • File police report
     Make sure you get the names and addresses of everyone involved in the accident, including witnesses.  Exchange license numbers and insurance information.  You can find Dungarvin vehicle insurance info...where?Answer: Vehicle Notebook.
    • Phone supervisor
     Don’t talk to anyone but the police and your supervisor about the accident, and do not admit liability to anyone.
    • Finish transport & towing arrangements
     
    • Complete reports
     At a minimum, you will turn in an Incident Report and the Vehicle Accident Report.  If you are injured in an accident while on duty, also refer to the P & P on Worker’s Compensation
  • 16. 
    The difference in size between a car and a van affects—  
    • A. 

      Acceleration

    • B. 

      Stopping Distance

    • C. 

      Size of Blind Spots

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 17. 
    True or false:  Making eye contact with another driver is a sign that s/he has seen you and will drive safely, knowing you are there. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    If it looks like you are going to collide with another vehicle, you should try to avoid it by— 
    • A. 

      Speeding Up

    • B. 

      Doing whatever maneuver makes sense in that particular situation

    • C. 

      Slow down

    • D. 

      Turning to the right