The Criminal Justice System

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The Criminal Justice System - Quiz

A test for AQA A2 level sociologists


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Crime prevention was developed from the writings of a group of criminologists, this became known as:

    • A.

      The crme prevention possee

    • B.

      Community scoiologists

    • C.

      Criminal justice theorists

    • D.

      Situational crime prevention

    Correct Answer
    D. Situational crime prevention
    Explanation
    Situational crime prevention is the correct answer because it refers to a concept that was developed from the writings of a group of criminologists. This approach focuses on changing the physical and social environment in order to reduce opportunities for crime to occur. It emphasizes the importance of situational factors in influencing criminal behavior and aims to design out crime by altering the conditions that facilitate it. This approach has been widely adopted in crime prevention strategies and has proven to be effective in reducing crime rates in various contexts.

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  • 2. 

    Which sociologist based their idea on the notion that: 'People will commit offences when the cost of offending are less that the benefits of offending'

    • A.

      Durkeim

    • B.

      Marx

    • C.

      Clarke

    • D.

      Tombs and Whyte

    Correct Answer
    C. Clarke
    Explanation
    Clarke is the correct answer because his theory of situational crime prevention is based on the idea that individuals are more likely to commit offenses when the perceived benefits of offending outweigh the perceived costs. This theory focuses on manipulating the immediate environment to increase the effort, risk, and reward associated with criminal behavior, thus reducing the likelihood of offending. Durkheim, Marx, and Tombs and Whyte have different sociological perspectives and theories that do not specifically address the cost-benefit analysis of offending.

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  • 3. 

    Architectural design that makes it more difficult to commit crime.  This is the key term for:

    • A.

      Defensible space

    • B.

      Areas of defence

    • C.

      Architectural defence

    • D.

      Space design continuum

    Correct Answer
    A. Defensible space
    Explanation
    Defensible space refers to an architectural design that is specifically created to deter and prevent criminal activities. This design incorporates various elements such as landscaping, lighting, and physical barriers to make it more difficult for criminals to commit crimes. By implementing defensible space principles, the aim is to create a safer environment and reduce the opportunities for criminal behavior.

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  • 4. 

    In what year did Newman define the above key term?

    • A.

      1971

    • B.

      1981

    • C.

      1972

    • D.

      1982

    Correct Answer
    C. 1972
    Explanation
    In 1972, Newman defined the above key term.

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  • 5. 

    Different initiatives and policies to prevent householders from being stolen from are known as:

    • A.

      Target hardening

    • B.

      Prevention marketing

    • C.

      Crime marking prevention

    • D.

      Crime prevention initiatives

    Correct Answer
    A. Target hardening
    Explanation
    Target hardening refers to the various measures and strategies implemented to make a household or property less vulnerable to theft or burglary. This can include installing security systems, reinforcing doors and windows, improving lighting, and implementing neighborhood watch programs. The term "target hardening" implies making the target (in this case, the householder or property) more difficult to breach or steal from, thereby deterring potential criminals and reducing the likelihood of theft or burglary.

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  • 6. 

    Garland (2001) criticises the above approach arguing that it ignores that causes of crime and believed that it could lead to a key term which may cause crime to shift in response to new measures / policies / initiatives.  This is known as:

    • A.

      Dynamic crime

    • B.

      Crime removal

    • C.

      Crime displacement

    • D.

      Crime systematicals

    Correct Answer
    C. Crime displacement
    Explanation
    Garland (2001) criticizes the approach mentioned in the question because it fails to consider the causes of crime. He argues that this approach can lead to a situation where crime shifts or moves to different areas or forms in response to new measures, policies, or initiatives. This phenomenon is known as crime displacement. In other words, when efforts are made to reduce crime in one area, it may simply relocate to another area rather than being eliminated completely.

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  • 7. 

    Community safety (or crime reducation) argues that alongside crime prevention measures two other actions must happen thesre are community and:

    • A.

      Group interaction

    • B.

      Intervention

    • C.

      Community liaison

    • D.

      Citizenship meetings

    Correct Answer
    B. Intervention
    Explanation
    Intervention is necessary in community safety or crime reduction because it involves taking proactive measures to address and prevent criminal activities. This can include various strategies such as early intervention programs, targeted enforcement, and rehabilitation initiatives. By intervening in potential criminal behavior, communities can effectively reduce crime rates and create a safer environment for its residents.

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  • 8. 

    This approach was used by farrington and West:

    • A.

      Positivistic

    • B.

      Relatavistic

    • C.

      Pre-modernistic

    • D.

      Post -modernistic

    Correct Answer
    A. Positivistic
    Explanation
    Farrington and West used a positivistic approach. This approach is based on the belief that knowledge can be obtained through objective observation and measurement. It emphasizes the use of scientific methods to study and understand social phenomena. Positivism seeks to establish causal relationships and general laws that can be applied universally. Farrington and West likely adopted this approach in their research to gather empirical evidence and analyze it in a systematic and objective manner.

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  • 9. 

    Identified that social policy interventions to improve material deprivation are also anti-crime measures.

    • A.

      Beign and Hall (2006)

    • B.

      Merton et al (2003)

    • C.

      Berstein et al (2001)

    • D.

      Rodgers (2008)

    Correct Answer
    D. Rodgers (2008)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Rodgers (2008). This source likely discusses how social policy interventions aimed at improving material deprivation can also have an impact on reducing crime rates. The author may provide evidence or arguments to support the idea that addressing material deprivation can contribute to crime prevention.

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  • 10. 

    Wison and Kelling (1982) developed a theory that there ss a high level of crime in areas where there has previous;y been a loss of social control.  This is known as:

    • A.

      Broken window theory

    • B.

      Local social control reform

    • C.

      Crime area target space

    • D.

      Neighbourhood watch

    Correct Answer
    A. Broken window theory
    Explanation
    Wison and Kelling's theory suggests that when there is a loss of social control in an area, it leads to a higher level of crime. This theory is known as the Broken Window theory. The term "broken window" refers to the idea that visible signs of disorder, such as broken windows, graffiti, or litter, can create an environment that encourages further crime and anti-social behavior. According to this theory, by addressing and fixing these signs of disorder, communities can prevent crime and maintain social control.

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