Brennan & Williams, 1995
Petty & Cacioppo, 1986
Zakay & Tsal, 1993
No-one. I made it up because I'm funny like that.
Extended Paralell Processing Model
Heuristic Systematic Model
You're Shit Model
Elaboration Likelihood Model
C = F (T x E).
C = F + T + E.
F = C (T + E).
C = F (T + E).
A central route.
A peripheral route.
It depends on the personal relevance of the argument.
Verbal expressions of confidence i.e. "I'm pretty sure that is correct".
Numercial expressions of confidence i.e. "I'm 70% sure that is correct".
Rational expressions of confidence i.e. "I'm about 70:30 sure that is correct"
Just shut up talking and give me the answer.
Talking too loudly.
Interrupting whilst others are talking.
A nasal whine.
A high-pitched voice
There was no difference between genders.
Females choices are influenced by male speakers than female speakers in all conditions. Males are more persuaded by female speakers than male speakers, particularly in the medium confidence condition.
Women are most persuaded my medium confidence speakers; especially by a man. Men's choices are not affected by the confidence of the speaker, but the confidence in his answer can be raised by high confidence speakers (particularly by women).
Women's are not affected by the confidence of the speaker, but their own confidence in their answer is significantly raised by other female speakers (particularly those of high confidence). Men feel most confident in their answers after listening to a medium confidence speaker, yet are more likely to change their answers after listening to a high confidence speaker.
Were more correct than those who answered straight away.
Had more mistakes than those who answered straight away.
Increased the accuracy of identification of suspects.
Were more confident in their identification than those who answered straight away.
Bothwell, Deffenbacher & Brigham (1987).
Pulford & Coleman (2005)
Bradford & Wells (2000)
Thomas & McFadyen (1995)