CNS Pharm- Seizure Disorders

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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 107
Questions: 18 | Attempts: 107

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CNS Pharm- Seizure Disorders - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What are the characterisitcs of absense?

    • A.

      Brief lapse of consciousness

    • B.

      Sudden loss of posture, falling over

    • C.

      Repetitive jerking

    • D.

      Single, rapid twitch event

    • E.

      Immediate deep loss of consciousness, rigid msucle contraction, violent jerking movements.

    Correct Answer
    A. Brief lapse of consciousness
    Explanation
    The characteristics of absence include a brief lapse of consciousness. This means that during an absence seizure, the person experiences a temporary loss of awareness or consciousness. Unlike other types of seizures, there may not be any noticeable physical movements or jerking. Instead, the person may appear to be staring blankly or appear momentarily disconnected from their surroundings. This brief lapse of consciousness is the defining characteristic of absence seizures.

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  • 2. 

    What are the characterisitcs of atonic drop?

    • A.

      Brief lapse of consciousness

    • B.

      Sudden loss of posture, falling over

    • C.

      Repetitive jerking

    • D.

      Single, rapid twitch event

    • E.

      Immediate deep loss of consciousness, rigid msucle contraction, violent jerking movements.

    Correct Answer
    B. Sudden loss of posture, falling over
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Sudden loss of posture, falling over." Atonic drop is a sudden loss of muscle tone, causing a person to collapse or fall over. This is different from other types of seizures, which may involve repetitive jerking or twitching movements. Atonic drop is characterized by a brief lapse of consciousness and an immediate loss of posture, leading to a fall. It does not involve deep loss of consciousness, rigid muscle contraction, or violent jerking movements.

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  • 3. 

    What are the characterisitcs of clonic?

    • A.

      Brief lapse of consciousness

    • B.

      Sudden loss of posture, falling over

    • C.

      Repetitive jerking

    • D.

      Single, rapid twitch event

    • E.

      Immediate deep loss of consciousness, rigid msucle contraction, violent jerking movements.

    Correct Answer
    C. Repetitive jerking
    Explanation
    The characteristics of clonic include repetitive jerking movements. This means that during a clonic episode, the individual experiences a series of rhythmic and involuntary muscle contractions and relaxations. This repetitive jerking distinguishes clonic from other types of seizures or movements.

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  • 4. 

    What are the characterisitcs of myoclonic?

    • A.

      Brief lapse of consciousness

    • B.

      Sudden loss of posture, falling over

    • C.

      Repetitive jerking

    • D.

      Single, rapid twitch event

    • E.

      Immediate deep loss of consciousness, rigid msucle contraction, violent jerking movements.

    Correct Answer
    D. Single, rapid twitch event
    Explanation
    Myoclonic is characterized by a single, rapid twitch event. This means that individuals with myoclonic experience sudden and brief muscle contractions or jerking movements. Unlike other options mentioned, myoclonic does not involve repetitive jerking, immediate deep loss of consciousness, or violent movements. It is important to note that myoclonic can occur in various contexts, such as during sleep or as a symptom of certain neurological disorders.

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  • 5. 

    What are the characterisitcs of tonic clonic?

    • A.

      Brief lapse of consciousness

    • B.

      Sudden loss of posture, falling over

    • C.

      Repetitive jerking

    • D.

      Single, rapid twitch event

    • E.

      Immediate deep loss of consciousness, rigid msucle contraction, violent jerking movements.

    Correct Answer
    E. Immediate deep loss of consciousness, rigid msucle contraction, violent jerking movements.
    Explanation
    Immediate deep loss of consciousness, rigid muscle contraction, and violent jerking movements are characteristics of tonic clonic seizures. During a tonic clonic seizure, there is a sudden and complete loss of consciousness, followed by the contraction of muscles, causing stiffness and rigidity. This is then followed by violent jerking movements, known as convulsions. These seizures are often associated with epilepsy and can last for a few minutes.

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  • 6. 

    What type of drug is vigabatrin?

    • A.

      Inhibit GABA breakdown by GABA transaminase

    • B.

      Inhibit GABA reuptake by GABA transporter

    • C.

      GABA analogues that may bind to GABAa receptor, decrease uptake, increase release

    • D.

      Unknown mech but may act on GABAa recepotrs and inhibit GABA reuptake

    • E.

      Cyclic GABA derivative, poss bind to SV2A and/or calcium channels

    • F.

      Moderate sodium channel use dependent block

    Correct Answer
    A. Inhibit GABA breakdown by GABA transaminase
    Explanation
    Vigabatrin is a drug that inhibits GABA breakdown by GABA transaminase. GABA transaminase is an enzyme responsible for breaking down GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. By inhibiting GABA breakdown, vigabatrin increases the levels of GABA in the brain, leading to increased inhibitory effects and potentially reducing seizures.

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  • 7. 

    What type of drug is tiagabine?

    • A.

      Inhibit GABA breakdown by GABA transaminase

    • B.

      Inhibit GABA reuptake by GABA transporter

    • C.

      GABA analogues that may bind to GABAa receptor, decrease uptake, increase release

    • D.

      Unknown mech but may act on GABAa recepotrs and inhibit GABA reuptake

    • E.

      Cyclic GABA derivative, poss bind to SV2A and/or calcium channels

    • F.

      Moderate sodium channel use dependent block

    Correct Answer
    B. Inhibit GABA reuptake by GABA transporter
    Explanation
    Tiagabine is a drug that inhibits GABA reuptake by the GABA transporter. This means that it prevents the reabsorption of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) back into the neurons, leading to increased levels of GABA in the brain. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps to regulate brain activity, so by inhibiting its reuptake, tiagabine can enhance its effects and potentially have a calming or anti-seizure effect.

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  • 8. 

    What type of drug is gabapentin?

    • A.

      Inhibit GABA breakdown by GABA transaminase

    • B.

      Inhibit GABA reuptake by GABA transporter

    • C.

      GABA analogues that may bind to GABAa receptor, decrease uptake, increase release

    • D.

      Unknown mech but may act on GABAa recepotrs and inhibit GABA reuptake

    • E.

      Cyclic GABA derivative, poss bind to SV2A and/or calcium channels

    • F.

      Moderate sodium channel use dependent block

    Correct Answer
    C. GABA analogues that may bind to GABAa receptor, decrease uptake, increase release
    Explanation
    Gabapentin is a GABA analogue that may bind to GABAa receptors, decrease uptake, and increase release. This means that it acts similarly to GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits the activity of neurons in the brain. By binding to GABAa receptors, gabapentin enhances the effects of GABA, leading to a decrease in the reuptake of GABA and an increase in its release. This ultimately results in a calming effect on the brain and can be used to treat conditions such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

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  • 9. 

    What type of drug is pregabalin?

    • A.

      Inhibit GABA breakdown by GABA transaminase

    • B.

      Inhibit GABA reuptake by GABA transporter

    • C.

      GABA analogues that may bind to GABAa receptor, decrease uptake, increase release

    • D.

      Unknown mech but may act on GABAa recepotrs and inhibit GABA reuptake

    • E.

      Cyclic GABA derivative, poss bind to SV2A and/or calcium channels

    • F.

      Moderate sodium channel use dependent block

    Correct Answer
    C. GABA analogues that may bind to GABAa receptor, decrease uptake, increase release
    Explanation
    Pregabalin is a GABA analogue that may bind to GABAa receptors, decrease uptake, and increase release. This means that it acts similarly to GABA, a neurotransmitter that inhibits the activity of the brain and nervous system. By binding to GABAa receptors, pregabalin can enhance the effects of GABA, leading to decreased uptake and increased release of GABA in the brain. This mechanism of action helps to reduce the excessive electrical activity in the brain that causes seizures and can also provide relief from neuropathic pain.

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  • 10. 

    What type of drug is zonisamide?

    • A.

      Inhibit GABA breakdown by GABA transaminase

    • B.

      Inhibit GABA reuptake by GABA transporter

    • C.

      GABA analogues that may bind to GABAa receptor, decrease uptake, increase release

    • D.

      Unknown mech but may act on GABAa recepotrs and inhibit GABA reuptake

    • E.

      Cyclic GABA derivative, poss bind to SV2A and/or calcium channels

    • F.

      Moderate sodium channel use dependent block

    Correct Answer
    D. Unknown mech but may act on GABAa recepotrs and inhibit GABA reuptake
    Explanation
    Zonisamide is believed to have an unknown mechanism of action, but it is thought to potentially act on GABAa receptors and inhibit GABA reuptake. This means that it may bind to GABAa receptors and prevent the reuptake of GABA, leading to increased levels of GABA in the brain. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate neuronal excitability, so inhibiting its reuptake can have anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing effects. However, the exact mechanism by which zonisamide acts on GABAa receptors and inhibits GABA reuptake is still unknown.

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  • 11. 

    What type of drug is levitiracetam?

    • A.

      Inhibit GABA breakdown by GABA transaminase

    • B.

      Inhibit GABA reuptake by GABA transporter

    • C.

      GABA analogues that may bind to GABAa receptor, decrease uptake, increase release

    • D.

      Unknown mech but may act on GABAa recepotrs and inhibit GABA reuptake

    • E.

      Cyclic GABA derivative, poss bind to SV2A and/or calcium channels

    • F.

      Moderate sodium channel use dependent block

    Correct Answer
    E. Cyclic GABA derivative, poss bind to SV2A and/or calcium channels
    Explanation
    Levitiracetam is a cyclic GABA derivative that has the potential to bind to SV2A and/or calcium channels. This means that it may interact with these specific targets in the brain, which could affect the release and uptake of GABA, a neurotransmitter involved in regulating brain activity. The exact mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve these interactions with SV2A and/or calcium channels.

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  • 12. 

    What type of drug is valproate?

    • A.

      Inhibit GABA breakdown by GABA transaminase

    • B.

      Inhibit GABA reuptake by GABA transporter

    • C.

      GABA analogues that may bind to GABAa receptor, decrease uptake, increase release

    • D.

      Unknown mech but may act on GABAa recepotrs and inhibit GABA reuptake

    • E.

      Cyclic GABA derivative, poss bind to SV2A and/or calcium channels

    • F.

      Moderate sodium channel use dependent block/ calcium channel blocker

    Correct Answer
    F. Moderate sodium channel use dependent block/ calcium channel blocker
    Explanation
    Valproate is a drug that exhibits moderate sodium channel use-dependent block and acts as a calcium channel blocker. This means that it can inhibit the activity of sodium channels and calcium channels, which are involved in the transmission of electrical signals in the brain. By blocking these channels, valproate can help stabilize abnormal electrical activity in the brain and prevent seizures.

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  • 13. 

    What effect does phenoarbital do to GABAa receptor?

    • A.

      Increase frequency of channel opening

    • B.

      Increase duration and frequency of channel

    • C.

      Increase duration of channel opening not frequency

    • D.

      Increase receptor affinity for GABA

    Correct Answer
    C. Increase duration of channel opening not frequency
    Explanation
    Phenoarbital increases the duration of channel opening, but not the frequency. This means that when GABA binds to the GABAa receptor, the channel stays open for a longer period of time, allowing more chloride ions to enter the cell and leading to an increased inhibitory effect. However, the frequency at which the channel opens and closes remains the same.

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  • 14. 

    What effect does phenoarbital do to GABAa receptor?

    • A.

      Increase frequency of channel opening

    • B.

      Increase duration and frequency of channel

    • C.

      Increase duration of channel opening not frequency

    • D.

      Increase receptor affinity for GABA

    Correct Answer
    D. Increase receptor affinity for GABA
    Explanation
    Phenoarbital increases the receptor affinity for GABA. This means that it enhances the ability of the GABAa receptor to bind with GABA molecules. As a result, more GABA molecules can bind to the receptor, leading to increased inhibitory effects on the central nervous system.

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  • 15. 

    What is zonisamide used for?

    • A.

      Tonic clonic seizures

    • B.

      Absence seizures

    • C.

      Generalised seizures

    • D.

      Partial seizure

    Correct Answer
    D. Partial seizure
    Explanation
    Zonisamide is a medication used to treat partial seizures. Partial seizures occur when there is abnormal electrical activity in a specific area of the brain. Zonisamide works by stabilizing the electrical activity in the brain, reducing the frequency and severity of partial seizures. It is not used to treat tonic clonic seizures, absence seizures, or generalized seizures, which involve abnormal activity throughout the entire brain.

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  • 16. 

    What should you not sue to treat absence seizures?

    • A.

      GABAa agonists

    • B.

      GABAa antagonists

    • C.

      Sodium channel blockers

    Correct Answer
    A. GABAa agonists
    Explanation
    GABAa agonists should not be used to treat absence seizures. This is because GABAa agonists enhance the activity of the neurotransmitter GABA, which inhibits brain activity. In absence seizures, there is already excessive inhibition of brain activity, so further enhancing GABA activity can worsen the condition. Instead, other medications like GABAa antagonists or sodium channel blockers are used to modulate brain activity and reduce the occurrence of absence seizures.

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  • 17. 

    What drugs should you use for partial or focal seizures?

    • A.

      Sodium channel inactivators/ GABA enhancers

    • B.

      Calcium channel blockers

    Correct Answer
    A. Sodium channel inactivators/ GABA enhancers
    Explanation
    Sodium channel inactivators and GABA enhancers are the drugs that should be used for partial or focal seizures. These drugs work by either blocking sodium channels, which helps to reduce the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that causes seizures, or by enhancing the effects of GABA, a neurotransmitter that helps to calm down excessive brain activity. By using these drugs, the frequency and severity of partial or focal seizures can be reduced, providing better control over the condition.

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  • 18. 

    What drugs should you use for generalised seizures?

    • A.

      Sodium channel inactivators/ GABA enhancers

    • B.

      Calcium channel blockers

    Correct Answer
    B. Calcium channel blockers
    Explanation
    Calcium channel blockers are not the drugs of choice for generalized seizures. Generalized seizures are typically treated with sodium channel inactivators and GABA enhancers. Calcium channel blockers are primarily used for conditions such as hypertension, angina, and arrhythmias. They work by blocking calcium channels in the heart and blood vessels, reducing the influx of calcium ions and relaxing the muscles. However, they do not have a direct effect on the mechanisms involved in generalized seizures.

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