Ignored graph and olive cultivation
Concentrated on vegetables and dairy products
Employed only a minority of the population
Tended to develop large, commercial estates
Exported grain to asia
The merchants and businessmen
The non-native romans
The landed aristocracy
The urban worker
Work in the mines
Household care and tutoring
Insisted that all inhabitants become roman citizens
Prevented foreigners from trading within the empire
Allowed no political participation
Set up a military draft to supply the roman legions
Tolerated local political and religious diversity
Divine backing for the emperor
Laws rather than trained officials
Public works functions
Harsh punishments of criminals
Were an aristocratic governing class
Could not serve as consuls, magistrates or senators
Could not use their power to control the plebeians
The empire was smaller in size than the republic during the regn of augustus
The empire was governed by a monarchy while the republic maintained a series of checks and balances
The imperial government was led by rulers who, over time, became god-like.
Both a and b
Both b and c
The romans preserved hellenic philosophy
The romans built roads and fortifications that have lasted for centuries
The romans adopted the islamic religion as the official faith of the empire
The romans made christianity the official faith of the empire
The romans adopted a legal code still in some use today
Both empires were heavily dependent on slave labor
Both empires were characterized by long periods of effective centralized governance
In both empires, extensive maritime trade was important
In both empires administrative officials were selected by an elaborate system of competitive examinations.
Both empires were ruled by wealthy merchant elites.
Pantheon of gods and goddesses
The geographical concentration of their cultures
Social and economic structure
The Roman empire was largely confined to the western half of the Mediterranean.
The Roman empire was less extensive than the territory that was controlled by the Athenian empire.
Rome spread civilization beyond the coastline of the Mediterranean to North Africa, Spain, France Romania, and Britain
The Roman empire was largely confined to the coasts of the eastern Mediterranean.
Pastoral nomads from the Asiatic steppes that disrupted Roman culture ca. 5000 B.C.E
Phoenician colonists who settled in northern Africa
A group that resided in northern Italy and who ruled the Romans through kings until ca. 510 B.C.E
Germanic invaders from north of the Rhine who conquered Rome ca. 750 C.E.
It was a closely centralized dual monarchy balancing the absolute authority of two ruling families.
It was dominated by the existence of a professionalized bureaucracy similar to the shi in Han China
The constitution balanced various interests within Roman society, but relied heavily on the aristocracy
It was a participatory democracy on the model of the Athens
Descendants of the Etruscans and Rome's rivals in the eastern Mediterranean
The allies of the Romans during their wars against the Etruscans.
Phoenician colonists who established a major trade empire in the western Mediterranean
One of the regional dynasties that succeeded Alexander the Great's empire in the eastern Mediterranean.
Slavery diminished as opportunities for free laborers abounded.
All classes in Roman society enjoyed prosperity as a result of territorial expansion.
The territorial expansion tended to enrich the aristocrats and increase their monopoly over landholding at the expense of the small farming class.
The agricultural economy flourished in Italy as small landowners were able to increase their Output.
From 30 A.D. to 324 A.D. the official imperial policy was toleration of all religions regardless of their teachings
The empire tolerated most religions whose members were willing to give at least formal acceptance of the traditional state religion and the cult of the emperors.
The empire required all citizens to follow the state rituals and banned all other forms of religion.
The empire quickly moved away from the traditional religious ceremonies and adopted the mystery rituals of the cult of Isis as the state religion.
Roman slavery declined rapidly after the successful conclusion of the Punic Wars.
The Romans did not depend on slavery as much as did the Greeks.
The existence of extensive slave labor diminished technological developments in agriculture and manufacturing.
Roman slavery was so much a feature of the Roman economy that eventually the armies were primarily composed of slaves.
Both empires were severely hurt by the decrease in trade.
Nomadic invasions were more of a problem in Han than in Rome.
In both empires, imperial authorities held more political power than regional authorities
In both empires, leaders were assassinated.
In both empires, large landowners successfully avoided tax collectors.
The drop in population
Acceptance of Christianity
The weakness of the eastern portion of the empire compared to the west
The use of slave labor
The replacement of republic by empire
Big cultural changes
The weakening of central government
The introduction of a new religion for the majority
A change in political institutions
They had larger forces with more soldiers
They had smaller distances to cover
They believed they were fighting inferior cultures
They were more skilled as horseman
They developed better supply lines.
Absolute hostility to the worship of religious images and spirits of nature
Clearly organized church structures
Life after death