By about the year 1000 B.C.E., the independent kingdom of __________ was flourishing along the upper Nile, possessing a form of writing derived form Egyptian hieroglyphics and mastering the use of iron.
Japan's religion, called __________ , provided for worship of the political rulers and the spirits of nature, including the all-important god of rice.
In Central America, an Indian group called the __________ developed and spread an early form of civilization from about 800 until about 400 B.C.E.
During the decline of the Han dynasty in China (100 C.E.), the Daoist leaders, called the __________ , promised a golden age that was to be brought about by divine magic.
The eastern part of the Roman Empire centered on Constantinople became known as __________ .
The last effort to restore Mediterranean unity came under the eastern emperor __________ .
Some centuries after Buddha's death, a doctrine of __________ developed, which held that some people could gain nirvana by their own meditation while choosing to remain in the world as saints and to aid others by prayer and example.
The East Asian form of Buddhism, called __________ , or the Greater Vehicle, retained basic Buddhist beliefs.
The Christian institution of monasticism was first developed under __________ .