Chapter 5 Physiological Psychology Mid-term Study Quiz

27 Questions

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Physiological Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

10 Ways to Kill a Rat, and More Things You Don't Care About!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    One problem with experimental albation is that ______________.
    • A. 

      There's no way to determine if you did damage to the right area of the brain

    • B. 

      A change in behavior could be the result of the brain structure you ablated or any number of structures it interacted with

    • C. 

      Since experimental ablation causes permanent destruction of tissue, studies must be conducted with very low N and conclusions are therefore rarely generalizable

    • D. 

      There's no way to determine if a change in behavior is the result of the brain structure you ablated, or the surgery itself

  • 2. 
    Which of the following is not an experimental ablation method:
    • A. 

      Aspiration

    • B. 

      Radio frequency lesions

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic lesions

    • D. 

      Confocal laser lesions

  • 3. 
    What is the benefit of excitotoxic lesions over radio-frequency lesions?
    • A. 

      Excitotoxic lesions are easier to set up and conduct

    • B. 

      Excitotoxic lesions are temporary lesions, sometimes referred to as "reversible brain lesions"

    • C. 

      Excitotoxic lesions only kill the neurons in the area, not axons that are just passing through the area

    • D. 

      Excitotoxic lesions allow for anterograde labeling afterward

  • 4. 
    What problems would arise if we had no stereotaxic atlases?
    • A. 

      There would be many more mistakes done in creating lesions in the appropriate part of the brain

    • B. 

      It would be difficult to keep the animal's head in a fixed position and surgery would be made more complicated

    • C. 

      It would be impossible to interpret results of stains after the animal is killed

    • D. 

      Scientists would not know when to use which method of producing brain lesions without it

  • 5. 
    Sham lesions are ________________.
    • A. 

      Lesions that, when examined using histological techniques, are found to have been made in the wrong place

    • B. 

      A placebo procedure that duplicates all the steps of producing a brain lesion except actually causing brain damage

    • C. 

      Lesions that do not occur naturally but are induced in a laboratory

    • D. 

      Lesions that, when induced, do not cause a change in behavior of the animal

  • 6. 
    Histological techniques are necessary because ____________.
    • A. 

      Otherwise there's nothing to compare the lesioned animals to, to make sure that it was the lesion that caused the change in behavior and not the surgery

    • B. 

      Behavior is not the same thing as function; a brain structure's function is a factor that plays a role in the expression of a behavior

    • C. 

      It would be impossible to differentiate sham lesions from real ones

    • D. 

      It's important to verify the lesion placement in the brain

  • 7. 
    _____________ help show where brain signals go next from a specific brain structure.
    • A. 

      Anterograde labels

    • B. 

      Confocal laser scanning microscopes

    • C. 

      Retrograde labels

    • D. 

      Formalin

  • 8. 
    If one were interested in observing how specific seretonin-secreting neurons function during sleep, one might use _______________.
    • A. 

      Excitotoxic lesions

    • B. 

      Microelectrodes

    • C. 

      A stereotaxic apparatus

    • D. 

      Macroelectrodes

  • 9. 
    If one were interested in finding the area of the brain causing seizures in an individual, one might use ____________.
    • A. 

      Excitotoxic lesions

    • B. 

      Microelectrodes

    • C. 

      A stereotaxic apparatus

    • D. 

      Macroelectrodes

  • 10. 
    ______________ measures electric potential across different parts of the brain, and can be used in measuring sleep cycles or diagnosing epilepsy.
    • A. 

      SQUID

    • B. 

      EEG

    • C. 

      MRI

    • D. 

      CT

  • 11. 
    ____________ measures the magnetic fields formed by electric potentials in the brain, can can be used in diagnosing epilepsy or measuring regional brain activity that accompanies perception of various stimuli.
    • A. 

      SQUID

    • B. 

      EEG

    • C. 

      MRI

    • D. 

      CT

  • 12. 
    Autoradiography, a technique involving exposing sections of the brain to radioactive ligands and then placing them on film, is a useful technique for _____________
    • A. 

      Diagnosis of epilepsy

    • B. 

      Receptor localization

    • C. 

      Localization of neurotransmitters

    • D. 

      Measuring metabolic differences in different regions of the brain

  • 13. 
    A pretty big disadvantage of ____________ is that it requires having an atomic particle accelerator handy at all times.
    • A. 

      PET

    • B. 

      CT

    • C. 

      MRI

    • D. 

      SQUID

  • 14. 
    ________ involves scanning beams of X-rays across the body to produce a two-dimensional picture of a "slice" through the body
    • A. 

      PET

    • B. 

      CT

    • C. 

      MRI

    • D. 

      SQUID

  • 15. 
    An advantage of ____________, a technique involving detection radiation from hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field, over CT scans is that it allows scans to be taken in the sagittal or frontal planes as well as horizontal plane.
    • A. 

      PET

    • B. 

      CT

    • C. 

      MRI

    • D. 

      SQUID

  • 16. 
    An advantage of diffusion tensor imaging (modified MRI) over a typical MRI is ____________.
    • A. 

      It is able to localize receptors

    • B. 

      It is able to detect metabolic differences between brain structures

    • C. 

      That it reveals bundles of myelinated axons

    • D. 

      It is able to localize neurotransmitters

  • 17. 
    _____________ detects levels of oxygen in the brain's blood vessels, and is thereby able to measure regional metabolism in the brain.
    • A. 

      PET

    • B. 

      FMRI

    • C. 

      SQUID

    • D. 

      CT

  • 18. 
    Microdialysis is ____________.
    • A. 

      A procedure wherein a single neuron is activated by an electrode

    • B. 

      A procedure for analyzing chemicals present in the interstitial fluid

    • C. 

      A procedure wherein the electric potential for an area of the brain is measured

    • D. 

      A procedure for measuring the electric potential of a single neuron

  • 19. 
    If the concordance rate among identical twins is the same as that of fraternal twins , it is an indication that ___________.
    • A. 

      Genetics plays a role in the expression of the trait

    • B. 

      Genetics may not be responsible for the expression of the trait

    • C. 

      Nature plays a larger role than nurture in this trait

    • D. 

      Concordance rates have nothing to do with twin studies

  • 20. 
    If a behavior that is exhibited by an adopted child is seen more frequently in the adopted parents than in the biological parents, it is an indication that ___________.
    • A. 

      Genetics may play a role in the expression of the trait

    • B. 

      Genetics may not be responsible for the expression of the trait

    • C. 

      Nature plays a larger role than nurture in this trait

    • D. 

      Measuring behavior is the wrong technique for adoption studies

  • 21. 
    T/F: fMRI has lower resolution than PET scans.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    Visual evoked potentials are _______________
    • A. 

      A technique for scanning the brain involving injection of a radioactive virus into the brain

    • B. 

      Measurement of eye-related reflexes to moving stimuli

    • C. 

      Electrical responses of the cerebral cortex to visual stimulation

    • D. 

      Known by their common name as 'optical illusions'

  • 23. 
    A benefit of visual evoked potentials is that _________________
    • A. 

      There are no materials so it's free to conduct

    • B. 

      It's noninvasive

    • C. 

      It takes significantly less time than a brain scan

    • D. 

      Unlike fMRIs, VEPs are usable on people with epilepsy

  • 24. 
    Which of the following is a possible amplitude of a VEP?
    • A. 

    • B. 

      50 microvolts (about same as EEG response)

    • C. 

      5 milivolts (about same as EMG response)

    • D. 

      1 volt (about same as ECG response)

  • 25. 
    To deal with the problem of noise in VEP measurements, scientists ___________.
    • A. 

      Conduct experiments in pitch-black rooms and only illuminate the stimulus so the eye can only react to it

    • B. 

      Simultaneously measure VEPs and EEGs and subtract the values from one another

    • C. 

      Measure repeated responses and the noise gets averaged out

    • D. 

      Attach microelectrodes to the eye-related cranial nerves and measure when they send responses

  • 26. 
    VEP is useful in diagnosing _____________.
    • A. 

      Epilepsy

    • B. 

      Blindness in babies

    • C. 

      Schizophrenia

    • D. 

      Thyroid hormone imbalance

  • 27. 
    If one is concerned that an individual is faking blindness, a simple test would be _____________.
    • A. 

      FMRI

    • B. 

      PET

    • C. 

      VEP

    • D. 

      CT