The study of the ends of chromosomes that determine the longevity of a cell.
The phylogenetic movement of species through time.
The idea that certain forms inhabit the sensory world but are not part of it.
The suggestion that natural events happen for some purpose and towards some end.
The idea of random and purposeless change.
Refuted by Darwin and others and has no role.
An essential principle in understanding the direction of natural selection.
A useful idea to explain the concept of a species.
A useful concept underpinning inclusive fitness.
A set of principles that aids in the construction of phylogenetic trees.
Darwin always thought that the human mind was immune from analysis by selectionist thinking.
Darwin did accept Lamarckian type inheritance.
Darwin thought that mutations in the genome of sex cells were the main driving force behind evolutionary change.
The botanist Hooker was known as “Darwin’s bulldog”.
Darwin always retained his Christian faith.
Evolution seeks to produce organisms of increasing complexity.
Evolution aims to maximize the offspring of each species on this planet.
Evolution seeks to provide the best possible match of an organism to its environment.
Evolutionary change is a product of a blind natural process (natural selection) and as such has no ultimate purpose.
Evolutionary change gradually ensures the progress of all living things towards a state of perfect harmony with their environment.
Lamarck’s ideas are essentially the same as Wallace and Darwin, which is why Darwin eventually recognised his contribution in later editions of The Origin.
Lamarck argued that random genetic changes would lead to a variety of phenotypes some of which would survive better than others.
Lamarck sent a letter to Darwin in 1858 outlining a very similar set of ideas to those Darwin was working on.
Lamarck believed that bodily changes caused by the exertions of an organism could be passed on to its offspring – thereby bringing about gradual change through time.
Lamarck clarified the relationship between the somatic and germ line cells, pointing out that information can only flow one way.
These are often mutations affecting one base pair in DNA, and because only one base pair is affected they cause no damage to the cell.
They are mutations that only affect a single nucleotide in a base pair in DNA, consequently the other nucleotide does not bond correctly and such mutations are always harmful.
This is where a single base pair change can give rise to several different polymorphic phenotypes.
These only occur in non-coding regions of DNA and so are harmless.
They are changes to a base pair and can occur in both coding and non-coding regions. Some will have an effect on protein structure but most will not.
Heritability describes differences between individuals attributable to differences in the genome. Heritability will be low for universal human features.
Heritability describes the % of a trait that is inherited. For universal human features this will be high since they will be genetically based.
Heritability will vary with environment. If individuals experience very different environments heritability will increase.
Heritability is a concept that tells if a trait is inherited genetically or not.
Heritability estimates will decrease if individuals are all exposed to the same environment.
Genes for altruism are only found in low frequencies.
The genes for altruism are likely to be pleiotropic.
Altruistic genes are haploid but humans are diploid.
It is difficult to see how genes for altruism can survive if they act at a cost to their holders.
Altruistic traits always carry some benefit to the phenotype but not the genotype so it is difficult to see how altruistic genes can persist.
We behave altruistically towards those with the highest percentage of our genome in common.
If such altruism does have a genetic base then such genes will have been selected to act altruistically towards those also possessing the same altruistic genes.
Altruism is based on favours returned at a later date and this can be expected from close kin since they belong to the same family.
It is not really altruism since favours are returned and so mutualism would be a better name.
Kin belong to the same species so such altruism helps to maintain the fitness of the whole species.
A measure of the likelihood that any one gene taken at random will be present in another individual by common descent.
A measure of the similarity of each chromosome in a diploid cell.
A measure of the likelihood of paternity certainty.
A measure of our genetic relatedness to other animals in terms of the % of genes that are similar.
A measure of the cost/benefit ratio in cases of mutualism.
It could vary from 0.5 to near zero
It would vary between 0.75 and 0.25
It would stay at 0.5
It would always be zero
It would be 0.25
Genes like people are selfish – they only care for themsleves and show no compassion or loyalty.
People are selfish because they contain selfish genes; selfishness has a strong genetic component.
The concept became very controversial since later it was discovered that animals and people behave altruistically and so Hamilton and Dawkins had to introduce the concept of altruistic genes.
Dawkins did not mean that genes are selfish in the sense of a personality trait but simply that they operated to promote their own kind.
Genes will be selfish so long as the conditions in the Hamilton equation of altruism hold true (i.e benefits are greater than the costs).
Species come and go, those species best adapted to survive change will survive. But gradually mutations accumulate and they will change. Those species which leave most offspring will do better than those that leave few and so eventually species change.
Individual members of a species leave offspring, sometimes mutations in the parents' gene line cause their offspring and their future descendants to survive better and themselves leave more offspring than other individuals in the species. When this happens the newly mutated genes become more frequent in the gene pool.
Creatures gradually adapt to their surroundings in their own lifetime. These adaptations are passed on and if they help the species then they will survive and by this means species change occurs.
Pressures on the phenotype cause genotype changes, these changes help individuals survive and so phenotypical change drives evolutionary change.
Nature may be red in tooth and claw but due to the concept of r - coefficient of relatedness - those individuals such as wasps, bees and humans that practise altruism will survive since sacrifice for fellow members of the species helps the species survive and adapt.
(i), (ii) and (v)
(i) and (iii)
(ii) and (v)
(ii), (iii) and (iv)
(i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and (v)