Chapter 29: Individual And Collective Learning

8 Questions

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Chapter 29: Individual And Collective Learning


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Reflection-in-action can:
    • A. 

      Undermine long term effectiveness

    • B. 

      Occur after the event

    • C. 

      Camouflage the need for learning

    • D. 

      Help people decide what to do next

  • 2. 
    Whenever change agents intervene to secure change their behaviour is often based on their:
    • A. 

      Espoused theories

    • B. 

      Reactions to feedback from others

    • C. 

      Knowledge of well-tried theories

    • D. 

      Theories-in-use

  • 3. 
    Single loop learning leads to:
    • A. 

      The development of corrective routines within the existing governing variables

    • B. 

      An inattention to common errors

    • C. 

      A review of the governing variables

    • D. 

      The development of path breaking interventions

  • 4. 
    Which of the following are NOT barriers to reflective practice? 
    • A. 

      Being so bound up in a frenetic range of activities that they have little time or no opportunity for observation and reflection

    • B. 

      Being sufficiently committed to a course of action that they can resist others’ attempts to challenge their world view

    • C. 

      Challenging beliefs about the competence and motives of others that makes it easy for those leading the change to dismiss their feedback

    • D. 

      Organisation structures, policies and management practices that limit upward communication

  • 5. 
    Swieringa and Wierdsma define organizations as:
    • A. 

      A set of explicit and implicit rules

    • B. 

      Open systems

    • C. 

      Competing ideologies

    • D. 

      Political arenas

  • 6. 
    Collective learning is most effective when: 
    • A. 

      Organisational members, at all levels, have data that could provide a valuable input to strategy formulation

    • B. 

      Responding to threats or opportunities requires individuals and groups located in different functions to collaborate and share information

    • C. 

      Those leading change recognize how others can help to improve organizational performance

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 7. 
    Which of the following is NOT an impediment to collective learning?
    • A. 

      Members’ poor appreciation of the systemic qualities of organisations

    • B. 

      Accessible channels for dialogue and the sharing of meaning

    • C. 

      The context in which sharing and dialogue must occur

    • D. 

      The characteristics of the sources and recipients of knowledge

  • 8. 
    What term does Janis use to describe the deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing and moral judgement that is the result of in-group pressure?
    • A. 

      Self-reinforcing schema

    • B. 

      Groupthink

    • C. 

      Organizational silence

    • D. 

      Ideological conformity