Latin America had no economic relationship with the West.
During the century of imperialism, Latin America cast off previous colonial controls through revolution.
Unlike other regions, Latin America had no previous political relationship to the West.
The ideals of the Enlightenment had little or no impact on Latin America.
It achieved rapid industrialization through the use of capital from the United States.
Belief in "progress"
Belief in reform
Belief in absolute monarchy
Belief in private property
Belief in democratic ideals
Independence movement in Portugal
English Civil War
Father Miguel de Hidalgo.
The Creole elite
It served as a model for national independence movements throughout South and Central America.
It demonstrated the power of Creole elites in leading revolutionary movements.
It led immediately to a general abolition of slavery throughout Latin America.
Creole elites viewed it with horror as an example of general social upheaval.
It led to freedom for slaves in Latin America and the United States.
The forced abdication of the royal family of Spain during the Napoleonic wars
The conquest of the Mughal empire by the Portuguese
Spain's loss of colonial territories to the British during the War of Jenkin's Ear
The Seven Years War and is aftermath
Beheading of Louis XVI during the French Revolution
Father Miguel de Hidalgo
Manuel de Rosas
Jose Maria Morelos
Manuel de Rosas
Maximilian of Hapsburg
Northern South America.
Manuel de Rosas.
José de San Martín.
Portugal was allied with the French emperor.
The French attempted to invade Portugal, but failed.
The entire royal family fled from the French to Brazil and established their capital there.
Following the defeat of the Portuguese, the French took over the colonial administration of Brazil.
The Portuguese were assisted by Britain unlike the Spanish.
Through a rebellion led by the Creole elite
Through a slave rebellion on the model of Haiti
Because the French freed the colony unilaterally
Pedro, the prince regent of Brazil, declared independence
By an act of the Portuguese parliament
Brazil was a monarchy rather than a republic.
It was the only government that immediately abolished slavery.
It was ruled by the popular majority of former slaves and people of mixed race.
It was the only republican form of government established in Latin America.
It abolished all forms of racial discrimination.
While most leaders sought to maintain Catholicism as the official religion of the new states, some sought to end the exclusion of other faiths.
Roman Catholicism had been the only state religion during the colonial period, and its status as the only permitted religion remained unchallenged after independence.
The onset of independence was accompanied by a general trend away from Catholicism toward Protestant religions.
The defense of the Roman Catholic church became a rallying cry for Latin American Liberals.
As Spanish power declined, so did the power of the Roman Catholic church.
Southern United States
Most of Latin America was divided up into consolidated units that mirrored the colonial vice royalties.
The excellent colonial road system enabled the creation of larger states after independence.
Permanent consolidation and union was more typical of Central America and southern South America than elsewhere.
Most attempts at consolidation and union had failed.
Traditional tribal boundaries formed the basis for new nation-states.
Fiscal and commercial policies set by regional governments
Recognition of the political rights of Indians and mestizos
Strong national governments with broad powers
Multi-party parliamentary governments
Rights of individuals
Secular society modeled on the United States
The retention of colonial governors and viceroys
Development of commerce
Literacy and education
Their distrust for Roman Catholicism
Their acceptance of federalist political theory
Their endorsement of centralist political theory
The social origins of their leadership
Their beliefs about economic systems