Chapter 23 Philosophy Test

22 Questions | Total Attempts: 42

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Chapter 23 PHILOSOPHY TEST


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Communitarians:
    • A. 

      A group of philosophers who believe in the importance of belonging to a community of people who share a culture and a common set of value.

    • B. 

      The belief that each citizen is an equal partner in the collective enterprise of self-government

    • C. 

      Corresponds to the state of nature in the traditional theory of the social contract.

  • 2. 
    Egalitarianism:
    • A. 

      The belief that each citizen is an equal partner in the collective enterprise of self-government

    • B. 

      Corresponds to the state of nature in the traditional theory of the social contract.

    • C. 

      Corresponds to the state of nature in the traditional theory of the social contract.

  • 3. 
    Original position:
    • A. 

      People's ability to rule themselves; an idea that Aristotle valued

    • B. 

      The problem of why people should obey the state by agreeing to such commitments as paying taxes, and the question of the limits of such obligations.

    • C. 

      Corresponds to the state of nature in the traditional theory of the social contract.

  • 4. 
    Political obligation:
    • A. 

      Justification for government's existence based on the idea that people agree to form a government simply to protect themselves from each other

    • B. 

      The problem of why people should obey the state by agreeing to such commitments as paying taxes, and the question of the limits of such obligations.

    • C. 

      In social contract theory, the situation of people who have no government

  • 5. 
    Republicanism:
    • A. 

      People's ability to rule themselves; an idea that Aristotle valued

    • B. 

      In social contract theory, the situation of people who have no government

    • C. 

      Corresponds to the state of nature in the traditional theory of the social contract.

  • 6. 
    Social contract theory:
    • A. 

      In a theory of justice, John Rawls refers to this as the situation that exists when a society must decide the rules of justice that will govern their future society without know what position its members will hold in this new society

    • B. 

      In social contract theory, the situation of people who have no government

    • C. 

      Justification for government's existence based on the idea that people agree to form a government simply to protect themselves

  • 7. 
    State of nature:
    • A. 

      In social contract theory, the situation of people who have no government

    • B. 

      People's ability to rule themselves; an idea that Aristotle valued

    • C. 

      Justification for government's existence based on the idea that people agree to form a government simply to protect themselves

  • 8. 
    The social contract theory holds that the power of the state is based on:
    • A. 

      The power of a conquering army

    • B. 

      Religious customs and beliefs

    • C. 

      Consent of the people

  • 9. 
    Thomas Hobbes believed that the best form of government was on that:
    • A. 

      Exercised was one that

    • B. 

      Exercised absolute powers

    • C. 

      Remained neutral

  • 10. 
    John Locke argued that in a state of nature,
    • A. 

      Life was "solitary,poor, nasty, brutish and short"

    • B. 

      People lived under a "veil of ignorance"

    • C. 

      People will "seek out and...join in society with others"

  • 11. 
    Who said "The greatest and chief end of men uniting into commonwealths, and putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property"?
    • A. 

      David Hume

    • B. 

      John Locke

    • C. 

      Thomas Hobbes

  • 12. 
    In his book, a Theory of justice, philosopher John Rawls describes an imaginary thought experiment "Characterized so as to lead to certain conception of justice" Which two principles of justice did Rawls think people would agree to?
    • A. 

      Equality in the assignment of basic rights and duties

    • B. 

      Equality in the assignment of rights according to an individual's merits

    • C. 

      Social and economic inequalities are just only if the result in compensating benefits for everyone, and in particular for the least advantaged members of society.

    • D. 

      Both A and C are true

  • 13. 
    Many communitarians have criticized Rawl's social contract theory because it:
    • A. 

      Ignores the vital importance of a community's cultural traditions

    • B. 

      Undervalues an individual's rights

    • C. 

      Fosters social inequalities

  • 14. 
    The idea that a person becomes actualized by subjecting personal interests to the larger common good of the State, thereby obtaining true freedom, was articulated by:
    • A. 

      Georg Hegel

    • B. 

      John Locke

    • C. 

      Thomas Jefferson

  • 15. 
    The challenge to communitarianism that "individuals have rights and these are trumps over the social good," was expressed by whom?
    • A. 

      John Rawls

    • B. 

      Charles Taylor

    • C. 

      Ronald Dworking

  • 16. 
    The following are Liberalism:
    • A. 

      When individuals rights conflict with community values

    • B. 

      A society should be engineered so that people are free to do what they want.

    • C. 

      The state must remain neutral and allow individuals to choose their own values and ends

  • 17. 
    The following is communitarianism:
    • A. 

      Without a large community, political and cultural life cannot flourish

    • B. 

      Individuals have no social context outside the State

    • C. 

      Requirement of human flourishing is engagement in public life

  • 18. 
    In Leviathan, Hobbes portrays humans as selfish, unsocial creatures driven by two needs: survival and personal gain
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 19. 
    For Rousseau, a group of wills is general when each member of the group aims at their own particular interests.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 20. 
    For Rawls government is not justified when it is the kind of government that we would choose in the original position.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    Both Aristotle and Hegel argue that humans cannot develop fully unless they live in the state and that the state is more important than the individual citizen.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 22. 
    Feminists object that Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau do not apply to women the idea that authority requires consent and that they assume only males enter the social contract.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False