It is one of two major regulatory systems of the body
It is composed of glands that secrete chemical messengers into the blood.
It is an important regulator of homeostatic mechanisms.
It influences and is influenced by the nervous system.
Most of its components are anatomically connected, like most other systems of the body.
They are chemical regulators that are conveyed from one organ to another via the bloodstream.
In some cases, the same chemical substances can also function as local regulators and/or neurotransmitters.
All hormones are derived from cholesterol.
They are secreted into the blood by ductless glands.
They are sometimes secreted by neural tissue.
It secretes a peptide/protein hormone.
It secretes its product by diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.
It secretes by endocytosis.
Its hormone product is synthesized from cholesterol.
It secretes a hormone with a hydrophobic structure.
They store large amounts of hormone.
They are characterized by abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum and numerous mitochondria.
They contain large numbers of secretory vesicles.
They are found in the anterior pituitary gland.
They are found in the medulla of the adrenal gland.
Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol.
Thyroid hormones are catecholamines.
The hormones of the adrenal cortex have the same structure as the neurotransmitters of adrenergic neurons.
Most peptide hormones require binding proteins for transport in the blood.
Vasopressin is synthesized in the posterior pituitary.
Hormones that bind to endocrine glands and stimulate the secretion of a second hormone.
Hormones that bind to endocrine glands and inhibit the secretion of a second hormones.
A longer protein or peptide that is cleaved into shorter ones, at least one of which is a protein hormone.
Hormones that stimulate the expression of receptors for a second hormone, promoting their action.
Steroid hormones that are inactivated by having hydroxyl-groups removed from their structure.
Progesterone is a precursor of cortisol.
Progesterone is a precursor of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid hormones.
Progesterone is a precursor for all steroid hormones.
Tryptophan is a precursor for thyroid hormones.
Amine hormones are long polymers of amino acids.
High blood pressure
Suppressed immune function
Hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose)
Going on a low-salt diet
Ingesting extra dietary Vitamin D
Reducing dietary tyrosine
Increasing dietary cholesterol
Injecting a drug that blocks the production of Angiotensin II
Synthesized by the ribosomes of endocrine cells.
Synthesized in the nucleus of endocrine cells.
Synthesized out of the amino acid tryptophan.
The least prevalent type of hormone in the body.
Manufactured cooperatively by the mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Pituitary tumor making excess thyroid-stimulating hormone
Mutations that result in inactive IGF-1 receptors
Delayed onset of puberty
Decreased hypothalamic concentrations of somatostatin
Normal plasma GH but decreased feedback of GH on GHRH
Inactivated by its target cell.
Activated by its target cell.
Inactivated by nontarget cells.
Excreted before it has a chance to act on a target cell.
All of the choices could be correct.
Only by its rate of secretion
By the number of its target cells in the body
Only by its rate of synthesis
By its secretion and clearance rates, and whether or not it binds to carriers and/or other plasma proteins
Only by the rate of its degradation by the liver and kidneys
A PTH-mediated increase in 25-OH D.
A decrease in renal 1-hydroxylase activity.
A decrease in the urinary excretion of Ca2+.
A decrease in bone resorption.
An increase in vitamin D release from the skin.
Steroid hormones do bind to plasma proteins.
The tighter that a hormone binds to a carrier protein in the plasma, the faster the body can usually get rid of that hormone.
Hydrophobic hormones like steroid and thyroid hormones need binding proteins because they are not very soluble in the blood plasma.
Only peptide-type hormones can bind to the carrier proteins found in the plasma.
Secreting insulin-like growth hormone
Clearing hormones from plasma
Producing plasma proteins that bind hormones
Peptide hormones bind to intracellular receptors whereas steroid hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface.
Peptide hormones bind to receptors in the nucleus whereas steroid hormones bind to receptors in the cytosol.
Peptide hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface whereas steroid hormones act as second messengers.
Peptide hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface whereas steroid hormones bind to intracellular receptors.
There are no differences; both act by binding to receptors on the cell surface.
They may be proteins found in the nucleus.
They undergo allosteric modulation when they bind to the hormone.
They regulate gene transcription.
They may be found in the nucleus.
They are synthesized from cholesterol.
They mostly bind to receptor proteins in the surface membrane of target cells.
They mostly bind to receptor proteins in the surface membrane of target cells. They are generally polar molecules.
They usually have very rapid effects on target cells.
Their mechanism of action generally involves altering protein synthesis.
They are highly soluble in blood plasma.
Target cells of oxytocin have receptors for the hormone in their nuclues.
Oxytocin is synthesized in the hypothalamus.
Oxytocin is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Oxytocin’s main function is to increase the rate of respiration.
Oxytocin keep uterine smooth muscle from contracting, so it prolongs pregnancy.
It is the site of synthesis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
It is a site where neurohormones are release into blood vessels.
It is the site where vasopressin is released into blood vessels.
It is the stalk connecting the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary.
It is the main site where thyroid stimulating hormone first enters the blood stream.
Growth hormone is a tropic hormone for insulin-like growth hormone.
Inhibition of prolactin release by dopamine is an example of short-loop negative feedback.
Somatostatin stimulates growth hormone secretion.
ACTH inhibits cortisol secretion.
Gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates growth hormone secretion.
A growing tumor secretes hormone Y, which stimulates the gland that secretes hormone X.
Cells of a growing tumor manufacture hormone X in unregulated fashion.
Negative feedback from a tumor that hypersecretes hormone Z inhibits the gland that secretes hormone X.
Hormone X is secreted by a growing tumor that is in the anterior pituitary gland.
Hormone X is secreted in unregulated fashion by a tumor growing in a tissue that does not normally secrete hormone X.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Metabotropic releasing factors
Stimulation of dopamine release by prolactin
Inhibition of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) release by growth hormone (GH)
Inhibition of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) release by insulin-like growth factor-1
Inhibition of corticotropin-releasing hormone by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) release by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
Anterior pituitary hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus.
All hormones secreted by the anterior and posterior pituitary glands are peptides.
IGF-1 stimulates growth by increasing growth hormone secretion through positive feedback.
All of the hypophysiotropic hormones are peptides.
Only steroid hormones can regulate the secretion of steroid hormones.
Androstenedione, progesterone, adrenal cortex, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
Progesterone, cholesterol, adrenal medulla, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Testosterone, cholesterol, adrenal medulla, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Progesterone, cholesterol, adrenal cortex, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Estrogen, cholesterol, adrenal medulla, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
It is glandular tissue, and secretes vasopressin and prolactin.
It is neural tissue, and is stimulated to secrete oxytocin and vasopressin by hypophysiotropic hormones.
It is neural tissue, and vesicles containing oxytocin and vasopressin are transported to axon terminals there.
It is glandular tissue, and releases oxytocin and somatostatin when action potentials arrive along axons from the hypothalamus.
It is neural tissue that secretes hypophysiotropic hormones that control the secretion of the anterior pituitary hormones.
Stimulating the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
Inhibiting the release of growth hormone
Inhibiting the release of prolactin
Inducing the secretion of steroid hormones by the gonads in both males and females
Stimulating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Increase; hypothalamus; decrease; anterior pituitary gland; decrease
Decrease; hypothalamus; increase; adenohypophysis; increase
Decrease; anterior pituitary gland; increase; hypothalamus; increase
Increase; hypothalamus; increase; adenohypophysis; increase
Decrease; adenohypophysis; increase; anterior pituitary gland; increase
Autoimmune destruction of receptors for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Autoimmune destruction of hypothalamic cells that secrete cortotropin-releasing hormone
Injection of an excess of cortisol
Destruction of the anterior pituitary by a stroke
Excessively rapid clearance of cortisol from the circulation
Low plasma concentration of thyroid hormones due to reduced secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary gland
Low plasma concentration of thyroid hormones and an enlarged thyroid gland
High plasma concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) due to a deficiency of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
High plasma concentration of thyroid hormones due to increased secretion of TSH by the pituitary gland
Low plasma concentration of thyroid hormones and atrophy of the thyroid gland due to reduced concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) would decrease and the adrenal cortex would atrophy
Secretion of gonadotropins will decrease and the gonads will hypertrophy
Secretion of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) would decrease
Secretion of prolactin would decrease
Secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) would increase
Increased secretion of corticotropin from the anterior pituitary
Increased secretion of corticotropin from the hypothalamus
Increases secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the hypothalamus
Negative feedback to the adrenal cortex by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Decreased secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) by the hypothalamus
Hypothalamus; anterior pituitary
Adrenal cortex; hypothalamus
Anterior pituitary; hypothalamus
Adrenal cortex; anterior pituitary
Anterior pituitary; adrenal cortex
The adrenal gland will hypertrophy to increase cortisol production.
The adrenal gland will atrophy and plasma cortisol levels will be reduced.
The hypothalamus will secrete less CRH.
The subject will remain euthyroid
There will be increased negative feedback on growth hormone by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).
Vasopressin and dopamine
Corticotropin and dopamine
Oxytocin and prolactin
Vasopressin and corticotropin
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin
Waking from sleep
Increased levels of IGF-I in blood
High plasma glucose
Increased somatostatin secretion
A goiter; increased production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and increased thyroid hormone levels
Atrophy of the thyroid gland; loss of negative feedback by thyroid hormones and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels
A goiter; loss of negative feedback by thyroid hormones and increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels
Atrophy of the thyroid gland; decreased sensitivity of receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Atrophy of the anterior pituitary gland; loss of negative feedback by thyroid hormones
She has hypothyroidism, possibly due to destruction of thyrotrope cells of her anterior pituitary gland.
She has hyperthyroidism, possible due to Graves’ disease.
She has hypothyroidism, possibly due to low iodine in her diet.
She has hyperthyroidism, possible due to a hypersecreting tumor of the anterior pituitary gland
Decreased plasma concentration of IGF-I
Decreased secretion of somatostatin
Increased secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
An iodine insufficient diet
Hyposecretion of TRH
The amino acid tyrosine.
The amino acid tryptophan.
Acetyl coenzyme A.
The amino acid phenylalanine.
An increase in triglyceride storage
Increased Na+/K+ ATPase activity
Decreased body temperature
Congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism)
Negative feedback from cortisol increases secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
Secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal gland is decreased.
Negative feedback from cortisol increases the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decrease.
Plasma levels of cortisol increase.
Glucose uptake into muscle cells
Triglyceride catabolism in adipose cells
Decreased sensitivity to insulin
It increases the ability to respond to situations where physical activity is required.
It increases blood flow to the skeletal muscles and viscera.
It inhibits blood clotting.
It decreases ventilation of the lungs, to save oxygen.
It increases glycogen synthesis in the liver.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
It directly stimulates cell division in most tissues.
It stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) from the liver.
It stimulates metabolism.
It stimulates the release of eicosanoids from lymphoid tissues.
It stimulates sleep.
Osteoblasts dissolve bone tissue when bones remodel in response to sex hormones.
Osteoclasts are responsible for depositing new bone tissue at the epiphyseal growth plate before puberty.
Before adolescence, bones are completely made up of cartilage; after puberty they ossify and harden.
Growth in length occurs at a single epiphyseal growth plate in the center of the shaft of long bones.
Growth in length occurs at two epiphyseal growth plates near the ends of long bones
Connective tissues embedded in collagen
Blood, dissolved within the plasma
Skeletal muscle, stored in terminal cisternae
Bones, in the form of hydroxyapatites
Liver, inside the endoplasmic reticulum
Increases the bone degrading activity of osteoclasts
Increases the bone building activities of osetoblasts
Promotes vitamin D synthesis, leading to increased intestinal absorption of calcium
Increases plasma [Ca2+]
Increases plasma [Ca2+]
An increase in bone mass
An increase in parathyroid hormone levels
Increased intestinal absorption of calcium
The liver produces a factor that mediates the metabolic actions of GH.
GH stimulates insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production by the liver and by many other cells.
GH increases the sensitivity of tissues to the action of insulin.
GH exerts negative feedback on its own production by inhibiting the hypothalamic secretion of somatostatin.
IGF-1 stimulates the secretion of GH by anterior pituitary gland cells.
It directly promotes protein anabolism in many cells.
It causes differentiation of precursor cells that then respond to IGF-I by proliferating.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone in adults leads to acromegaly.
It is absent or deficient in pituitary dwarfs.
It is necessary for fetal growth.
Gigantism would occur.
Laron dwarfism would occur.
Growth rate would be faster than normal.
Growth rate would be slower than normal.
Body temperature would be above normal.
Congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism).
A slowing of mental functions.
A low metabolic rate.
All of the choices are correct.
They prevent the pubertal growth spurt.
They are responsible for epiphyseal plate closure.
They stimulate the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH).
They stimulate the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH).
They stimulate the reabsorption of bone.