It is one of two major regulatory systems of the body
It is composed of glands that secrete chemical messengers into the blood.
It is an important regulator of homeostatic mechanisms.
It influences and is influenced by the nervous system.
Most of its components are anatomically connected, like most other systems of the body.
They are chemical regulators that are conveyed from one organ to another via the bloodstream.
In some cases, the same chemical substances can also function as local regulators and/or neurotransmitters.
All hormones are derived from cholesterol.
They are secreted into the blood by ductless glands.
They are sometimes secreted by neural tissue.
It secretes a peptide/protein hormone.
It secretes its product by diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.
It secretes by endocytosis.
Its hormone product is synthesized from cholesterol.
It secretes a hormone with a hydrophobic structure.
They store large amounts of hormone.
They are characterized by abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum and numerous mitochondria.
They contain large numbers of secretory vesicles.
They are found in the anterior pituitary gland.
They are found in the medulla of the adrenal gland.
Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol.
Thyroid hormones are catecholamines.
The hormones of the adrenal cortex have the same structure as the neurotransmitters of adrenergic neurons.
Most peptide hormones require binding proteins for transport in the blood.
Vasopressin is synthesized in the posterior pituitary.
Hormones that bind to endocrine glands and stimulate the secretion of a second hormone.
Hormones that bind to endocrine glands and inhibit the secretion of a second hormones.
A longer protein or peptide that is cleaved into shorter ones, at least one of which is a protein hormone.
Hormones that stimulate the expression of receptors for a second hormone, promoting their action.
Steroid hormones that are inactivated by having hydroxyl-groups removed from their structure.
Progesterone is a precursor of cortisol.
Progesterone is a precursor of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid hormones.
Progesterone is a precursor for all steroid hormones.
Tryptophan is a precursor for thyroid hormones.
Amine hormones are long polymers of amino acids.
High blood pressure
Suppressed immune function
Hyperglycemia (increased blood glucose)
Going on a low-salt diet
Ingesting extra dietary Vitamin D
Reducing dietary tyrosine
Increasing dietary cholesterol
Injecting a drug that blocks the production of Angiotensin II
Synthesized by the ribosomes of endocrine cells.
Synthesized in the nucleus of endocrine cells.
Synthesized out of the amino acid tryptophan.
The least prevalent type of hormone in the body.
Manufactured cooperatively by the mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Pituitary tumor making excess thyroid-stimulating hormone
Mutations that result in inactive IGF-1 receptors
Delayed onset of puberty
Decreased hypothalamic concentrations of somatostatin
Normal plasma GH but decreased feedback of GH on GHRH
Inactivated by its target cell.
Activated by its target cell.
Inactivated by nontarget cells.
Excreted before it has a chance to act on a target cell.
All of the choices could be correct.
Only by its rate of secretion
By the number of its target cells in the body
Only by its rate of synthesis
By its secretion and clearance rates, and whether or not it binds to carriers and/or other plasma proteins
Only by the rate of its degradation by the liver and kidneys
A PTH-mediated increase in 25-OH D.
A decrease in renal 1-hydroxylase activity.
A decrease in the urinary excretion of Ca2+.
A decrease in bone resorption.
An increase in vitamin D release from the skin.
Steroid hormones do bind to plasma proteins.
The tighter that a hormone binds to a carrier protein in the plasma, the faster the body can usually get rid of that hormone.
Hydrophobic hormones like steroid and thyroid hormones need binding proteins because they are not very soluble in the blood plasma.
Only peptide-type hormones can bind to the carrier proteins found in the plasma.
Secreting insulin-like growth hormone
Clearing hormones from plasma
Producing plasma proteins that bind hormones
Peptide hormones bind to intracellular receptors whereas steroid hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface.
Peptide hormones bind to receptors in the nucleus whereas steroid hormones bind to receptors in the cytosol.
Peptide hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface whereas steroid hormones act as second messengers.
Peptide hormones bind to receptors on the cell surface whereas steroid hormones bind to intracellular receptors.
There are no differences; both act by binding to receptors on the cell surface.
They may be proteins found in the nucleus.
They undergo allosteric modulation when they bind to the hormone.
They regulate gene transcription.
They may be found in the nucleus.
They are synthesized from cholesterol.
They mostly bind to receptor proteins in the surface membrane of target cells.
They mostly bind to receptor proteins in the surface membrane of target cells. They are generally polar molecules.
They usually have very rapid effects on target cells.
Their mechanism of action generally involves altering protein synthesis.
They are highly soluble in blood plasma.
Target cells of oxytocin have receptors for the hormone in their nuclues.
Oxytocin is synthesized in the hypothalamus.
Oxytocin is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Oxytocin’s main function is to increase the rate of respiration.
Oxytocin keep uterine smooth muscle from contracting, so it prolongs pregnancy.
It is the site of synthesis of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
It is a site where neurohormones are release into blood vessels.
It is the site where vasopressin is released into blood vessels.
It is the stalk connecting the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary.
It is the main site where thyroid stimulating hormone first enters the blood stream.
Growth hormone is a tropic hormone for insulin-like growth hormone.
Inhibition of prolactin release by dopamine is an example of short-loop negative feedback.
Somatostatin stimulates growth hormone secretion.
ACTH inhibits cortisol secretion.
Gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates growth hormone secretion.
A growing tumor secretes hormone Y, which stimulates the gland that secretes hormone X.
Cells of a growing tumor manufacture hormone X in unregulated fashion.
Negative feedback from a tumor that hypersecretes hormone Z inhibits the gland that secretes hormone X.
Hormone X is secreted by a growing tumor that is in the anterior pituitary gland.
Hormone X is secreted in unregulated fashion by a tumor growing in a tissue that does not normally secrete hormone X.