We perceive a situation, an emotion results and our body responds as appropriate
Our emotions colour the way we perceive the external world, resulting in accompanying bodily changes
We experience an emotion, we comprehend the experience and our brain directs the body to prepare accordingly
We perceive a situation, our body reponds as appropriate, the feeling of these bodily changes is the emotion
Emotions direct our comprehensions of a situation resulting in adaptively significant biases
Homology is the study of the logic of human adaptations and so has direct bearing on emotions
Homology is the study of convergent evolution and so if we can show emotions have evolved independently in chimps and humans this provides crucial evidence for functionality
Homology is the study of features shared by species due to common lines of descent. If emotions similar to humans exist in chimpanzees this is supportive of an adaptive basis.
Homology is the study of how brain functioning can be related to precise physical localities; a physical correlate for emotions will show they are adaptations
Homology is the study of homologous alleles, if emotions can be linked with dominant alleles then we can establish and genetic, and by inference, functional, basis for them.
Facial expressions vary around the globe but the underlying emotions will be similar. It is important therefore for anthropologist to appreciate the signals sent by facial expression in different cultures.
All around the globe we see the same basic set of facial expressions but research shows that the emotions they correspond to varies considerably.
There are no standard patterns either to emotions or facial expressions both are highly variable and are conditioned by social rules and conventions.
Ekman showed that the emotion follows from the expression along the lines of the James – Lange theory. Hence the sequence is: situation … facial expression… emotion.
Ekman demonstrated that there are universal facial expressions that correspond with universal emotions and so both are shared and experienced by all humans – although there may be some cultural variability in what triggers them
Behavioural (e.g. facial expression), physiological changes, verbal self-report
Neurophysiological correlation; affective disorder; cognitive confusion
Cognitive self-awareness; retaliatory action; reflection on consequences
Precision; specificity of action; complexity of response
Adaptive success; memory biasing; universal functionality
The body is designed to detect the ingestion of harmful bacteria and the emotion of disgust follows
The emotion of disgust promotes vomiting and diarrhoea both of which serve to expel pathogens
The intestinal micro flora present in all humans shapes the emotion of disgust to ensure these bacteria are not threatened by rival pathogens
Disgust is an emotion that promotes a facial expression that elicits help and caring from others
Disgust is an emotion that prompts us to avoid contaminated food and water and situations where harmful pathogens might be present