Celllar Biology

48 Questions

Settings
Please wait...
Cellular Biology Quizzes & Trivia

CHAPTER 3 & 5


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Oxygen is toxic to  
    • A. 

      Strict anaerobes

    • B. 

      Facultative anaerobes

    • C. 

      Aerotolerant organisms

    • D. 

      Strict aerobes

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 2. 
    According to your text, in which of the following steps of the TCA cycle is NADH/FADH2 NOT produced?
    • A. 

      TCA-6

    • B. 

      TCA-3

    • C. 

      TCA-8

    • D. 

      TCA-2

    • E. 

      TCA-4

  • 3. 
    In prokaryotes, aerobic respiration generates ________ ATP molecules.        
    • A. 

      20-24

    • B. 

      30-32

    • C. 

      36-38

    • D. 

      38-40

    • E. 

      0-100

  • 4. 
    Which of the following molecules is NOT a carrier of electrons in the electron transport system (ETS)?  
    • A. 

      Flavoproteins

    • B. 

      Iron-sulfur proteins

    • C. 

      Copper-nickel compounds

    • D. 

      Coenzyme Q

    • E. 

      Cytochromes

  • 5. 
    Glucose is transported in the bloodstream to cells in all parts of your body. In body cells, glucose has four main fates. Which of the following is NOT one of those fates
    • A. 

      Glucose is transformed into sucrose

    • B. 

      Glucose is converted to acetyl CoA to make body fat

    • C. 

      Glucose is used to synthesize glycogen

    • D. 

      Glucose is catabolized to carbon dioxide and water

    • E. 

      Glucose is converted to lactate

  • 6. 
    Which of the following is NOT a product of fermentation?  
    • A. 

      CO2

    • B. 

      Sucrose

    • C. 

      Ethanol

    • D. 

      NAD+

    • E. 

      Lactate

  • 7. 
    The breakdown of glucose to pyruvate by a cell is an example of a(n) _______ reaction
    • A. 

      Catabolic

    • B. 

      Anabolic

    • C. 

      Amphibolic

    • D. 

      Synthesis

    • E. 

      Aerobic

  • 8. 
    Of the following electron carriers of the electron transport system, which transfers protons in addition to electrons?  
    • A. 

      Cytochrome b

    • B. 

      Cytochrome a

    • C. 

      Coenzyme Q

    • D. 

      Iron-sulfur proteins

    • E. 

      Iron-copper proteins

  • 9. 
    The gross output of ATP from glycolysis is ________, whereas the net output of ATP is ________.
    • A. 

      6;4

    • B. 

      2;4

    • C. 

      2;1

    • D. 

      4;1

    • E. 

      4;2

  • 10. 
    Which of the following statements best describes the role of NAD+/NADH in glycolysis? 
    • A. 

      NADH is capable of pumping ions during glycolysis

    • B. 

      NADH is used primarily in substrate-level

    • C. 

      Phosphorylation

    • D. 

      NAD+ is used to carry electrons

    • E. 

      NADH is used to produce energy by directly creating the phosphoanhydride bonds in ATP

  • 11. 
    During strenuous exercise, you may notice that your muscles burn. Which of the following statements best explains this phenomenon?  
    • A. 

      Pyruvic acid causes muscle pain.

    • B. 

      Carbon dioxide is building up in muscle and changing the pH.

    • C. 

      ADP is accumulating, which produces a burning sensation.

    • D. 

      Proteins are being digested to provide energy

    • E. 

      Without oxygen, pyruvate is being converted to lactic acid.

  • 12. 
    Which of the following is true of NAD+?
    • A. 

      It serves as an electron source for biological oxidation

    • B. 

      It is derived from vitamin E

    • C. 

      It is a coenzyme

    • D. 

      It represents the reduced form of niacin

    • E. 

      It releases an adenosine to become NADH

  • 13. 
    How many enzymatic steps are involved in converting glucose to pyruvate?
    • A. 

      3

    • B. 

      6

    • C. 

      12

    • D. 

      10

    • E. 

      8

  • 14. 
    Why are mitochondria so prevalent in skeletal muscle?  
    • A. 

      They are needed to provide energy for muscle contraction

    • B. 

      They give the muscle enough elasticity to contract.

    • C. 

      They are needed to repair damaged tissue that accumulates during exercise

    • D. 

      Bones and muscles require a great deal of energy to prevent them from separating

    • E. 

      The flow of blood is greatest in skeletal muscle

  • 15. 
    In eukaryotes, pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA
    • A. 

      When passing the mitochondrial cristae

    • B. 

      In the cellular cytosol

    • C. 

      In the mitochondrial matrix

    • D. 

      When passing through the mitochondrial outer membrane

    • E. 

      In the intermembrane space

  • 16. 
    The presence of Ca2+ ion transport molecules in the inner mitochondrial membrane is consistent with the mitochondrion's role in _______.
    • A. 

      Muscle contraction

    • B. 

      Regulating cytosol Ca2+ ion concentration

    • C. 

      ATP manufacture

    • D. 

      ADP manufacture

    • E. 

      Control of membrane fusion

  • 17. 
    What advantage do the cristae confer on the mitochondria?
    • A. 

      They allow the mitochondria to shrink

    • B. 

      They greatly increase the surface area for aerobic respiration machinery

    • C. 

      They confer resiliency on the cells

    • D. 

      They allow swelling of mitochondria

    • E. 

      They activate the matrix

  • 18. 
    How many carbons from 13 original glucose molecules enter the Krebs cycle in the absence of oxygen?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      13

    • C. 

      26

    • D. 

      52

    • E. 

      78

  • 19. 
    What evidence suggests that the inner mitochondrial membrane was derived from the bacterial plasma membrane?
    • A. 

      The presence of porins in the inner mitochondrial membrane and the bacterial plasma membrane

    • B. 

      The presence of cardiolipin in the inner mitochondrial membrane and the bacterial plasma membrane

    • C. 

      The absence of cholesterol from the inner mitochondrial membrane and the bacterial plasma membrane

    • D. 

      B and c

    • E. 

      A, b and c

  • 20. 
    What organisms were responsible for adding free oxygen to the atmosphere?
    • A. 

      Amoeba

    • B. 

      Cyanobacteria

    • C. 

      Photosynthetic protests

    • D. 

      Photosynthetic bacteria

    • E. 

      B and d

  • 21. 
    What happens to the carbons of pyruvate that do not enter the Krebs cycle?
    • A. 

      They are converted to carbohydrates

    • B. 

      They are converted to CO2

    • C. 

      They are converted to glucose

    • D. 

      They are converted to ATP

    • E. 

      They are converted to carbon monoxide (CO)

  • 22. 
    Which of the following is not found in a reducing atmosphere?
    • A. 

      H2

    • B. 

      NH3

    • C. 

      O2

    • D. 

      H2O

    • E. 

      A, b and d

  • 23. 
    How many carbons from 13 original glucose molecules enter the Krebs cycle in the presence of oxygen?
    • A. 

      0

    • B. 

      13

    • C. 

      26

    • D. 

      52

    • E. 

      78

  • 24. 
    What molecule is responsible for conveying 2 carbons from pyruvate to the Krebs cycle?
    • A. 

      Acetate

    • B. 

      Coenzyme G

    • C. 

      Coenzyme A

    • D. 

      Oxaloacetate

    • E. 

      Pyruvate

  • 25. 
    Which component involved in the Krebs (TCA) cycle is bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane?
    • A. 

      Oxaloacetate

    • B. 

      Succinate dehydrogenase

    • C. 

      Succinate

    • D. 

      Succinyl CoA

    • E. 

      Acetyl CoA

  • 26. 
    Where are most of the enzymes of the Krebs cycle located?
    • A. 

      In the intermembrane or intercristal space

    • B. 

      On the cristae

    • C. 

      On the ribosomes

    • D. 

      In the soluble phase of the mitochondrial matrix

  • 27. 
    To what is the 2-carbon fragment of acetyl CoA added to make citric acid at the start of the Krebs cycle?
    • A. 

      Citric acid

    • B. 

      Oxaloacetate

    • C. 

      Succinate

    • D. 

      -ketoglutarate

    • E. 

      Isocitric acid

  • 28. 
    Why is the Krebs cycle considered to be important to cellular metabolism?
    • A. 

      It makes oxidized coenzymes

    • B. 

      It makes reduced coenzymes

    • C. 

      It makes ATP (GTP)

    • D. 

      It contributes metabolites to and accepts metabolites from other metabolic pathways

  • 29. 
    What is the terminal electron acceptor of the electron transport chain?
    • A. 

      Water

    • B. 

      O2

    • C. 

      CO2

    • D. 

      CO

    • E. 

      CO3

  • 30. 
    What is the name of the process by which the electron transport chain generates the electrochemical gradient that drives ATP production in the mitochondrion?
    • A. 

      Osmosis

    • B. 

      Diffusion

    • C. 

      Chemiosmosis

    • D. 

      Frusion

    • E. 

      Facilitated diffusion

  • 31. 
    How do mitochondria generate and store the energy used to produce most of the ATP made during aerobic respiration?
    • A. 

      By generating a heat gradient

    • B. 

      By generating an ionic (electrochemical) gradient

    • C. 

      By generating a Cl- ion gradient

    • D. 

      By generating a voltage-gated channel

    • E. 

      By producing heat

  • 32. 
    ___________ exhibit lower electron affinity
    • A. 

      Strong oxidizing agents

    • B. 

      Strong elucidating agents

    • C. 

      Strong reducing agents

    • D. 

      Weak eliminating agents

    • E. 

      Weak reducing agents

  • 33. 
    The direct formation of ATP by the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to ADP is called ________.
    • A. 

      Noncyclic photophosphorylation

    • B. 

      Oxidative phosphorylation

    • C. 

      Cyclic photophosphorylation

    • D. 

      Substrate-level phosphorylation

  • 34. 
    What is another name from for partially reduced ubiquinone?
    • A. 

      Ubiquinone

    • B. 

      Ubiquinol

    • C. 

      Ubiquinde

    • D. 

      Ubisemiquinone

    • E. 

      Ubiquinate

  • 35. 
    What is formed when electrons reach the bottom of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and bind to the final electron acceptor?
    • A. 

      Carbon dioxide

    • B. 

      Hydrogen

    • C. 

      Water

    • D. 

      Carbon monoxide

    • E. 

      Oxygen

  • 36. 
    Electrochemical gradients have both a(n) _________ and a(n) ___________ component
    • A. 

      Concentration, electrical

    • B. 

      Concentration, acidic

    • C. 

      Acidic, electrical

    • D. 

      Concentration, basic

    • E. 

      Acidic, basic

  • 37. 
    The energy expended during the formation of ATP by ATP synthase is required to _______.
    • A. 

      Attach the phosphate group to ATP

    • B. 

      Attach the phosphate group to ADP

    • C. 

      Release the tightly bound ATP from the ATP synthase catalytic site

    • D. 

      Move protons against their gradient

    • E. 

      Attach the tightly bound ATP to the ATP synthase

  • 38. 
    The F0 base of ATP synthase serves as a(n) ______.
    • A. 

      Channel that conducts protons from the intermembrane space back to the matrix.

    • B. 

      Enzyme that synthesizes ATP

    • C. 

      Enzyme that hydrolyzes ATP

    • D. 

      Proton pump

    • E. 

      Channel that conducts protons from the matrix back to the intermembrane space

  • 39. 
    How many catalytic sites does ATP synthase possess?
    • A. 

      5

    • B. 

      6

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      1

    • E. 

      2

  • 40. 
    If you were studying aerobic respiration and wished to uncouple glucose oxidation and ADP phosphorylation how would you do it?
    • A. 

      Use PNP

    • B. 

      Use DNP

    • C. 

      Use NPP

    • D. 

      Use 2,4-dinitrophenol

  • 41. 
    The inner mitochondrial membrane of certain cells contains proteins that act as natural or endogenous uncouplers. These proteins are called __________.
    • A. 

      Uncouplins

    • B. 

      Uncouplases

    • C. 

      Uncoupling proteins

    • D. 

      UCPs

  • 42. 
    The O conformation of ATP synthase catalytic sites ________.
    • A. 

      Very loosely binds ADP and an inorganic phosphate group

    • B. 

      Has a very low affinity for nucleotides

    • C. 

      Has a very low affinity for proteins

    • D. 

      Binds ATP, ADP and inorganic phosphate groups tightly

    • E. 

      A and e

  • 43. 
    What drives the rotation of the F1 head of ATP synthase?
    • A. 

      Proton movement from the matrix to the intermembrane space

    • B. 

      ATP hydrolysis

    • C. 

      Proton movement from intermembrane space to the matrix

    • D. 

      ATP condensation

  • 44. 
    The L conformation of ATP synthase catalytic sites ________.
    • A. 

      Binds ATP, ADP and inorganic phosphate groups tightly

    • B. 

      Has a very low affinity for nucleotides

    • C. 

      Loosely binds AMP and inorganic phosphate groups

    • D. 

      Loosely binds ADP and inorganic phosphate groups

    • E. 

      Has a very low affinity for proteins

  • 45. 
    It has been shown that one part of ATP synthase rotates relative to another part of the enzyme.  This phenomenon is referred to as ________.
    • A. 

      Rotational catalysis

    • B. 

      Revolutionary catalysis

    • C. 

      Rotatalysis

    • D. 

      Turning catalysis

    • E. 

      Revolalysis

  • 46. 
    When ADP levels are low, ___________.
    • A. 

      ATP levels are high

    • B. 

      ATP synthesis is low

    • C. 

      ATP levels are low

    • D. 

      Protons are unable to reenter the mitochondrial matrix through ATP synthase

  • 47. 
    What energy source other than ATP hydrolysis do mitochondria, unlike most other organelles, routinely use to power their activities?
    • A. 

      ADP hydrolysis

    • B. 

      Na+ ion gradient

    • C. 

      Ca2+ gradient

    • D. 

      Proton-motive force

    • E. 

      K+ ion gradient

  • 48. 
    The three catalytic sites of ATP synthase ___________.
    • A. 

      Have different substrate binding affinities

    • B. 

      Have different product binding affinities

    • C. 

      At any one time are present in different conformations

    • D. 

      Do not pass sequentially through their three different conformations