A packet bouncing back and forth between two loopback interfaces on a router.
A condition where a return path from a destination is different from the outbound path forming a "loop".
A condition where a packet is constantly transmitted within a series of routers without ever reaching it intended destination.
The distribution of routes from one routing protocol to another.
Routing updates are split in half to reduce the update time.
Information learned from one source is not distributed back to the source.
New route information must be learned from multiple sources to be accepted.
The time between updates is split in half to speed convergence.
New route information is suppressed until the system has converged.
EIGRP uses periodic updates.
EIGRP only updates affected neighbors.
EIGRP uses broadcast updates.
EIGRP updates are partial.
EIGRP uses the efficient Bellman-Ford algorithm.
Router B will include network 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168 in its update to Router A.
During the next update interval, Router B will send a RIP update out both ports that includes the inaccessible network.
During the next update interval, Router C will send an update to Router B stating that network 22.214.171.124 is accessible in 2 hops.
Router C will learn of the loss of connectivity to network 126.96.36.199 from Router B.
Router B will include network 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206 in its update to Router C.
Uses broadcast to update all other routers in the network every 60 seconds.
Uses a Multicast address to update other routers every 90 seconds.
Will send out an update if there is a failure of a link.
Updates only contain information about routes that have changed since last updates.
RIP stands for Rest IN Pieces.
Implementation of classfull addressing
Inconsistent routing tables
Incorrectly configured static routes
A network converging too quickly
The path will be Router A >> Router B >> Router C >> Router E.
The path will be Router A >> Router D >> Router E.
Router A will load balance between Router A >> Router D >> Router E and Router A >> Router B >> Router C >> Router E paths.
Packets will alternate paths depending on the order they arrive at router A.
Used to mark routes as unreachable in updates sent to other routers.
Prevents regular update messages from reinstating a route that may have gone bad.
Prevents a router from advertising a network through the interface from which the update came.
Limits the time or hops that a packet can traverse through the network before it should be discarded.
Defines a maximum metric value for each distance vector routing protocol by setting a maximum hop count.
Inconsistent traffic forwarding
No traffic forwarding until system converges
Inconsistent routing table entries
Routing table updates sent to wrong destinations
Ensures an invalid route has a metric of 15
Prevents a router from sending any updates after it has introduced a routing loop into the network
Ensures every new route is valid before sending an update
Instructs routers to ignore updates, for a specified time or event, about possible inaccessible routes.
They will share all routes saved in NVRAM prior to the power loss with their directly connected neighbors.
They will multicast hello packets to all other routers in the network to establish neighbor adjacencies.
They will send updates that include only directly connected routes to their directly connected neighbors.
They will broadcast their full routing table to all routers in the network.
EIGRP can be used with Cisco and Non-Cisco routers.
EIGRP sends triggered updates whenever there is change in topology that influences the routing information.
EIGRP has an infinite metric of 16.
EIGRP sends a partial routing table update, which includes just routes that have been changed
EIGRP broadcasts its updates to all routers in the network.
Count to Infinity
Updates are broadcast only when there are changes to the topology
Updates are broadcast at regular intervals
Broadcasts are sent to 0.0.0.0
Broadcasts are send to 255.255.255.255
Only changes are included in the updates
The hold-down timer will wait to remove the route from the table for 60 seconds.
The invalid timer will mark the route as unusable if an update has not been received in 180 seconds.
The update timer will request an update for routes that were learned from Router B.
The hello timer will expire after 10 seconds and the route will be flushed out the routing table.
The gatekeeper will send out a network down message.
Places it immediately in the routing table.
Adjusts the metric for the new route to show the added distance for the route.
Advertises this route out all other interfaces except the one that it came in on.
Sends a ping packet to verify that the path is a feasible path.
Strips off the encapsulation and adds it to the routing table.
An update routing timer expires.
A corrupt update message is received.
A route is installed in the routing table.
The network is converged.
It prevents the synchronization of routing updates by buffering the updates as they leave the router interfaces.
It prevents the synchronization of routing updates by subtracting a random length of time ranging from 0% to 15% of the specified interval time from the next routing update interval.
It prevents the synchronization of routing updates by causing the router to skip every other scheduled update time.
It prevents the synchronization of routing updates by forcing the router to listen when its time for other updates on the lines before sending its update.