Every 30 seconds
Every 180 seconds
After the holddown time expires
When a link goes up or down
When a routing loop occurs
BOS -> ATL because this path is the least hops
BOS -> ATL because this path is highest cost
BOS -> ORL -> JAX -> ATL because this path is the lowest cost
Traffic would load balance across all links
Each router builds a simple view of the network based on hop count.
Routers flood the network with LSAs to discover routing loops.
Each router builds a complete and synchronized view of the network.
Routers use hold-down timers to prevent routing loops.
All routers in the area have link state databases
Each router in the area floods LSPs to all neighbors
LSPs use the reserved multicast address of 188.8.131.52 to reach neighbors
Routing loops are prevented by running the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL)
Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) is the protocol used by for the delivery and reception of LSPs
Floods the LSP to neighbors
Calculates the SPF algorithm
Runs the Bellman-Ford algorithm
Computes the best path to the destination network
30 second timer expires
Whenever the network topology changes
Immediately after the Bellman-Ford algorithm has run
Immediately after the DUAL FSM has built the topology database
Upon initial startup of router or routing protocol
Sends out its updated routing table to both ORL and BOS routers
Sends out the individual link-state packets out the interface connected to BOS
Queries BOS to see if it has a better route
Only adds it to the local routing table and performs no other actions
Splitting routing topologies into smaller areas
Assigning lower process priorities to route calculations
Using update timers to restrict routing updates
Strict split horizon rules to reduce routing table entries
Successors are placed into the routing table
SPF computes best path to each destination network
LSPs are flooded to all neighbors to converge the network
DUAL algorithm is run to find best path to destination networks
The topology database eliminates the need for a routing table.
Each router independently determines the route to each network.
Link-state protocols require less router processor power than distance vector protocols
After the inital LSP flooding, they generally require less bandwidth to communicate changes in a topology.
Frequent periodic updates are sent to minimize the number of incorrect routes in the topological database.
A and E
B and C
A, B, C, and E
Updates triggered by network changes
Updates sent at regular intervals
Updates sent only to directly connected neighbors
Updates that include complete routing tables
RIP version 2
Uptime of the route
Cost of the link
A list of all the routing protocols in use
B(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.3 area 0
B(config-router)# network 10.16.1.0 0.0.0.224 area 0
B(config-router)# network 10.16.1.0 255.255.255.224 area 0
B(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.255 area 0 B(config-router)# network 10.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0
B(config)# int fa0/0 B(config-if)# router-id 192.168.1.5
B(config)# int lo0 B(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.5
B(config)# router ospf 1 B(config-router)# router-id 192.168.1.5
B (config)# router ospf 1 B(config-router)# ip address 192.168.1.5
Shut down the loop back interface
Use the OSPF router-id 192.168.100.1 command
Use the clear ip ospf process command
Nothing, the router-id of Router1 is already 192.168.100.1
OSPF autonomous system IDs do not match.
OSPF process IDs do not match.
OSPF network types are identical.
OSPF hello or dead timers do not match.
The number 2 is the autonomous system number.
The number 2 indicates the number of networks advertised by OSPF.
The number 2 identifies this particular instance of OSPF on this router.
The number 2 indicates the priority of the OSPF process on this router.