# Carsyon 2 E Learning May

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Questions: 20 | Attempts: 57

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• 1.

### The systolic blood pressure is the

• A.

Pressure when the ventricles contract

• B.

Pressure when the ventricles relax

• C.

Pressure when the atrium contract

• D.

Pressure when the atrium relax

A. Pressure when the ventricles contract
Explanation
The systolic blood pressure is the pressure when the ventricles contract. During ventricular contraction, blood is forcefully pumped out of the heart into the arteries, resulting in a temporary increase in pressure. This is the highest pressure reached during the cardiac cycle and is represented by the top number in a blood pressure reading.

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• 2.

### The correct formula for blood pressure is

• A.

Blood Pressure = Cardiac Output X Heart Rate

• B.

Blood Pressure = Cardiac Ouput X Peripheral Resistance

• C.

Blood Pressure = Stroke Volume X Heart Rate

• D.

Blood Pressure = Stroke volume X Peripheral Resistance

B. Blood Pressure = Cardiac Ouput X Peripheral Resistance
Explanation
The correct formula for blood pressure is Blood Pressure = Cardiac Output X Peripheral Resistance. Blood pressure is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart (cardiac output) and the resistance to blood flow in the blood vessels (peripheral resistance). When the heart pumps more blood or there is increased resistance in the blood vessels, blood pressure increases. Therefore, the formula accurately represents the relationship between cardiac output and peripheral resistance in determining blood pressure.

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• 3.

### Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart into the aorta during one contraction which is approx. 70 ml/ beat. Is the statement True or false

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
The statement is true. Stroke volume refers to the amount of blood that is ejected from the heart into the aorta with each contraction. It is typically around 70 ml per beat.

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• 4.

• A.

Vasoconstriction

• B.

Tachycardia

• C.

Increased Cardiac output

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
Sympathetic overactivity refers to the excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This can lead to vasoconstriction, which is the narrowing of blood vessels, resulting in increased resistance to blood flow. Tachycardia, which is an abnormally fast heart rate, can also occur due to sympathetic overactivity. Additionally, sympathetic overactivity can increase cardiac output, which is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. Therefore, all of the given options are correct and can be attributed to sympathetic overactivity.

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• 5.

### Most of the major guidelines recommend hypertension goals to be

• A.

120/80 mm of Hg

• B.

130/80 mm of Hg

• C.

140/90 mm of Hg

• D.

130/90 mm of Hg

C. 140/90 mm of Hg
Explanation
The correct answer is 140/90 mm of Hg. This is because most of the major guidelines recommend this as the goal for hypertension. Hypertension is defined as having a blood pressure reading of 140/90 mm of Hg or higher. It is important to maintain blood pressure within this range to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and other complications associated with high blood pressure.

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• 6.

### Which of the following statement is False

• A.

Angiotensin II is a potent vasodilator

• B.

Renin is released from Kidney

• C.

Angiotensin I is converted to Angiotensin II by ACE Inhibitor

• D.

Undesired effects of AII are produced through AT1 receptors

A. Angiotensin II is a potent vasodilator
Explanation
Angiotensin II is not a potent vasodilator, but rather a potent vasoconstrictor. It causes the smooth muscles in blood vessels to contract, leading to an increase in blood pressure. This is why drugs that block the effects of angiotensin II, such as ACE inhibitors and AT1 receptor blockers, are commonly used to treat hypertension.

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• 7.

• A.

Water excretion from the body

• B.

Increased plasma volume with water retention

• C.

Vasodilation

• D.

Hypotension

B. Increased plasma volume with water retention
Explanation
Sodium overload leads to increased plasma volume with water retention because excessive sodium intake causes the body to retain water in order to maintain a balance of electrolytes. This leads to an increase in the volume of plasma, which is the liquid component of blood. The retained water also contributes to an overall increase in blood volume.

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• 8.

### Essential Hypertension is

• A.

Normal blood pressure

• B.

Primary Hypertension and in majority of cases there is no identifiable cause

• C.

High blood pressure casused by underlying condition (renal, endocrine, vascular) and drugs

• D.

Blood Pressure in Elderly people

B. Primary Hypertension and in majority of cases there is no identifiable cause
Explanation
Essential hypertension refers to high blood pressure that occurs without any identifiable cause. It is also known as primary hypertension. This means that in the majority of cases, there is no specific underlying condition or factor that can be attributed to the development of high blood pressure. Essential hypertension is the most common type of hypertension and is often influenced by factors such as genetics, lifestyle choices, and age.

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• 9.

### Edema (Fluid accumulation in the ankle) is a side effect commonly seen in which class of drugs

• A.

Diuretics

• B.

Beta blockers

• C.

ARBs

• D.

Calcium channel blockers

D. Calcium channel blockers
Explanation
Calcium channel blockers are a class of drugs that are commonly associated with the side effect of edema, which is fluid accumulation in the ankle. These medications work by blocking the entry of calcium into the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels, causing them to relax and widen. This can lead to fluid leakage from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissues, resulting in edema. Diuretics, beta blockers, and ARBs are not typically associated with this side effect.

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• 10.

### ______decreases the force of contraction of the muscle cells of the heart

• A.

Calcium Channel Blockers

• B.

Beta Blockers

• C.

Alpha Blockers

• D.

Angiotensin Receptor Blockers

A. Calcium Channel Blockers
Explanation
Calcium Channel Blockers decrease the force of contraction of the muscle cells of the heart. These medications work by blocking the entry of calcium into the muscle cells, which is necessary for the contraction of the heart. By reducing the amount of calcium available, calcium channel blockers help to relax and widen the blood vessels, thereby decreasing the force of contraction of the heart muscle. This can be beneficial in conditions such as high blood pressure, angina, and certain arrhythmias.

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• 11.

### Caution should be taken while prescribing _____ to a asthma patient

• A.

ACE Inhibitor

• B.

Beta Blocker

• C.

Calcium Channel Blocker

• D.

Diuretic

B. Beta Blocker
Explanation
Caution should be taken while prescribing a beta blocker to an asthma patient because beta blockers can potentially worsen asthma symptoms by blocking the effects of adrenaline on the beta receptors in the lungs. This can lead to bronchoconstriction and difficulty in breathing for the patient. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative medications or use beta blockers with caution and close monitoring in asthma patients.

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• 12.

### Which class of antihypertensive drug may cause dry cough?

• A.

ACE Inhbitor

• B.

Beta Blocker

• C.

Calcium Channel Blocker

• D.

Diuretic

A. ACE Inhbitor
Explanation
ACE inhibitors are a class of antihypertensive drugs that work by blocking the enzyme ACE, which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. This leads to vasodilation and decreased blood pressure. One common side effect of ACE inhibitors is a dry cough, which is believed to be caused by an accumulation of bradykinin. The cough can be bothersome for some patients, but it is usually not serious and can be managed with alternative medications if necessary.

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• 13.

### The landmark HOPE Trial showed end organ protection with which molecule

• A.

Losartan

• B.

Atenolol

• C.

Telmisartan

• D.

Ramipril

D. Ramipril
Explanation
The HOPE Trial demonstrated that Ramipril provides end organ protection. This means that Ramipril has been shown to protect organs such as the heart, kidneys, and brain from damage caused by various conditions, such as high blood pressure or diabetes. The trial likely compared Ramipril to other molecules, such as Losartan, Atenolol, and Telmisartan, and found that Ramipril was the most effective in providing this protection.

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• 14.

### The First study to show end organ protection with ARBs is

• A.

LIFE

• B.

HOPE

• C.

ONTARGET

• D.

A. LIFE
Explanation
The correct answer is LIFE. The LIFE study was the first to demonstrate the protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on end organs. This study compared the effects of the ARB losartan with the beta-blocker atenolol in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. The results showed that losartan was more effective in reducing cardiovascular events and mortality, indicating its ability to provide end organ protection.

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• 15.

### Which of the following statement is TRUE?

• A.

CV mortality risk doubles with each 40/20 mm of BP increment

• B.

CV mortality risk doubles with each 20/10 mm of BP increment

• C.

CV mortality risk reduces with each 20/10 mm of BP increment

• D.

CV Mortality risk is independent of BP increment

B. CV mortality risk doubles with each 20/10 mm of BP increment
• 16.

### The Number of patients enrolled in the Landmark SPRINT Trial is

• A.

5000 patients

• B.

9300 patients

• C.

7500 patients

• D.

15000 patients

B. 9300 patients
Explanation
The correct answer is 9300 patients. This is the number of patients enrolled in the Landmark SPRINT Trial.

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• 17.

### The main conclusion of SPRINT Trial is

• A.

Intensive BP management is not beneficial for CV outcomes

• B.

Intensive BP management saves Lives

• C.

None of the Above

• D.

All of the above

B. Intensive BP management saves Lives
Explanation
The main conclusion of the SPRINT Trial is that intensive blood pressure (BP) management saves lives. This means that actively managing and lowering high blood pressure can significantly reduce the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. The trial likely provided evidence and data supporting this conclusion, which is why it is considered the correct answer.

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• 18.

### The Target Systolic Goal in SPRINT Trial is

• A.

130 mm

• B.

140 mm

• C.

120 mm

• D.

150 mm

C. 120 mm
Explanation
The target systolic goal in the SPRINT Trial is 120 mm. This means that the trial aimed to lower the systolic blood pressure of participants to 120 mmHg. The SPRINT Trial was a landmark clinical study that investigated the optimal blood pressure target for reducing the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in adults with hypertension. The trial found that targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg significantly reduced the risk of heart attacks, strokes, and death compared to a target of 140 mmHg.

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• 19.

### Select the odd man out

• A.

Losartan

• B.

Ramipril

• C.

Chlorthalidone

• D.

Olmesartan

C. Chlorthalidone
Explanation
The odd man out in this list is Chlorthalidone because it is the only medication that belongs to the thiazide diuretic class, while the others are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). Chlorthalidone is primarily used to treat high blood pressure by reducing fluid retention, whereas Losartan, Ramipril, and Olmesartan work by relaxing blood vessels and blocking the effects of certain hormones to lower blood pressure.

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• 20.

### Amount of blood pumped out by the heart in one minute is known as

• A.

Stroke Volume

• B.

Cardiac output

• C.

None of the Above

• D.

All of the above

B. Cardiac output
Explanation
Cardiac output refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out by the heart in one minute. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped out with each heartbeat) by the heart rate (the number of heartbeats per minute). Therefore, cardiac output is the correct answer as it accurately describes the volume of blood pumped by the heart in a given timeframe.

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