C4 Ha Legal & Ethical

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Duty of care may be defined as to take reasonable care to avoid doing something that you can reasonably see might be harmful to someone, and is not the responsibility of the health administrator

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    C. The first statement is true and the second is false
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that duty of care is indeed defined as taking reasonable care to avoid doing something that could harm someone. This responsibility falls on individuals to ensure the safety and well-being of others. However, it is not solely the responsibility of a health administrator. Other professionals and individuals in various roles also have a duty of care towards others. Therefore, the first statement is true and the second statement is false.

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  • 2. 

    Select the correct source of law for the following definition:Law that is current, pending decisions in court cases

    • A.

      Common law

    • B.

      Constitutional law

    • C.

      Criminal law

    • D.

      Statute law

    Correct Answer
    A. Common law
    Explanation
    Common law is the correct source of law for the given definition. Common law refers to the body of law derived from judicial decisions and precedents rather than from statutes or constitutions. It is based on the principle of stare decisis, which means that lower courts are bound by the decisions of higher courts. Therefore, common law is constantly evolving and adapting to new circumstances and pending decisions in court cases.

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  • 3. 

    Select the correct source of law for the following definition:Law that protects society

    • A.

      Common law

    • B.

      Constitutional law

    • C.

      Criminal law

    • D.

      Statute law

    Correct Answer
    C. Criminal law
    Explanation
    Criminal law is the correct source of law for the definition "law that protects society." Criminal law refers to the body of law that deals with crimes and offenses committed against society as a whole. It includes laws that define and punish crimes, as well as procedures for prosecuting and punishing individuals who violate these laws. Criminal law aims to maintain social order, deter criminal behavior, and protect the safety and well-being of the public.

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  • 4. 

    Select the correct source of law for the following definition:Law made by an act of parliament

    • A.

      Common law

    • B.

      Constitutional law

    • C.

      Criminal law

    • D.

      Statute law

    Correct Answer
    D. Statute law
    Explanation
    Statute law is the correct source of law for the given definition. Statute law refers to laws that are created by an act of parliament. These laws are formally written and codified, and they are enacted by the legislative branch of the government. Unlike common law, which is developed through court decisions, statute law is specifically created and passed by the legislative body. Constitutional law refers to laws that are derived from the constitution, while criminal law refers to laws that deal with crimes and their punishments.

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  • 5. 

    Tick the most common statutory and regulations relating to the health workplace from the list below:

    • A.

      Health records legislation

    • B.

      Privacy legislation

    • C.

      WHS regulations

    • D.

      Child protection legislation

    • E.

      Discrimination legislation

    • F.

      Criminal legislation

    • G.

      Immigration legislation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Health records legislation
    B. Privacy legislation
    C. WHS regulations
    D. Child protection legislation
    E. Discrimination legislation
    Explanation
    The most common statutory and regulations relating to the health workplace include health records legislation, privacy legislation, WHS regulations, child protection legislation, and discrimination legislation. These laws and regulations are essential for ensuring the protection of individuals' health information, maintaining privacy, promoting workplace health and safety, safeguarding the well-being of children, and preventing discrimination in the workplace. Criminal legislation and immigration legislation may also be relevant in certain contexts, but they are not as directly related to the health workplace as the other options.

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  • 6. 

    The client relationship is not effected by a breach in confidentiality. Only legal ramifications are a consequence of a breach in confidentiality. 

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    D. The first statement is false and the second is true
    Explanation
    A breach in confidentiality can indeed affect the client relationship as it may lead to a loss of trust and confidence in the service provider. Clients may feel that their privacy has been violated and may choose to discontinue their relationship with the provider. On the other hand, legal ramifications are indeed a consequence of a breach in confidentiality, as it may lead to legal actions and penalties. Therefore, the first statement is false and the second statement is true.

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  • 7. 

    Negligence is when damage/harm occurs to another person as a result of someone else not exercising reasonable care. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Negligence refers to the failure of exercising reasonable care, which can result in damage or harm to another person. This means that if someone does not take the necessary precautions or acts carelessly, they can be held responsible for any harm caused to someone else. Therefore, the statement "Negligence is when damage/harm occurs to another person as a result of someone else not exercising reasonable care" is true.

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  • 8. 

    A health administrator must identify the legal requirements that apply to the work role, but only adhere to legal requirements according to the the workplace policies and procedures and scope of practice.

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    A. Both statements are true
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that a health administrator is responsible for identifying the legal requirements that apply to their work role. However, they are only required to adhere to these legal requirements within the framework of their workplace policies and procedures and their scope of practice. This means that while they need to be aware of and follow the legal requirements, they also need to consider the specific guidelines and limitations set by their workplace and professional scope. Therefore, both statements in the answer are true.

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  • 9. 

    Standard of care depends on what is reasonable in the circumstances. However, reasonable is well defined for all circumstances. 

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    C. The first statement is true and the second is false
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the first statement is true because the standard of care does depend on what is reasonable in the circumstances. However, the second statement is false because reasonable is not well defined for all circumstances. The concept of reasonableness can vary depending on the specific situation and context in which it is being applied.

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  • 10. 

    All of the following are professional standards required to follow, except?

    • A.

      Educated

    • B.

      Dependability

    • C.

      Punctuality

    • D.

      Confidentiality

    Correct Answer
    A. Educated
    Explanation
    The question asks for a professional standard that is not required to follow. The standards listed are dependability, punctuality, and confidentiality. These are all important qualities that professionals should possess. However, being educated is not listed as a professional standard. While education is certainly important in many professions, it is not necessarily a standard that all professionals are required to meet.

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  • 11. 

    Tick all of the following are methods to  maintain competence in your given field from the list below: (more than one may be selected) 

    • A.

      Peer support

    • B.

      Professional development

    • C.

      Reading up on current literature

    • D.

      Membership of professional associations

    • E.

      Participating in research programs

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Peer support
    B. Professional development
    C. Reading up on current literature
    D. Membership of professional associations
    E. Participating in research programs
    Explanation
    To maintain competence in a given field, there are several methods that can be employed. Peer support allows individuals to learn from and collaborate with colleagues, enhancing their knowledge and skills. Professional development involves engaging in activities such as workshops, seminars, and training programs to stay updated with the latest advancements in the field. Reading up on current literature helps individuals stay informed about new research and developments. Membership of professional associations provides access to resources, networking opportunities, and continuing education. Participating in research programs allows individuals to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in their field while also enhancing their own expertise.

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  • 12. 

    How many Australian Privacy Principles (APPs) are identified?

    • A.

      14

    • B.

      11

    • C.

      12

    • D.

      13

    Correct Answer
    D. 13
    Explanation
    There are 13 Australian Privacy Principles (APPs) that have been identified. These principles outline how organizations should handle and protect personal information in Australia. They cover various aspects such as the collection, use, disclosure, and storage of personal information, as well as individuals' rights to access and correct their information. It is important for organizations to comply with these principles to ensure the privacy and security of individuals' personal data.

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  • 13. 

    All of the following are confidentiality legislation, except?

    • A.

      Pirate Act 1956

    • B.

      National Health Act 1953

    • C.

      Freedom of Information Act 1982

    • D.

      Privacy Act 1988

    Correct Answer
    A. Pirate Act 1956
  • 14. 

    Tick all of the following methods to keep information secure:

    • A.

      Keeping it in locked filing cabinets

    • B.

      Keeping it in locked rooms

    • C.

      Having it password protected on computers

    • D.

      Create multiple copies

    • E.

      Dispose in the general rubbsh

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Keeping it in locked filing cabinets
    B. Keeping it in locked rooms
    C. Having it password protected on computers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to keep information secure by keeping it in locked filing cabinets, locked rooms, and having it password protected on computers. These methods ensure physical and digital security by restricting access to the information. Keeping information in locked filing cabinets and locked rooms prevents unauthorized individuals from physically accessing the information. Having information password protected on computers adds an additional layer of security by requiring a password to access the digital files. These measures help to protect sensitive and confidential information from being compromised.

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  • 15. 

    It is recommend to share personal information for the purpose of research or statistics?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Sharing personal information is not recommended for the purpose of research or statistics. Personal information is sensitive and should be protected to ensure privacy and security. Collecting personal information without consent or a legitimate purpose can lead to breaches of privacy and potentially harm individuals. Therefore, it is important to handle personal information responsibly and adhere to ethical guidelines when conducting research or collecting statistics.

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  • 16. 

    Online summary of your health record is mandatory  for the State of NSW?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given answer, False, is correct because there is no mandatory requirement for an online summary of a person's health record in the State of NSW. While it may be beneficial to have an online summary for convenience and accessibility, it is not a mandatory requirement. This means that individuals have the choice to opt for an online summary or not, based on their personal preference.

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  • 17. 

    Consent may be implied?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Consent may be implied when a person's actions or behavior suggest that they have given consent, even if they have not explicitly stated it. Implied consent is often used in situations where it is impractical or unnecessary to obtain explicit consent, such as in everyday interactions or certain legal situations. It is important to note that implied consent should never be assumed in situations where explicit consent is required or when there is any doubt about the person's willingness to consent.

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  • 18. 

    Consent is valid if the client is not competent to give consent?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. Consent is only valid if the client is competent to give consent. Competence refers to the ability to understand the nature and consequences of the decision being made. If a client is not competent, their consent cannot be considered valid as they may not fully comprehend the implications of their decision. It is important to ensure that individuals have the capacity to make informed choices and provide consent voluntarily.

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  • 19. 

    Consent is valid if it was given freely, even if it was for another procedure?

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    C. The first statement is true and the second is false
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because it accurately reflects the validity of consent. According to the statement, consent is valid if it was given freely, regardless of whether it was for another procedure. This means that as long as the consent was given voluntarily, it remains valid even if it was for a different procedure. However, the second statement is false because it contradicts the first statement by stating that both statements are false.

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  • 20. 

    Failure to warn a client about the material risks inherent in a proposed procedure is a breach of the clinician's duty of care?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Failure to warn a client about the material risks inherent in a proposed procedure is indeed a breach of the clinician's duty of care. It is the responsibility of the clinician to inform the client about any potential risks associated with a procedure so that the client can make an informed decision about their healthcare. By failing to provide this necessary information, the clinician is not fulfilling their duty to prioritize the client's well-being and autonomy.

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  • 21. 

    Tick all of the valid consent strategies from the list below:

    • A.

      Apply time pressure

    • B.

      Apply physical pressure

    • C.

      Actively listening to client concerns and addressing them

    • D.

      Asking open questions

    • E.

      Involving advocates or trusted friends of the client in the decision-making environment

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Actively listening to client concerns and addressing them
    D. Asking open questions
    E. Involving advocates or trusted friends of the client in the decision-making environment
    Explanation
    The valid consent strategies from the list are actively listening to client concerns and addressing them, asking open questions, and involving advocates or trusted friends of the client in the decision-making environment. These strategies prioritize the client's input, ensure their concerns are heard and addressed, and involve trusted individuals who can provide support and guidance in the decision-making process.

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  • 22. 

    All of the following are examples not considered having capacity, except?

    • A.

      Child over 14 yrs of age

    • B.

      Some people affected by mental illness

    • C.

      Some people affected by drugs or alcohol

    • D.

      Some people affected by dementia

    Correct Answer
    A. Child over 14 yrs of age
    Explanation
    The question is asking for an example that is not considered to have capacity. Capacity refers to the ability to make informed decisions. A child over 14 years of age is not considered to have full legal capacity, as they are still minors. On the other hand, individuals affected by mental illness, drugs or alcohol, and dementia may have impaired decision-making abilities, but they are still considered to have capacity unless proven otherwise.

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  • 23. 

    The health administrator has the responsibility to recognise breaches and to report the incident to the appropriate person

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The health administrator plays a crucial role in ensuring the safety and security of patient information. They are responsible for identifying any breaches or incidents that may compromise patient privacy or data security. Once a breach is recognized, it is their duty to report the incident promptly to the appropriate person or authority. This helps in initiating the necessary actions to address the breach, investigate the incident, and prevent any further harm or unauthorized access to sensitive information. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 24. 

    Tick the following breaches that may be found in the workplace:

    • A.

      Discussing clients outside of a work context

    • B.

      Maintaining a duty of care responsibilities

    • C.

      Leaving confidential information on display

    • D.

      Not providing equal opportunities

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Discussing clients outside of a work context
    C. Leaving confidential information on display
    D. Not providing equal opportunities
    Explanation
    The given answer correctly identifies three breaches that may be found in the workplace: discussing clients outside of a work context, leaving confidential information on display, and not providing equal opportunities. These actions can all lead to breaches of privacy, confidentiality, and discrimination. Discussing clients outside of work can violate their privacy and confidentiality rights. Leaving confidential information on display can expose sensitive information to unauthorized individuals. Not providing equal opportunities can lead to discrimination and unfair treatment of employees.

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  • 25. 

    It is important to report a breach to the appropriate person and to take all breaches seriously?

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    A. Both statements are true
    Explanation
    Reporting a breach to the appropriate person is crucial because it allows for prompt action to be taken to mitigate the potential damage caused by the breach. Taking all breaches seriously is important because even seemingly minor breaches can have significant consequences and can potentially lead to more serious security incidents. By acknowledging the importance of both reporting breaches and taking them seriously, organizations can effectively address and prevent further breaches.

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  • 26. 

    Only the clinical staff must follow policies and procedures regarding confidentiality and disclosure?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Only the clinical staff must follow policies and procedures regarding confidentiality and disclosure" is false. In any organization, not just healthcare settings, it is essential for all staff members to adhere to policies and procedures regarding confidentiality and disclosure. This is to ensure the protection of sensitive information and maintain the privacy of individuals. Failure to comply with these policies can result in legal consequences and compromise the trust of patients or clients. Therefore, it is crucial for all employees, regardless of their role, to understand and follow these policies.

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  • 27. 

    All of the following are methods to learn about the organisational policies and procedures regarding confidentiality and disclosure, except?

    • A.

      The supervisor

    • B.

      The policy and procedures manual

    • C.

      The industry Circulars

    • D.

      TV and movies

    Correct Answer
    D. TV and movies
    Explanation
    TV and movies are not methods to learn about organizational policies and procedures regarding confidentiality and disclosure. While the supervisor, policy and procedures manual, and industry circulars are all valid sources of information for understanding these policies, TV and movies are not typically designed to provide this type of specific guidance.

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  • 28. 

    Ethical principles suggest that all members of the health team have certain obligations and responsibilities to their clients and to each other

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Ethical principles in healthcare emphasize the importance of obligations and responsibilities towards clients and fellow team members. These principles guide healthcare professionals to prioritize the well-being and rights of their clients, ensuring that they are treated with respect, confidentiality, and receive appropriate care. Additionally, ethical principles promote collaboration, communication, and mutual support among healthcare team members, fostering a positive and effective work environment. Thus, the statement that all members of the health team have certain obligations and responsibilities to their clients and each other is true.

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  • 29. 

    Tick all of the elements of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights from the list below: (more than one may be selected)

    • A.

      Right to education

    • B.

      Right to freedom of movement

    • C.

      Right to justice

    • D.

      Right to protection

    • E.

      Right to adequate shelter

    • F.

      Right to make decisions and have a choice

    • G.

      Right to affordable medicine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Right to education
    B. Right to freedom of movement
    C. Right to justice
    D. Right to protection
    E. Right to adequate shelter
    F. Right to make decisions and have a choice
    Explanation
    The answer is correct. All of the elements listed are indeed part of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

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  • 30. 

    In the health sector, a client has ______ main rights

    • A.

      Five

    • B.

      Six

    • C.

      Seven

    • D.

      Ten

    Correct Answer
    C. Seven
    Explanation
    In the health sector, a client has seven main rights. These rights ensure that the client receives proper care and treatment, and include the right to informed consent, the right to privacy and confidentiality, the right to access their medical records, the right to timely and appropriate care, the right to refuse treatment, the right to be treated with dignity and respect, and the right to complain and seek redress if their rights are violated. These rights are essential in promoting patient autonomy and ensuring quality healthcare delivery.

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  • 31. 

    A client has the right to make a complaint?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A client has the right to make a complaint because it is important for clients to have a voice and express their concerns or dissatisfaction with a product or service. By allowing clients to make complaints, businesses can address and resolve any issues, improve their products or services, and maintain customer satisfaction. This right also promotes transparency and accountability in the business-client relationship.

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  • 32. 

    The client has the right to be involved in decisions regarding treatment and the right to be treated fairly?

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    A. Both statements are true
    Explanation
    The client's right to be involved in decisions regarding treatment and the right to be treated fairly are both true. This means that the client has the right to participate in the decision-making process regarding their treatment plan and have a say in the choices made. Additionally, they have the right to receive fair and unbiased treatment, without any discrimination or prejudice. These rights ensure that the client is respected, empowered, and receives the best possible care.

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  • 33. 

    Standards of ethical and professional conduct for the health professional can be found in all of the following, except?

    • A.

      NSW Code of Conduct

    • B.

      Organisational Code of Conduct

    • C.

      Industry Code of Conduct

    • D.

      Personal Code of Conduct

    Correct Answer
    D. Personal Code of Conduct
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Personal Code of Conduct." The standards of ethical and professional conduct for health professionals are typically established and regulated by external entities such as professional organizations, governing bodies, or government agencies. These entities provide codes of conduct that health professionals are expected to adhere to, such as the NSW Code of Conduct, Organizational Code of Conduct, and Industry Code of Conduct. However, a personal code of conduct refers to an individual's own set of personal values and principles, which may vary and are not universally regulated or applicable to all health professionals.

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  • 34. 

    Characteristics of the NSW code of conduct include all of the following, except?

    • A.

      Requires just a few to behave in an acceptable manner

    • B.

      Defines standards of ethical and professional conduct

    • C.

      Assists with building a positive workplace culture

    • D.

      Provides a framework to promote ethical day-to-day conduct and decision-making

    Correct Answer
    A. Requires just a few to behave in an acceptable manner
    Explanation
    The NSW code of conduct includes defining standards of ethical and professional conduct, assisting with building a positive workplace culture, and providing a framework to promote ethical day-to-day conduct and decision-making. However, it does not require just a few individuals to behave in an acceptable manner.

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  • 35. 

    As a member of a health team you are expected to work just to the same level as your fellow staff members.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    As a member of a health team, you are not expected to work just to the same level as your fellow staff members. Each member of the team has their own unique skills, expertise, and responsibilities. The expectation is that each member will contribute to the team based on their individual abilities and qualifications. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 36. 

    Tick the principles that form a positive work-based relationship:

    • A.

      Cooperation

    • B.

      Mutual respect

    • C.

      Trust

    • D.

      Loyalty

    • E.

      Reciprocal effort

    • F.

      Envy

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cooperation
    B. Mutual respect
    C. Trust
    D. Loyalty
    E. Reciprocal effort
    Explanation
    The principles that form a positive work-based relationship are cooperation, mutual respect, trust, loyalty, and reciprocal effort. These principles are essential for creating a harmonious and productive work environment. Cooperation involves working together towards common goals, while mutual respect ensures that individuals treat each other with dignity and professionalism. Trust is crucial for building strong relationships and fostering open communication. Loyalty promotes commitment and support within the team. Reciprocal effort emphasizes the importance of everyone contributing their fair share to achieve success. Envy, on the other hand, is not a principle that fosters positive relationships and can create negativity and conflict in the workplace.

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  • 37. 

    Employers reserve the right to change agreed work availability and wages without notice.

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    B. Both statements are false
  • 38. 

    Employee's have the responsibility to arrive to work on time and carry out all duties assigned by a supervisor, even if they are out the scope of practice.

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    C. The first statement is true and the second is false
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that employees do have the responsibility to arrive to work on time and carry out all duties assigned by a supervisor. This is a basic expectation in most workplaces, as punctuality and completing assigned tasks are important for productivity and maintaining a professional work environment. However, the second statement, which states that these responsibilities are out of the scope of practice, is false. The scope of practice generally refers to the specific tasks and responsibilities that an employee is trained and authorized to perform within their job role, but being punctual and following instructions are generally considered universal responsibilities for all employees.

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  • 39. 

    Unethical conduct examples, include:

    • A.

      Gossiping about a client

    • B.

      Intolerance of other cultures

    • C.

      Both are examples

    • D.

      Neither are examples

    Correct Answer
    C. Both are examples
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Both are examples". This means that both gossiping about a client and intolerance of other cultures are considered unethical conduct examples. Gossiping about a client violates the principles of confidentiality and professionalism, as it breaches trust and can harm the client's reputation. Intolerance of other cultures demonstrates a lack of respect and understanding, which goes against the principles of diversity and inclusivity. Both behaviors are unethical and should be avoided in professional settings.

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  • 40. 

    All of the following are methods to report unethical breach, except?

    • A.

      Discussing the issues outside of work

    • B.

      Document details of the unethical behaviour clearly

    • C.

      Document the course of action you have taken and the reasons for that course of action

    • D.

      Always speak to your supervisor, or another appropriate staff member

    • E.

      You may take it to your health safety representative (HSR)

    Correct Answer
    A. Discussing the issues outside of work
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Discussing the issues outside of work." This is because discussing the issues outside of work may not be an effective method to report an unethical breach. It is important to follow proper channels and report the unethical behavior to the appropriate authorities or supervisors within the workplace. Discussing the issues outside of work may not ensure that the concern is addressed and resolved in a timely and appropriate manner.

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  • 41. 

    Some procedures are to be undertaken with the client’s informed consent?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is true. Informed consent is a legal and ethical requirement in many professions, including healthcare and law. It means that before any procedure or treatment is performed, the client must be fully informed about the risks, benefits, and alternatives involved, and they must give their voluntary consent based on this information. This ensures that the client has the right to make decisions about their own body and well-being.

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  • 42. 

    It is important to be aware of cultural differences, and respond in a culturally appropriate manner whenever possible.

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    A. Both statements are true
    Explanation
    Being aware of cultural differences and responding in a culturally appropriate manner is indeed important. This is because different cultures have different norms, values, and expectations, and being aware of these differences helps in avoiding misunderstandings, conflicts, and disrespectful behavior. Responding in a culturally appropriate manner shows respect for other cultures and promotes effective communication and positive relationships. Therefore, both statements are true.

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  • 43. 

    Discrimination is against the law in Australia 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Discrimination is indeed against the law in Australia. The country has various laws and regulations in place to protect individuals from discrimination based on factors such as race, gender, age, disability, and sexual orientation. These laws aim to promote equality and ensure that everyone has equal opportunities and rights. Therefore, the correct answer is True.

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  • 44. 

    It is important to avoid conflicts of interest where possible and declare any conflicts of interest.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    It is important to avoid conflicts of interest where possible and declare any conflicts of interest. This is because conflicts of interest can compromise objectivity, fairness, and integrity in decision-making processes. By avoiding conflicts of interest, individuals can ensure that their actions and decisions are not influenced by personal interests or biases. Furthermore, declaring conflicts of interest promotes transparency and allows others to assess and manage any potential biases that may arise. Therefore, it is crucial to prioritize the avoidance of conflicts of interest and to disclose them when they do occur.

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  • 45. 

    Conflict of interest is not a concern for a health care worker. Accepting cash gifts for a health care worker is standard practice.

    • A.

      Both statements are true

    • B.

      Both statements are false

    • C.

      The first statement is true and the second is false

    • D.

      The first statement is false and the second is true

    Correct Answer
    B. Both statements are false
    Explanation
    Conflict of interest is a concern for a health care worker as it can compromise the objectivity and integrity of their work. Accepting cash gifts is not standard practice for a health care worker as it can create ethical concerns and potential conflicts of interest.

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  • 46. 

    Select the best method to mange conflict within the workplace:

    • A.

      Clear organisational policies/procedures/code of conduct

    • B.

      Do not tell supervisor of any conflict of interest

    • C.

      Resign from the workplace

    • D.

      Accept gifts from clients outside of the workplace

    Correct Answer
    A. Clear organisational policies/procedures/code of conduct
    Explanation
    Clear organizational policies/procedures/code of conduct is the best method to manage conflict within the workplace. These policies provide guidelines and expectations for employees to follow, ensuring that everyone is aware of the appropriate behavior and actions to take when conflicts arise. By having clear policies in place, conflicts can be addressed and resolved in a fair and consistent manner, promoting a positive and harmonious work environment. This approach encourages open communication, transparency, and accountability, which are essential for effectively managing and resolving conflicts.

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  • 47. 

    The benefit of written documentation of conflict includes all of the following, except?

    • A.

      Provides evidence to against persons

    • B.

      Identifies all of the issues relating to the problem

    • C.

      Helps to identify trends or patterns

    • D.

      Supports the management of continual improvement

    Correct Answer
    A. Provides evidence to against persons
    Explanation
    Written documentation of conflict provides several benefits, including identifying all of the issues relating to the problem, helping to identify trends or patterns, and supporting the management of continual improvement. However, it does not provide evidence against persons. While written documentation can provide evidence of the conflict itself and the issues involved, it does not specifically target individuals or provide evidence against them. The focus is on understanding and resolving the conflict, rather than assigning blame or proving guilt.

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  • 48. 

    A health administrator is a mandatory reporter?

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A health administrator is considered a mandatory reporter because they are responsible for ensuring the safety and well-being of patients and clients in healthcare settings. They are required by law to report any suspected cases of abuse, neglect, or harm to the appropriate authorities. This helps to protect vulnerable individuals and ensure that they receive the necessary support and intervention.

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  • 49. 

    Issues within the health environment that require mandatory notification and reporting include protection of children and the protection of others who may be a risk

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In the health environment, there are certain issues that need to be reported and notified as mandatory. This includes cases where children need to be protected, as well as situations where there may be a risk to others. By reporting and notifying these issues, appropriate measures can be taken to ensure the safety and well-being of those involved. Therefore, the statement "Issues within the health environment that require mandatory notification and reporting include protection of children and the protection of others who may be a risk" is true.

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  • 50. 

    Select methods to contribute to continuous improvement:

    • A.

      Voicing improvements

    • B.

      Model changes

    • C.

      Seek feedback

    • D.

      Change methods regularly

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Voicing improvements
    B. Model changes
    C. Seek feedback
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes the methods of voicing improvements, model changes, and seeking feedback. These methods contribute to continuous improvement by allowing individuals or teams to communicate their ideas for improvement, make necessary changes to existing models or processes, and gather feedback from stakeholders or customers. By actively seeking feedback and implementing improvements, organizations can continuously enhance their performance and adapt to changing needs or circumstances.

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