Botany Final Exam

264 Questions

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Botany Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    "Air Plants" are plants that grows upon another plant (such as a tree) non-parasitically, derives its moisture and nutrients from the air and rain and sometimes from debris accumulating around it, and is found in the temperate zone (as many mosses, liverworts, lichens and algae) and in the tropics (as many ferns, cacti, orchids, and bromeliads).
  • 2. 
    A biofuel produced from wood, grasses, or the non-edible parts of plants, mainly cellulose, not sugar and starches.
  • 3. 
    A biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight.
  • 4. 
    A biological interaction between two organisms, where each individual derives a fitness benefit.
  • 5. 
    A biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey, (the organism that is attacked). Predators are generally bigger than their prey and kill the prey instantly.
  • 6. 
    A branch of botany that is concerned with identification, naming, grouping, and classification of plants.
  • 7. 
    A case of reciprocal adaptations as two interacting species modify and adjust to each other over time.
  • 8. 
    A characteristic of tundra. Permanently frozen soil underlies the tundra vegetation. However, during the summer, the active and this top layer of soil can thaw.. Plant life can be supported only within the active layer since growth can occur only in soil that is fully thawed for some part of the year. Also exist in boreal forest regions close to Arctic region, as well as in tropical alpine tundra.
  • 9. 
    A class of angiosperms in which the seed and seedling typically posses two cotyledons.
  • 10. 
    A class of angiosperms in which the seed and seedlings typically possess one cotyledon.
  • 11. 
    A class of relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits but the other is unaffected.
  • 12. 
    A cluster of spore-producing sporangia in ferns.
  • 13. 
    A collection of tissues joined in structural unit to serve a common function. For example, plant roots, leaves and human hands and hearts.
  • 14. 
    A collective term for animal life.
  • 15. 
    A collective term for plants.
  • 16. 
    A complete or partial tree of life that indicate the evolutionary relationship among organisms.
  • 17. 
    A complex network of many interconnected food chains and feeding relationships. Represents reality were there is usually more than one type of producer and most consumers have several alternative food resources.
  • 18. 
    A concrete status or variant for a given character.
  • 19. 
    A contest between two organisms for territory, a niche, or a location of resources.
  • 20. 
    A developed zygote (single cell). A multi-cellular individual (e.g., human infant and baby plant). The immature sporophyte that developes from a zygote.
  • 21. 
    A diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment (i.e., genotypes and phenotypes of offsprings based on parental genotypes and phenotypes). Essentially, it is a tabular summary of every possible combination of one maternal allele with one paternal allele for each gene being studied in the cross. This table gives the correct probabilities for the genotype outcomes of independent crosses where the probability of inheriting copies of each parental allele is independent.
  • 22. 
    A diploid plant that produce spore (haploid).
  • 23. 
    A distance measurement in the vertical direction.
  • 24. 
    A diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that live in all marine and freshwater habitats.
  • 25. 
    A DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide — A, T, C, or G — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a species or paired chromosomes in an individual. This is an example of genetic diversity.
  • 26. 
    A dual or composite organism composed of either blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and fungi or green algae and fungi.
  • 27. 
    A feature that is common in a population because it provides some improved function that enable to survive in a given environment.
  • 28. 
    A fertilized egg.
  • 29. 
    A general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants. It is a general term, without specific reference to particular taxa, life forms, structure, spatial extent, or any other specific botanical or geographic characteristics. It is broader than the term flora which refers exclusively to species composition.
  • 30. 
    A group of extinct vascular land plants that flourished in the early Devonian (420–390 million years ago), with fossil evidence found at Rhynie in Scotland. Currently, it is the first evidence of vascular plants.  They had short stems that arose from rhizomes and branched dichotomously to form two equal growing points.
  • 31. 
    A group of genetically identical individual organisms produced asexually.
  • 32. 
    A group of organisms that are more closely related to one another than to organisms of any other kind. It is the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.
  • 33. 
    A group of organisms that lack a cell nucleus.
  • 34. 
    A group of plants whose seeds are born within a matured ovary (i.e., fruit).  Seeds are not exposed and are enclosed inside of fruits.
  • 35. 
    A human mediated technique to control invasive pest populations using a natural enemy, including predators, parasitoids, and pathogens.
  • 36. 
    A layer of the Earth's atmosphere that contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). This layer absorbs 97–99% of the Sun's high frequency ultraviolet light, which is damaging to life on Earth. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 13 to 40 kilometres (8.1 to 25 mi) above Earth, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. This layer is just above the troposphere.
  • 37. 
    A leaf of a fern.
  • 38. 
    A linear chain of amino acids represents/forms. One protein must contain at least one and some proteins can have more than one.
  • 39. 
    A macromolecule composed of chains of individual nucleotides. It includes both DNA and RNA.
  • 40. 
    A membrane enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains most of the cell's genetic material (DNA).
  • 41. 
    A minute opening, bordered by guard cells, in the epidermis of plant leaves and stems.
  • 42. 
    A molecule of RNA encoding a protein product. Formed inside the nucleus and proteins are generated inside the cytoplasm.
  • 43. 
    A multicellular structure that functions like a root. Because of the lack of vascular tissue, no real roots in mosses.  
  • 44. 
    A part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, mainly one or more ovaries.
  • 45. 
    A part of the female reproductive organ of the flower that holds/contains ovules.
  • 46. 
    A particular type of ligase (one type of enzymes) that can link together DNA strands that have double-strand breaks (a break in both complementary strands of DNA).
  • 47. 
    A pigment that is ubiquitous in nature, being found in most organisms (spiders are one of the few animal groups in which it has not been detected). In animals melanin pigments are derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine.
  • 48. 
    A plant or animal that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes. For example, both stamens and pistils are in the same flower.
  • 49. 
    A plant population having separate male and female plants
  • 50. 
    A process in which messenger RNA (mRNA) produced in transcription is decoded to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into 3-Dimension structure, an active protein. Occurs in the cell's cytoplasm, with the aid from ribosome.
  • 51. 
    A process in which RNA (both pre-mRNA and mRNA) is formed using a DNA as a template.
  • 52. 
    A process of producing clones.
  • 53. 
    A process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds, especially sugars, using the energy from sunlight. During this process, water is utilized and release oxygen.
  • 54. 
    A process that creates new combination of genes by joining parts of DNA from separate organisms.
  • 55. 
    A process that needs the help from DNA polymerase, an enzyme that helps the duplication process.
  • 56. 
    A relationship between two alleles of a gene that ccurs when both of the contributions of both alleles are visible and do not over power each other in the phenotype.
  • 57. 
    A reproductive and dispersal unit containing an embryonic baby plant and nutritive tissue surrounded by a protective coat in seed plants. There are two types: exposed/naked (gymnosperms) and enclosed (flower plants or angiosperms), which is enclosed inside a fruit.
  • 58. 
    A reproductive unit (often unicellular) that is capable of developing into a new organism without fusion with another cell (like zygotes that fuses a sperm and an egg). They are produced through meiosis inside the sporangium and will develop into a gametophyte.  
  • 59. 
    A rudimentary seed containing, before fertilization, the female gametophyte, with archegonia and egg cell, all being surrounded by integument (protective layers).  In seed plants, it is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.
  • 60. 
    A set of instruction needed for creating, growing and maintaining an organism. The study of genomes of organisms.
  • 61. 
    A single carpel or fused carpels. 
  • 62. 
    A single species give a rise of two or more species.
  • 63. 
    A specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer.
  • 64. 
    A sporangium that bears megaspores.
  • 65. 
    A sporangium that bears microspores.
  • 66. 
    A spore of vascular plants, which gives rise to a female gametophyte. Usually it is bigger in comparison with microspores.
  • 67. 
    A spore that, in vascular plants, gives rise to a male gametophyte.
  • 68. 
    A structure in which spores are produced.
  • 69. 
    A system that is managed to “integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity” in terms of USDA National Organic Program.
  • 70. 
    A taxonomic grouping at any level such as species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom or domain.
  • 71. 
    A term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem to each other.
  • 72. 
    A term for any living species (or clade) of organism which seems to be the same as a species otherwise only known from fossils and has no close living relatives.
  • 73. 
    A thick liquid residing between the cell membrane holding organelles, except for the nucleus.
  • 74. 
    A thread-like chain of cells that forms the earliest stage (the haploid phase) of a bryophyte life cycle. Develops into a leafy gametophoyte.
  • 75. 
    A triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is much less stable than the diatomic oxygen (O2). In the lower atmosphere (i.e., troposphere) it is an air pollutant with harmful effects on the respiratory systems of animals and will burn sensitive plants.
  • 76. 
    A tumor of melanocytes (a type of skin cancer).
  • 77. 
    A type of natural selection in which genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait value.
  • 78. 
    A type of natural selection that simultaneously favors individuals at both extremes of the distribution. When it operates, individuals at the extremes contribute more offspring than those in the center, producing two peaks in the distribution of a particular trait.
  • 79. 
    A type of relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, benefits at the expense of the host. Parasites are smaller than their prey and normally kill the prey slowly, if at all.
  • 80. 
    A young frond that first emerges from the ground, it is tightly coiled.
  • 81. 
    Agents or factors that cause mutation.
  • 82. 
    All DNA in a haploid cell of an organism (one set of chromosomes, not two sets).
  • 83. 
    All embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular, lso known as mosses. They are tiny plants (0.5 – 4 inches in length) without true leaves and roots. They have small appendages, appearing somewhat similar to leaves.
  • 84. 
    All land plants will produce embryo.
  • 85. 
    All plants that create seeds, including both Angiosperms and Gymnosperms.
  • 86. 
    All the organisms that both belong to the same species and live in the same geographical area.
  • 87. 
    Alternative forms of the gene.
  • 88. 
    An alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops (e.g. the edible part) for the first generation of biofuels. In the second-generation of biofuels, it can be produced using plant celluloses.
  • 89. 
    An ancient hydrocarbon deposit, such as petroleum, coal, or natural gas, derived from living matter of a previous geologic time and used for fuel.
  • 90. 
    An ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping these together.
  • 91. 
    An enzyme responsible for making RNA from a DNA, using one DNA strand as the template.  All of them naturally occur and they can be also produced and purified by biologists.
  • 92. 
    An enzyme that assists in DNA replication.
  • 93. 
    An enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA in a specific region (called Restriction site). The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the phosphate backbones of the double helix without damaging the bases.
  • 94. 
    An important carbon compounds made of amino acids (basic unit). It contains one or more polypeptide (a polymer or chain of amino acids). The polypeptide chain is twisted and folded into a specific 3-dimentional shapes and structures that are critical to its function. They have many functions; they can serve as enzymes, structural materials, transport molecules, or regulatory molecules.
  • 95. 
    An individual’s ability to survive and reproduce, or an individual's ability to propagate its genes.
  • 96. 
    An organelle that make proteins from all amino acids.
  • 97. 
    An organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. Many have been widely used as refrigerants, propellants (in aerosol applications), and solvents. They directly contribute to ozone depletion.
  • 98. 
    An ultra-violet light with a wave length between 200-10 nm. In the middle of the range of being able to be seen witht he naked eye.
  • 99. 
    Ancient Indian form of traditional medicine that utilized “balancing the five elements” (earth, water, fire, air, sky) and natural products to promote balanced health.  This is part of the basis for some of modern “alternative medicine” practices.
  • 100. 
    Any biotic and abiotic factor that brings about differences in fertility and mortality. Or, it is any factor that could bring evolutionary changes (i.e., allele frequency changes over time) for a population.
  • 101. 
    Any bulk raw material constituting the principal input for an industrial process. For biofuels, it is plant materials, e.g., corn ears, wood debris and so on.
  • 102. 
    Any drifting organisms (animals, plants, archaea, protista or bacteria) in ocean or other aquatic environment. They are aquatic organisms that can swim and move inside water.
  • 103. 
    Any observable feature, such as morphology, development, physiological properties, behavior and so on.
  • 104. 
    Any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism. This theory concerns the mitochondria, chloroplasts, and possibly other organelles of eukaryotic cells. According to this theory, certain organelles originated as free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as endosymbionts. Mitochondria developed from proteobacteria (e.g., E coli) and chloroplasts from cyanobacteria.
  • 105. 
    Areas that are able to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
  • 106. 
    A“cure all”, a product that is reputed to cure many, if not all, ailments; often also called “snake oil” (a useless but widely acclaimed product sold to an unsuspecting audience)
  • 107. 
    Belief which arose independently in many ancient people groups that the gods placed in plants identifying characteristics, such as shapes, colors, odors, and so on, that indicated their useful properties.
  • 108. 
    Burning of any organic materials, whether firewood, bio-fuels or fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, or petroleum oil) becomes a carbon source, releasing carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.
  • 109. 
    Carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose unit connected by chemical bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an energy storage in plant body. It is the most important carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in such staple foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, yum, and cassava.
  • 110. 
    Cells that contain one complete set of chromosomes from the male or female parent. The number (N) is the number of chromosomes in a the cell.
  • 111. 
    Changes over time in the heritable characteristics (allele frequency) of populations of living organisms. Mainly caused by natural selection, however, sometimes it can be caused by some random factors like genetic drift.
  • 112. 
    Chromosome pairs of the same size and shape that carry genes for the same traits. Human cell has 23 pairs and among them, 22 pairs are similar in size except the sex chromosomes.
  • 113. 
    Complex carbonhydrate (polysacchride) that occurs in the cell walls of plants and green algae.
  • 114. 
    Cone-bearing plants. It contains about 550 species.
  • 115. 
    Conifer's reproductive structures or organs that contain gametangia: archegonia and antherida, where the gametophyte will develop.
  • 116. 
    Consists of three parts: the integuments forming its outer layer, megasporangium, and the megaspore-derived female gametophyte (or megagametophyte) in its center.  After fertilization, ovule contains embryonic sporophyte and will develop into seeds while integument develops into seed coat.
  • 117. 
    Consumers who feed on phytoplankton (heterotropic) which includes fish, shrimps, whales etc.
  • 118. 
    Deals with four alleles (i.e. four traits) for two genes.
  • 119. 
    Deals with two alleles (i.e. two traits) for one gene.
  • 120. 
    Decomposers or recyclers of both phytoplanktons and zooplanktons.
  • 121. 
    Defined as “the living together of unlike organisms”.  For example, lichen is the dual organism that consists of algae (protista or cyanobacteria) + fungi.
  • 122. 
    Describes a key assumption of molecular biology, namely, that each gene in the DNA molecule carries the information needed to construct one protein, which, acting as an enzyme, controls one chemical reaction in the cell.
  • 123. 
    Different species definitely have different genetic makeup (genetic differences), but this means the genetic differences among individuals from the same species.
  • 124. 
    During 1940-1970, the process to modernize and industrialize the agriculture production, by planting hybrids, high-yielding varieties, applying synthetic fertilizer and pesticides to increase significantly the crop yield, and encouraging monoculture (single crop species for large land area).
  • 125. 
    Each species is placed within a single ____ . This is the species' generic name.
  • 126. 
    Food produced without modern synthetic inputs, including manmade pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, preservatives, GMOs, irradiation, hormones and so no.
  • 127. 
    Gametangia that produce eggs.
  • 128. 
    Gametangia that produce sperms.
  • 129. 
    Greek physician (460-377 B.C.), the Father of Medicine who used various herbal remedies in his treatments.
  • 130. 
    Green pigment found in the chloroplasts of land plants, algae, and cyanobacteria that is essential to photosynthesis.
  • 131. 
    Has two successive nuclear divisions. Before nuclear divisions, the chromosomes are duplicated only once. Therefore, after two nuclear divisions, there are 4 daughter cells formed and in each of the daughter cell, the chromosome number is halved. In humans, this creates gametes. In plant, it creates spores while the other nuclear division creates gametes.
  • 132. 
    Have an incorporated gene that produces a protein that can kill some insects.
  • 133. 
    Have an incorporated gene that produces a protein that can tolerate herbicides.
  • 134. 
    In biological terms, it is a group of interacting organisms sharing a populated environment. Here, we emphasize the living things from different species, not the non-living component.
  • 135. 
    In bryophytes, an enlarged archegonia venter that protects the capsule containing the embryonic sporophyte.
  • 136. 
    In bryophytes, the sporangium is a structure where spore will be generated and released.
  • 137. 
    In contrast to fossil fuels like coal and petroleum, these are a wide range of fuels which are in some way derived from biomass (biological material from living, or recently living organisms).  
  • 138. 
    In developmental biology, the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
  • 139. 
    In flowering plants, one sperm fertilizes the egg cell and the other sperm combines with the two polar nuclei of the large central cell of the embryo sac to form triploid nucleus (3N).
  • 140. 
    In many bacteria, there are extra circular double-stranded DNAs in additional to their chromosomal DNA. These extra DNAs are capable of autonomous replication due to a special gene they carry or contain.  Also, some of them contain genes that are resistant to antibiotics.
  • 141. 
    In mosses and some ferns, rhizoids are hair-like absorptive filaments (multicellular structure) that act like roots. They are not really roots because of lack of vascular tissues.
  • 142. 
    Intentional breeding for certain traits, or combination of traits. An example is that modern corn plants are evolved from its wild relative named teosinte. 
  • 143. 
    It belongs to the third generation biofuel, where algae are low-input, high-yield feedstocks to produce biofuels. We can directly extract crude oil from algae and use them as biodiesel.
  • 144. 
    It is a thin layer of waxy material that is secreted by the epidermal cells
  • 145. 
    It is an index that incorporates the number of species in an area (species richness) and also their relative abundance (species abundance).
  • 146. 
    It means that there are different habitats or places for organisms.
  • 147. 
    It represents “origin of groups”. It means the series changes by which a given taxon evolved from its ancestors.
  • 148. 
    Light thats emmits electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10 nm to 400 nm. It is so named because humans identify its color as violet.
  • 149. 
    Lignified tissue for conducting transporting water and foods in vascular plants. The primary components of vascular tissue are xylem and phloem. Xylem is used for transporting water and dissolved minerals (nutrients) whereas phloem is used for transporting sugars (photosynthetic products).
  • 150. 
    Made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases with the aid of alcohol. It essentially is a long-chain ester (Ester: a compound produced by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol). It is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat) with an alcohol.
  • 151. 
    Melanin-producing cells located in the bottom layer of the skin's epidermis.
  • 152. 
    Microtubules that are involved in the movement and separation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
  • 153. 
    Monophyletic group of organisms, i.e., organisms that can trace descent from a common ancestor.
  • 154. 
    Nutrient tissue that forms by the fusion of a sperm nucleus with two polar nuclei during double fertilization in angiosperms.
  • 155. 
    Occurs when the phenotype of the heterozygote is completely indistinguishable from that of the dominant homozygote.
  • 156. 
    Occurs when the phenotype of the heterozygous genotype is an intermediate of the phenotypes of the homozygous genotypes.
  • 157. 
    Occurs when there are more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.  May occur due to abnormal cell division during meiosis. Human muscle tissues have these cells but it is most commonly found in plants (ferns and flowering plants), both wild and cultivated species and varieties.
  • 158. 
    One of the cells of the pollen grain, and it directs the growth of the pollen tube that is important to finish fertilization in seed plants. In seed plants, no water is needed to finish fertilization.
  • 159. 
    One type of cell division in which the chromosomes are duplicated once and then evenly divided to form two identical daughter cells. Consequently, both two daughter cells have the same chromosome numbers as the original mother cell. Only one nuclear division.
  • 160. 
    Organelles found in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis.
  • 161. 
    Organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment.
  • 162. 
    Organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms, and in doing so carry out the natural process of decomposition. They are heterotrophic, meaning that they use organic substrates to get their energy, carbon and nutrients for growth and development.
  • 163. 
    Organisms that can produce their own food.
  • 164. 
    Partially decomposed organic matter that gives soil a dark color. It acts as a very large carbon storage that can store carbon for a long time.
  • 165. 
    Particular sequences of nucleotides that are recognized by restriction enzymes as sites to cut the DNA molecule.
  • 166. 
    Plant chemical products useful to the whole plant for protection, attraction of pollinators, attraction of dispersers, energy transfers, etc…  Many are toxic, and are the source of many of the medicinal compounds derived from plants, as well as flavors, attractive colors, and odors.
  • 167. 
    Plant species whose separate male and female reproductive structures (e.g., flowers that only contains female or male organs) are borne on the same plants.
  • 168. 
    Plants that live for a year or less.
  • 169. 
    Plants that live over one year.
  • 170. 
    Plants with vascular tissues. Mosses (bryophyte) do not belong to this group but ferns, gymnospers and angiosperms do.
  • 171. 
    Produced by the process of anaerobic digestion of organic material by microbes that can survive without oxygen (anaerobes). It contains methane (CH4), which can be combustible under oxygen and produce water and carbon dioxide.
  • 172. 
    Producers that are autotrophic and photosynthetic and include green algae and cyanobacteria.
  • 173. 
    Roman physician (1st century A.D.) who wrote De Materia Medica, which contained an account of over 600 species of plants with medicinal value and remained the main medical text in the western world for nearly 1500 years.
  • 174. 
    Seed plants that produce naked seeds that are not enclosed inside a fruit.
  • 175. 
    Similar to taxonomy, but focusing on exploration of evolutionary relations among plants.
  • 176. 
    Sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.
  • 177. 
    Species that is defined by a mating experiment. If organisms from two populations mate and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions, then the two populations belong to same species.   
  • 178. 
    Species that is defined by combination of observable morphological traits or characters.
  • 179. 
    Sperms and eggs.
  • 180. 
    Structure in which gametes are produced.
  • 181. 
    The appearance/phenotype caused by one allele that is apparent.
  • 182. 
    The appearance/phenotype caused by the other allele is not apparent.
  • 183. 
    The basic unit of protein.
  • 184. 
    The cell that produces gametes.
  • 185. 
    The cell that will not produce egg or sperm (gametes).
  • 186. 
    The change of living things over time for a given place.
  • 187. 
    The condensed form of DNA and proteins that appear in a dividing cell.
  • 188. 
    The condition of producing microspores (male) and megaspores (female). In seed plants, two types of spores are produced: one is bigger (female spore) and the other is small (male spore). 
  • 189. 
    The constricted portion of chromosomes to which spindle fibers attach. It is also the region joining sister chromatids.
  • 190. 
    The different forms of life and life-sustaining processes that can best survive the variety of conditions currently found on the Earth. It contains 4 types of diversities: species diversity, genetic diversity, ecological diversity and functional diversity.
  • 191. 
    The direct product of transcription using DNA as a template, with the help of RNA polymerase enzyme. Must go through a few processing step to become functional mature mRNA. These processing steps include 5’-end capping, intron splicing (some fragment of DNA will be removed, they will not be used for translating into amino acid), and 3’-end polyadenylation (addition of a poly adenine [or poly(A)] tail at the 3’-end).
  • 192. 
    The dispersed form of genetic material, DNA and protein, in the nucleus of a non-dividing cell.
  • 193. 
    The exchanges of genetic material (DNA and protein) between chromatids of two homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
  • 194. 
    The external layer of ovule that later develops into the seed coat.
  • 195. 
    The female reproductive units of a flower which bears ovules.
  • 196. 
    The flow of carbon, in and between the following components of our planet:  atmosphere, soil, ocean, and land organisms.
  • 197. 
    The fragment of DNA, which is ultimately translated into the sequence of amino acids in proteins.
  • 198. 
    The free-living, haploid gametophyte plant in ferns.  It is a tiny plant without vascular tissue. It can be bi-sexual or uni-sexual.
  • 199. 
    The functional basic unit of life. It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing.
  • 200. 
    The gene location in chromosome.
  • 201. 
    The general pattern of weather over time (long-term weather pattern).
  • 202. 
    The genetic makeup of an organism, either at a single locus or over all its genes collectively. It directly or indirectly affects its molecular, physical, behavioral, and other traits, which individually or collectively are called the phenotype.
  • 203. 
    The global sum of all ecosystems. It can also be called the zone of life on Earth.
  • 204. 
    The haploid generation of plants that will produce gametes. It is multicellular plant body.
  • 205. 
    The identical halves of a single chromosome seen during cell division.
  • 206. 
    The immature male gametophytes of seed plants.      
  • 207. 
    The inner membranes of the chloroplast, which contains chlorophyll.
  • 208. 
    The intermediates and products of metabolism. The term is usually restricted to small molecules, including alcohol, amino acids, nucleic acids, antioxidants, vitamins and so on.
  • 209. 
    The introduction of genes from one organism into the DNA of a second organism. In order to create, plasmids from bacteria are often used.
  • 210. 
    The large group of algae from which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged.  They are the major producer in aquatic food chain.
  • 211. 
    The liquid of a cell, which is cytoplasm without all organelles.
  • 212. 
    The location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator.
  • 213. 
    The lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere that contains approximately 75% of the atmosphere's mass. The average depth of the is approximately 17 km (11 mile) in the middle latitudes (near equator).
  • 214. 
    The megaspore mother cell, a diploid cell in which meiosis will occur, resulting in four megaspores.
  • 215. 
    The microspore mother cell, a diploid cell in which meiosis will occur, resulting in four microspores (haploid).
  • 216. 
    The observable trait that an organism shows up.
  • 217. 
    The organisms having cell nucleus.
  • 218. 
    The organisms that can not produce their own food and have to consume others for food. They include herbivores (plant-eating) and predators (consumer-eating).
  • 219. 
    The organisms that incorporate foreign genes.
  • 220. 
    The origin of geographically adjacent populations into distinct species.  The adjacent populations are reproductive isolated because of their environmental changes that result in new adaptation.  
  • 221. 
    The origin of new species in populations that are separated geographically. The geographic isolation prevents gene flows between populations. Isolated populations will gradually adapt to their own different environments and accumulate more genetic differences to become new species.
  • 222. 
    The origin of new species in populations that overlap geographically. The gene flow is reduced because of behavioral or ecological isolation.
  • 223. 
    The outer layers of a seed, derived from the integument, which protects the embryo inside the seed.
  • 224. 
    The outer layers of a seed, derived from the integument, which protects the embryo inside the seed.
  • 225. 
    The particular place in the ecosystem that an organism or a population occupies.
  • 226. 
    The passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors).
  • 227. 
    The phenominon brought about because of manmade chemicals (e.g., refrigerants CFCs, freons and halons). Scientists found a steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of ozone in Earth's the ozone layer and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions (mainly Arctic region) since 1970.
  • 228. 
    The plural of locus.
  • 229. 
    The position an organism occupies on the food chain.
  • 230. 
    The process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
  • 231. 
    The process by which heritable traits that makes it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce, become more common in a population over successive generations. It is a key mechanism of evolution.
  • 232. 
    The process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product, i.e., mRNA first and then protein.
  • 233. 
    The process by which pollen is transferred in plants, thereby enabling fertilization and sexual reproduction.
  • 234. 
    The process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir.
  • 235. 
    The process of treating food and other consumer products with gamma rays, x-rays, or high voltage electrons to kill potential harmful bacteria and parasites, delay sprouting, and to increase shelf life.
  • 236. 
    The process that takes place in cells to convert biochemical energy from nutrients (e.g., sugar, amino acids and fatty acids) into ATP (see below), and then release waste products.
  • 237. 
    The properties in earth’s inner atmosphere, the troposphere, at a particular time and place.
  • 238. 
    The proportion of all copies of a gene that is made up of a particular gene variant (allele). In other words, it is the number of copies of a particular allele divided by the number of copies of all alleles at the genetic place (locus) in a population. It can be expressed for example as a percentage.
  • 239. 
    The proteinaceous solution in the central region of chloroplast.
  • 240. 
    The reproductive structure found in flowering plants, used for sexual reproduction that needs sperms and eggs from parents, as an opposite to asexual reproduction which is the clone of an organism.
  • 241. 
    The result of any change in DNA structure.
  • 242. 
    The second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down. This is in contrast to the troposphere near the Earth's surface, which is cooler higher up and warmer farther down.
  • 243. 
    The seed or baby leaf in the seed and seedling.
  • 244. 
    The series of organisms in which each eats or decomposes the preceding one.
  • 245. 
    The similar biotic communities considered on a worldwide scale.
  • 246. 
    The spore mother.
  • 247. 
    The stored energy in organisms. The "universal energy currency of life". Essentially, it is multifunctional nucleotide, composed of a nucleotide with ribose sugar and three phosphates.  The structure of this molecule consists of a purine base (adenine) attached to the 1' carbon atom of a pentose sugar (ribose). Three phosphate groups are attached at the 5' carbon atom of the pentose sugar.  It is the addition and removal of these phosphate groups that makes the cycle between the format with energy and the format without the energy.
  • 248. 
    The structure unit of DNA or RNA, which consists of a sugar, phosphate and base.  For DNA they are A, T, G and C whereas for RNA are A, U, G, and C.
  • 249. 
    The sum total of all living organisms.
  • 250. 
    There are diverse organisms/species serving different biological purposes. For example, plants are producers which produce foods for animals. There are many different plants species serving the role of producers.
  • 251. 
    They are the only group of algae with prokaryotic cells. They belong to bacteria, but can do photosynthesis.
  • 252. 
    Those that feed exclusively on producers.
  • 253. 
    Those that feed on other consumers and producers.
  • 254. 
    Those that feed on other consumers.
  • 255. 
    Three adjacent nucleotides in mRNA that will specify a specific amino acid during translation.
  • 256. 
    Ultra-Violet light with a wave length between 280-315 nm.
  • 257. 
    Ultra-Violet light with a wave length between 315-380 nm.
  • 258. 
    Ultra-Violet light with a wave length less than 280 nm.
  • 259. 
    Variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, because of the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce.
  • 260. 
    What process is this? All plant cells have a primary cell wall, in which cellulose is the important structural component (an organic compound). Some plant cells (like xylem cells in woody plants) have secondary deposits of lignified cellulose which provides additional strength to the cell.  This deposit (or layer) is also known as secondary cell wall. This secondary cell wall contains lots of lignin, a special chemical that convey mechanical strength.  This lignified cellulose is very good material for ethanol production.  All woody plants (e.g., popalar, pine, megaflora, willows trees) are good source of lignified celluloses.
  • 261. 
    When a particular gene when identical alleles of the gene are present on both homologous chromosomes.
  • 262. 
    When a particular gene when two different alleles present on the homologous chromosomes.
  • 263. 
    When an organism has two sets of chromosomes - one set inherited from each parent.
  • 264. 
      An ultra-violet light with a wave length between 380-200 nm. Closer to the range not visible by the human eye.