Morphology Test 2

17 Questions

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Morphology Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following statements about gross renal morphology is true?
    • A. 

      In most species the left kidney is cranial, relative to the right kidney

    • B. 

      The external morphology of the kidney is highly conserved between species

    • C. 

      The kidney has a pale outer cortex and dark inner medulla

    • D. 

      The kidney is a lobed organ

    • E. 

      The urethra leaves the kidney at the hilum

  • 2. 
    Which nephron structure can be found in the medullary rays?
    • A. 

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • B. 

      Proximal straight tubule

    • C. 

      Glomerulus

    • D. 

      Bowman's capsule

    • E. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

  • 3. 
    Which component of the filtration apparatus filters on the basis of size only?
    • A. 

      Fenestrated capillary

    • B. 

      Lamina rara externa

    • C. 

      Slit diaphragm

    • D. 

      Lamina densa

    • E. 

      Lamina rara interna

  • 4. 
    When comparing the proximal tubule epithelium to that of the distal tubule, which of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      Proximal tubule epithelium has significantly fewer mitochondria

    • B. 

      Proximal tubule epithelium has fewer microvilli

    • C. 

      Proximal tubule is composed of squamous epithelium, the distal cuboidal

    • D. 

      The nucleus of the proximal tubule epithelial is located more basolaterally in the cell

    • E. 

      Proximal tubule epitheilum is normally less permeable to water

  • 5. 
    Which mechanism does the kidney use to remove the majority of non-volatile acidity?
    • A. 

      By secreting titratable acidity

    • B. 

      By secreting ammonium

    • C. 

      By reabsorbing all available bicarb

    • D. 

      By generating bicarb through carbonic

  • 6. 
    The following Starling's Forces were recorded in the renal corpuscle of a cat: capillary hydrostatic pressure, 54 mmHg; Bowman's space hydrostatic pressure, 20 mmH;, capillary oncotic pressure, 24 mmHg; Bowman's space oncotic pressure, 0mmHg. What is the overall pressure favoring filtration in this corpuscle?
    • A. 

      50 mmHg

    • B. 

      58 mmHg

    • C. 

      10 mmHg

    • D. 

      94 mmHg

  • 7. 
    Hemolysis, the breakdown of red blood cells releasing protein, can affect renal function because:
    • A. 

      Bowman's space oncotic pressure increases producing an increase in GFR

    • B. 

      Capillary oncotic pressure decreases producing an increase in GFR

    • C. 

      Capillary oncotic pressure increases producing a decrease in GFR

    • D. 

      Bowman's space oncotic pressure decreases producing a decrease in GFR

  • 8. 
    Which of the following is the appropiate tubuloglomerular feedback response to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate?
    • A. 

      Macula densa releases adenosine to constrict afferent arteriole

    • B. 

      Increased prostaglandin production dilates afferent arteriole

    • C. 

      Norepinephrine is released to preferentally constrict efferent arteriole

    • D. 

      Increased angiotensin II production dilates afferent arteriole

  • 9. 
    A spontaneous increase in renal blood pressure is met by which myogenic autoregulation respone?
    • A. 

      Afferent arteriole dilates to increase renal blood flow

    • B. 

      Efferent arteriole constricts to reduce renal blood flow

    • C. 

      Afferent arteriole constricts to reduce blood flow

    • D. 

      Efferent arteriole dilates to increase renal blood flow

  • 10. 
    Which molecule, the site of action for loop diuretics, aids Na+ reabsorption in the early distal tubule?
    • A. 

      NKCCl

    • B. 

      Na+-H+ symporter

    • C. 

      Na+-Cl- symporter

    • D. 

      Na+-K+ ATPase

    • E. 

      Na+ channel

  • 11. 
    Which molecule, found in the luminal membrane, aids Na+ reabsorption in the collecting duct?
    • A. 

      NKCCl

    • B. 

      Na+-H+ antiporter

    • C. 

      Na+-Cl- symporter

    • D. 

      Na+-K+ ATPase

    • E. 

      Na+ channel

  • 12. 
    During diuresis, which of the following is true?
    • A. 

      A small volume of concentrated urine is formed

    • B. 

      Urea permeability in the medullary collecting duct is low

    • C. 

      Na+ is reabsorbed in the descending limb of the loop of Henle

    • D. 

      ADH levels are high

    • E. 

      Water reabsorption in the collecting ducts is high

  • 13. 
    Which statement about the countercurrent multiplier mechanism of the loop of Henle is true?
    • A. 

      Water is reabsorbed in the descending limb because the osmarilty of the tubular fluid is higher than the medullary interstitium

    • B. 

      Water is actively reabsorbed in the ascending limb of the loop

    • C. 

      Na+ is passively absorbed in the descending limb

    • D. 

      Na+ is absorbed in the ascending limb because the Na+ concentration is higher in the medullary interstitium than the tubular fluid

    • E. 

      Na+ reabsorption in the ascending limb contributes to the high osmolarity around the descending limb

  • 14. 
    What is the effect of decreased extracellular fluid Na+ concentration?
    • A. 

      ECF osmolarity decreases

    • B. 

      ECF volume increases

    • C. 

      Water moves into the extracellular space

    • D. 

      Osmoreceptors will shrink

    • E. 

      Animal is said to be hypernatremic

  • 15. 
    Which of the following will produce an increase in ECF Na+ concentration?
    • A. 

      Inhibition of renin release from the intracellular K+ concentration

    • B. 

      Decreased sympathetic flow to kidney

    • C. 

      An increase in ECF volume

    • D. 

      Natriuretic peptide release

    • E. 

      Increased aldosterone levels

  • 16. 
    Which of the following statements about hypokalemia is true?
    • A. 

      Hypokalemia is defined as a low intracellular K+concentration

    • B. 

      Hypokalemia is defined as high extracellular K+ concentration

    • C. 

      Hypokalemia makes action potentials harder to generate in exhitable cells

    • D. 

      Hypokalemia raises the resting membrane potential of cells (less negative)

    • E. 

      Hypokalemia makes action potentials harder to repeat in excitable cells

  • 17. 
    Which of the following will produce an increase in renal secretion of K+?
    • A. 

      Decreased dietary intake of K+

    • B. 

      Decreased renin-angiotensin system activity

    • C. 

      Hyperaldosteronism

    • D. 

      Amiloride-like diurestics

    • E. 

      Decreased lumen electronegativity