Diseases MCQ Exam: Trivia!

22 Questions | Total Attempts: 103

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Diseases MCQ Exam: Trivia!

Do you know what diseases do to your health? The sad part is that most diseases are preventable as long as there is no genetic inheritance of a disease passed down from a parent. You can prevent most diseases by consuming healthy foods, exercising, maintaining a regular sleep schedule, and not letting stress build up. However, if you do end up with a disease, make sure you can work with a doctor you can trust. This quiz will offer perspective about diseases.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    A 23-year-old Asian woman complains of fever, chills, malaise, loss of appetite, and sleeping more than usual.  Her vital signs are significant for an increase in pulse, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and temperature. You are asked to draw a blood sample and order a complete and differential blood count. The patient is afraid of needles and reluctant to have you draw blood. She does not want to be stuck with a needle unless it is absolutely necessary. Which of the following explanations is correct in convincing this patient of the importance of this blood test?
    • A. 

      Identifying increases in white blood cell counts are critical to diagnosing infections and proper treatment

    • B. 

      Identifying any abnormalities in the type and number of white blood cells is critical to diagnosing and treating the cause of her illness

    • C. 

      Identifying the specific type of virus, bacteria, or parasite is vital to diagnosis and treatment

    • D. 

      Identifying increases and decrease in blood cells must be done on every patient with her symptoms

    • E. 

      Drawing blood and ordering test is important to making any diagnosis

  • 2. 
    The pharmacokinetics of a new drug was studied in a healthy subject. The drug followed first-order elimination kinetics and had a volume of distribution of 50 liters. A dose of 5 mg was given IV. Ten hours later the plasma concentration of the drug was 25 mcg/L. Which of the following was most likely the half-life of the drug (in hours)?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

    • E. 

      5

  • 3. 
    A 56-year-old man, admitted to the coronary unit because of myocardial infarction, developed an episode of ventricular tachycardia and the cardiologist ordered a therapy with lidocaine. The drug has a volume of distribution of about 77 L and a half-life of about 2 hours. An IV infusion of lidocaine was started and two hours later a blood sample indicated a drug plasma concentration of 2 mg/L. The IV infusion was then continued for another 8 hours. Which of the following was most likely the steady-state plasma concentration of the drug (in mg/L)?  
    • A. 

      4

    • B. 

      1

    • C. 

      12

    • D. 

      6

    • E. 

      8

  • 4. 
    The pharmacokinetics of a new drug was studied in a laboratory animal. The drug was given orally and the following results were obtained:    Percent reaching portal circulation: 40%    Liver clearance: negligible Knowing that the liver blood flow in that animal was 1000 mL/min, which of the following would be the oral bioavailability of that drug?
    • A. 

      1.0

    • B. 

      0.4

    • C. 

      0.1

    • D. 

      2.2

    • E. 

      0.7

  • 5. 
    Five new antihypertensive drugs have been tested on hypertensive patients. Each drug has unique overdose toxicity. The results are reported below. Which of the following drugs has the highest risk of overdose toxicity?
    • A. 

      Drug A

    • B. 

      Drug B

    • C. 

      Drug C

    • D. 

      Drug D

    • E. 

      Drug E

  • 6. 
    A new potential analgesic drug was tested on laboratory animals and several drug parameters were estimated. Which of the following drug parameters gave information about the sensitivity of different groups of those animals to increasing doses of that drug?
    • A. 

      Drug efficacy

    • B. 

      Therapeutic index

    • C. 

      Therapeutic window

    • D. 

      Graded log-dose response curve

    • E. 

      Quantal log-dose response curve

  • 7. 
    What phenomenon creates the hypervariable region of an antibody light chain?
    • A. 

      Addition of nucleotides between LV and J segments in maturing lymphocytes

    • B. 

      Alternative splicing of the corresponding pre-RNA during maturation

    • C. 

      Clipping the amino terminal end of the polypeptide during secretion

    • D. 

      Presence of multiple J segments within the corresponding gene

    • E. 

      Presence of multiple LV segments within the corresponding gene

  • 8. 
    A 37-year-old male patient while being interviewed says that he feels discouraged about his chronic condition of congestive heart failure. He states that he thinks that his illness is a curse placed on him by God. The doctor responds, “I hear you saying that you believe that your illness is a result of being cursed.” Which of the following communication micro-skills did the doctor apply in his response to the patient:
    • A. 

      Confrontation

    • B. 

      Immediacy

    • C. 

      Transitioning

    • D. 

      Attending

    • E. 

      Paraphrasing

  • 9. 
    A 10-year-old girl with a history of poor academic achievement completes an individually administered IQ test and is diagnosed with Mental Retardation, according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. What is the highest possible percentile rank of her Full-Scale IQ score?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      16

    • D. 

      50

    • E. 

      Unable to determine without knowing the average score for her age group

  • 10. 
    Endoscopic biopsies of a stomach mass containing Helicobacter pylori are inoculated onto a complex medium supplemented with blood and charcoal. He places the plates into an incubator set for 37°C with decreased oxygen and increased carbon dioxide. Which of the following requirements of oxygen applies to H. pylori?
    • A. 

      Anaerobe

    • B. 

      Aerobe

    • C. 

      Facultative anaerobe

    • D. 

      Aerophilic anaerobe

    • E. 

      Microaerophile

  • 11. 
    A bacterial culture expressing Toxin A (TA+) is treated with DNAse resulting in DNA fragmentation. A cell-free extract of culture TA+ is added to a culture of organisms unable to express TA (TA-), followed by incubation for 24 hours. Which of the following processes is necessary to achieve the growth of TA+ microbes in this culture?
    • A. 

      Transposition

    • B. 

      Lysogeny

    • C. 

      Transformation

    • D. 

      Transduction

    • E. 

      Conjugation

  • 12. 
    A 24-year-old woman presented with high fever, headache, and myalgias which were initially mild but become more severe over the next 4 days. Her history was unremarkable with the exception of a recent trip to the Philippines, where she and a group of volunteers were helping in the aftermath of a recent tropical storm. Blood samples were taken at the time of the initial visit and 4 days later. The second sample showed an increased titer of anti-leptospiral antibodies as compared to the first, suggesting the cause of her disease. What is a characteristic of the most likely causative agent?
    • A. 

      Thick layer of peptidoglycan

    • B. 

      Protein cell wall

    • C. 

      Lack of a cell wall

    • D. 

      Presence of mycolic acids

    • E. 

      Endoflagella

  • 13. 
    A 16-year-old boy presents with a severe, paroxysmal cough that began as an occasional cough but became more severe 1 week previously; his symptoms show no sign of abatement. A nasopharyngeal swab inoculated on Border-Gengou agar and incubated aerobically produces colonies containing Gram-negative coccobacilli. What are the activities of two protein exotoxins produced by this organism?
    • A. 

      ADP ribosylase and adenylate cyclase

    • B. 

      Adenylate cyclase and glucosylase

    • C. 

      Glucosylase and protease

    • D. 

      Protease and phospholipase

    • E. 

      Phospholipase and ADP ribosylase

  • 14. 
     TH0 cells may become cells that promote cell-mediated immunity or may become cells that enhance B cell activation and proliferation.  Which interleukin stimulates the production of T cells that promote cell-mediated immunity?
    • A. 

      IL-4

    • B. 

      IL-6

    • C. 

      IL-8

    • D. 

      IL-12

  • 15. 
    Some killing mechanisms are involved in innate immunity while some are utilized in adaptive immunity. Which mechanism is involved in the adaptive immune response?
    • A. 

      The production of lactic acid

    • B. 

      The generation of reactive oxygen radicals by phagocytic cells

    • C. 

      The release of vasoactive amines by mast cells and eosinophils

    • D. 

      The production and release of alpha defensins by Paneth cells

    • E. 

      Killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes

  • 16. 
    What genetic mechanism is used by B cells to increase the number of different antibodies during an immune response without increasing the total number of antigen receptor specificities?
    • A. 

      Gene duplication (multiple V, D, J genes)

    • B. 

      Somatic hypermutation

    • C. 

      Multiple constant region genes on the heavy chain

    • D. 

      Junctional diversity

    • E. 

      Allelic exclusion

  • 17. 
    A 22-year-old man requires a blood transfusion.  His blood group is type O.  His father was type O, but his mother was type A.  A serious medical error occurs and he is given type A blood during the transfusion.  Two hours after the transfusion, the patient experiences an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction characterized by fever, chills, tachycardia, shortness of breath, and a rapid drop in blood pressure.  This reaction is caused by type II hypersensitivity to the blood group A antigen.  How did the antibodies driving this hypersensitivity arise?  
    • A. 

      They were formed against mother’s blood group A antigen while the patient was in utero

    • B. 

      They developed during a previous transfusion with group A blood

    • C. 

      They were formed against food or bacterial antigens, but they cross-react with the blood group A antigen

    • D. 

      They were formed during the transfusion

  • 18. 
    A stool specimen from a 40-year old man is positive for growth of a Gram-negative rod.  The images below display this organism’s biochemical and morphological characteristics.  To which of the following genera does this organism most likely belong?
    • A. 

      Salmonella

    • B. 

      Serratia

    • C. 

      Proteus

    • D. 

      Shigella

    • E. 

      Neisseria

  • 19. 
    A 65-year-old post-menopausal woman complains of vaginal bleeding.  An endometrial dilatation and curettage is performed and reveals an increase in normal appearing endometrial tissue. What is the most likely diagnosis?
    • A. 

      Pathologic endometrial metaplasia

    • B. 

      Physiologic endometrial hypertrophy

    • C. 

      Pathologic endometrial hyperplasia

    • D. 

      Physiologic endometrial hyperplasia

    • E. 

      Pathologic endometrial hypertrophy

  • 20. 
    A 50 year old Caucasian man complains of chest pain which radiates to the left arm.    His past medical history is significant for poorly controlled hypertension.  Physical exam reveals an obese diaphoretic man in acute distress. His vital signs reveal an increase in the respiratory and pulse rates as well as an elevated blood pressure.   A complete blood count with differential and chemistry panel was done upon arrival to the ER and showed a neutrophilic leukocytosis.   His EKG was abnormal with S-T segment elevations.  Despite thrombolytic therapy the patient dies.  Consent for autopsy was obtained from his wife.  What would you expect to find upon microscopic examination of the heart?
    • A. 

      Neutrophils invading necrotic myocardial cells

    • B. 

      Neutrophils invading the hyperplastic myocardial cells

    • C. 

      Neutrophils invading the hypertrophied myocardial cells

    • D. 

      An acute inflammatory infiltrate invading apoptotic myocardial cells

    • E. 

      A chronic inflammatory infiltrate invading necrotic myocardial cells

  • 21. 
    Public health officials suspect that exposure to a chemical being used in a manufacturing plant is resulting in adverse health outcomes especially an increase in lung cancer.  A review of the literature indicates that the chemical has recently been associated with lung cancer in animal models.  The researchers decide to compare lung cancer rates in workers from the plant with lung cancer rates from another similar manufacturing plant but without exposure to the chemical in question.  In both groups the workers identified had started work 20 years prior to the start of the study.  What study design is this?
    • A. 

      Ecological

    • B. 

      Cross-sectional

    • C. 

      Retrospective cohort

    • D. 

      Case control

    • E. 

      Prospective cohort

  • 22. 
    Dr Berg Associate these characteristics with the appropriate MHC?   (I)  MHC class I (II) MHC class II (a) Generally only expressed by some leukocytes (b) Generally expressed by all nucleated cells (c) Signal for CD8 T lymphocytes (d) Signal for CD4 T lymphocytes (e) Binds peptides 8 to 12 amino acids long (f) Binds peptides 13 to 21 amino acids long (g) Antigenic peptides are derived from the phagolysosome (h) Requires a functional ubiquitin/proteasome system
    • A. 

      I-a, I-c, I-f, I-h, II-b, II-d, II-e, II-g

    • B. 

      I-a, I-d, I-e, I-h, II-b, II-c, II-f, II-g

    • C. 

      I-b, I-c, I-f, I-g, II-a, II-d, II-e, II-h

    • D. 

      I-a, I-d, I-f, I-g, II-b, II-c, II-e, II-h

    • E. 

      I-b, I-c, I-e, I-h, II-a, II-d, II-f, II-g

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